A pilgrim is a traveler, on a journey to a holy place. This is a physical journey to some place of special significance to the adherent of a particular religious belief system. In the spiritual literature of Christianity, the concept of pilgrim and pilgrimage may refer to the experience of life in the world or to the inner path of the spiritual aspirant from a state of wretchedness to a state of beatitude. Pilgrims and the making of pilgrimages are common in many religions, including the faiths of ancient Egypt, Persia in the Mithraic period, India and Japan; the Greek and Roman customs of consulting the gods at local oracles, such as those at Dodona or Delphi, both in Greece, are known. In Greece, pilgrimages could either be state-sponsored. In the early period of Hebrew history, pilgrims traveled to Shiloh, Dan and Jerusalem. While many pilgrims travel toward a specific location, a physical destination is not always a necessity. One group of pilgrims in early Celtic Christianity were the Peregrinari Pro Christ, or "white martyrs", who left their homes to wander in the world.
This sort of pilgrimage was an ascetic religious practice, as the pilgrim left the security of home and the clan for an unknown destination, trusting in Divine Providence. These travels resulted in the founding of new abbeys and the spread of Christianity among the pagan population in Britain and in continental Europe. Many religions still espouse pilgrimage as a spiritual activity; the great Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, is an obligatory duty at least once for every Muslim, able to make the journey. Other Islamic devotional pilgrimages to the tombs of Shia Imams or Sufi saints, are popular across the Islamic world; as in the Middle Ages, modern Christian pilgrims may choose to visit Rome, where according to the New Testament the church was established by St. Peter, sites in the'Holy Land' connected with the life of Christ or places associated with saints and miracles such as Lourdes, Santiago of Compostela and Fatima. Places of pilgrimage in the Buddhist world include those associated with the life of the historical Buddha: his supposed birthplace and childhood home and place of enlightenment, other places he is believed to have visited and the place of his death, India.
Others include the many temples and monasteries with relics of the Buddha or Buddhist saints such as the Temple of the Tooth in Sri Lanka and the numerous sites associated with teachers and patriarchs of the various traditions. Hindu pilgrimage destinations may be holy cities. Beginning in 1894, Christian ministers under the direction of Charles Taze Russell were appointed to travel to and work with local Bible Students congregations for a few days at a time. International Bible Students Association pilgrims were excellent speakers, their local talks were well-publicized and well-attended. Prominent Bible Students A. H. Macmillan and J. F. Rutherford were both appointed pilgrims before they joined the board of directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. A modern phenomenon is the cultural pilgrimage which, while involving a personal journey, is secular in nature. Destinations for such pilgrims can include historic sites of national or cultural importance, can be defined as places "of cultural significance: an artist's home, the location of a pivotal event or an iconic destination".
An example might be a baseball fan visiting New York. Destinations for cultural pilgrims include Auschwitz concentration camp, Gettysburg Battlefield or the Ernest Hemingway House. Cultural pilgrims may travel on religious pilgrimage routes, such as the Way of St. James, with the perspective of making it a historic or architectural tour rather than – or as well as – a religious experience. Under communist regimes, devout secular pilgrims visited locations such as the Mausoleum of Lenin, the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong and the Birthplace of Karl Marx; such visits were sometimes state-sponsored. Sites such as these continue to attract visitors; the distinction between religious, cultural or political pilgrimage and tourism is not always clear or rigid. Pilgrimage could refer symbolically to journeys on foot, to places where the concerned person expect to find spiritual and/or personal salvation. In the words of adventurer-author Jon Krakauer in his book Into The Wild, Christopher McCandless was'a pilgrim perhaps' to Alaska in search of spiritual bliss.
Many national and international leaders have gone on pilgrimages for both personal and political reasons. Benedict XVI Bridget of Sweden Columba Rangjung Rigpe Dorje Egeria El-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz Ruslan Gelayev Godric of Finchale Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama Ignatius of Loyola James, son
Fort Knox is a United States Army post in Kentucky, south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown. It is adjacent to the United States Bullion Depository, used to house a large portion of the United States' official gold reserves; the 109,000 acre base covers parts of Bullitt and Meade counties. It holds the Army Human Resources Center of Excellence to include the Army Human Resources Command, it is named in honor of Henry Knox, Chief of Artillery in the American Revolutionary War and first United States Secretary of War. For 60 years, Fort Knox was the home of the U. S. Army Armor Center and the U. S. Army Armor School, was used by both the Army and the Marine Corps to train crews on the American tanks of the day; the history of the U. S. Army's Cavalry and Armored forces, of General George S. Patton's career, is located at the General George Patton Museum on the grounds of Fort Knox; the United States Department of the Treasury has maintained the Bullion Depository on the post since 1937. Parts of the base in Hardin and Meade counties form a census-designated place, which had a population of 12,377 at the 2000 census and 10,124 at the 2010 census.
The George S. Patton Museum and Center of Leadership at Fort Knox includes an exhibit highlighting leadership issues that arose from the attacks of 11 September 2001, which includes two firetrucks. One of them, designated Foam 161, was charred and melted in the attack upon the Pentagon. Fort Knox is the location of the United States Army's Human Resources Command's Timothy Maude Center of Excellence, named in honor of Lieutenant General Timothy Maude, the highest-ranking member of the U. S. military to die in the attacks of 11 September 2001. In 2012, the U. S. Army Armor School was relocated to "The Maneuver Center of Excellence" at FT Benning, GA. Fortifications were constructed near the site in 1861, during the Civil War when Fort Duffield was constructed. Fort Duffield was located on what was known as Muldraugh Hill on a strategic point overlooking the confluence of the Salt and Ohio Rivers and the Louisville and Nashville Turnpike; the area was contested by Confederate forces. Bands of organized guerrillas raided the area during the war.
John Hunt Morgan and the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment of the Confederate Army raided the area before staging his famous raid across Indiana and Ohio. After the war, the area now occupied. In October 1903, military maneuvers for the Regular Army and the National Guards of several states were held at West Point and the surrounding area. In April 1918, field artillery units from Camp Zachary Taylor arrived at West Point for training. 20,000 acres near the village of Stithton were leased to the government and construction for a permanent training center was started in July 1918. The new camp was named after Henry Knox, the Continental Army's chief of artillery during the Revolutionary War and the country's first Secretary of War; the camp was extended by the purchase of a further 40,000 acres in June 1918 and construction properly began in July 1918. The building program was reduced following the end of the war and reduced further following cuts to the army in 1921 after the National Defense Act of 1920.
The camp was reduced and became a semi-permanent training center for the 5th Corps Area for Reserve Officer training, the National Guard, Citizen's Military Training Camps. For a short while, from 1925 to 1928, the area was designated as "Camp Henry Knox National Forest." The post contains an airfield, called Godman Army Airfield, used by the United States Army Air Corps, its successor, the United States Army Air Forces as a training base during World War II. It was used by the Kentucky Air National Guard for several years after the war until they relocated to Standiford Field in Louisville; the airfield is still in use by the United States Army Aviation Branch. For protection after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States and the Gettysburg Address were all moved for safekeeping to the United States Bullion Depository until Major W. C. Hatfield ordered its release after the D-Day Landings on 19 September 1944. In 1931 a small force of the mechanized cavalry was assigned to Camp Knox to use it as a training site.
The camp was renamed Fort Knox. The 1st Cavalry Regiment arrived in the month to become the 1st Cavalry Regiment. In 1936 the 1st was joined by the 13th to become the 7th Cavalry Brigade; the site became the center for mechanization tactics and doctrine. The success of the German mechanized units at the start of World War II was a major impetus to operations at the fort. A new Armored Force was established in July 1940 with its headquarters at Fort Knox with the 7th Cavalry Brigade becoming the 1st Armored Division; the Armored Force School and the Armored Force Replacement Center were sited at Fort Knox in October 1940, their successors remained there until 2010, when the Armor School moved to Fort Benning, Georgia. The site was expanded to cope with its new role. By 1943, there were 3,820 buildings on 106,861 acres. A third of the post has been torn down within the last ten years, with another third slated by 2010. In 1947, Fort Knox hosted the Universal Military Training Experimental Unit, a six-month project that aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of providing new 18-20 year-old Army recruits with basic military training that emphasized physical and spiritual well-being.
Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts. It serves as the sport's most complete library, in addition to promoting and preserving the history of basketball. Dedicated to Canadian-American physician and inventor of the sport James Naismith, it was opened and inducted its first class in 1959; as of the induction of the Class of 2018, the Hall has formally inducted 389 individuals. The Naismith Hall of Fame was established in 1959 by Lee Williams, a former athletic director at Colby College. In the 1960s, the Basketball Hall of Fame struggled to raise enough money for the construction of its first facility. However, during the following half-decade the necessary amount was raised, the building opened on Feb. 17, 1968, less than one month after the National Basketball Association played its 18th All-Star Game. The Basketball Hall of Fame's Board named four inductees in its first year.
In addition to honoring those who contributed to basketball, the Hall of Fame sought to make contributions of its own. In 1979, the Hall of Fame sponsored a pre-season college basketball exhibition; this Tip-Off Classic has been the start to the college basketball season since, although it does not always take place in Springfield, Massachusetts it returns every few years. In the 17 years that the original Basketball Hall of Fame operated at Springfield College, it drew more than 630,000 visitors; the popularity of the Basketball Hall of Fame necessitated that a new facility be constructed, in 1985, an $11 million facility was built beside the scenic Connecticut River in Springfield. As the new hall opened, it recognized women for the first time, with inductees such as Senda Berenson Abbott, who first introduced basketball to women at Smith College. During the years following its construction, the Basketball Hall of Fame's second facility drew far more visitors than anticipated, due in large part to the increasing popularity of the game but to the scenic location beside the river and the second Hall's interesting modern architecture.
In 2002, the Basketball Hall of Fame moved again—albeit 100 yards south along Springfield's riverfront—into a $47 million facility designed by renowned architects Gwathmey Siegel & Associates. The building's architecture features a metallic silver, basketball-shaped sphere flanked by two symmetrical rhombuses; the dome is illuminated at night and features 80,000 square foot, including numerous restaurants and an extensive gift shop. The second Basketball Hall of Fame was not torn down but rather converted into an LA Fitness health clubs; the current Basketball Hall of Fame features Center Court, a full-sized basketball court on which visitors can play. Inside the building there are a game gallery, many interactive exhibits, several theaters, an honor ring of inductees. A large theater for ceremonies seats up to 300; the honorees inducted in 2002 included the Harlem Globetrotters and Magic Johnson, a five-time NBA champion, three-time NBA finals MVP and Olympic gold medalist. As of 2011, the current Basketball Hall of Fame has exceeded attendance expectations, with basketball fans traveling to the Hall of Fame from all over the world.
Despite the new facility's success, a logistical problem remains for the Basketball Hall of Fame and the City of Springfield. The two entities are separated by the Interstate 91 elevated highway—one of the eastern United States' busiest highways—which inhibits foot-traffic and other interaction between the Basketball Hall of Fame and Springfield's lively Metro Center. Both the Hall and Springfield have made public statements about cooperating further so as to facilitate more business and recreational growth for both. Urban planners at universities such as UMass Amherst have called for the I-91 to be moved, or to be re-configured so as to be pedestrian-friendly to Hall of Fame visitors. In 2010, the Urban Land Institute announced a plan to make the walk between Springfield's Metro Center and the Hall of Fame easier. In contrast to the Pro Football and the National Baseball Halls of Fame, Springfield honors international and American professionals, as well as American and international amateurs, making it arguably the most comprehensive Hall of Fame among major sports.
From 2011 to 2015 seven committees were, as of 2016 six committees are employed to both screen and elect candidates. Four of the committees screen prospective candidates: North American Screening Committee Women's Screening Committee International Screening Committee Veterans Screening Committee, with "Veterans" defined as individuals whose careers ended at least 35 years before they are considered for election. Since 2011, the Veterans and International Committees vote to directly induct one candidate for each induction class. Three committees were formed in 2011 to directly elect one candidate for each induction class: American Basketball Association Committee - This committee was permanently disbanded in 2015 because it had fulfilled its purpose over the previous five years. Contributor Direct Election Committee Other committees may choose to elect contributors. For example, the 2014 class included two contributors. Early African-American Pioneers of the Game CommitteeIndividuals who receive at least seven votes from the North American Screening Committee or five votes from one of the other screening committees in a given year are eligible to advance to an Honors Committee, composed of 12 members plus rotating groups of 12 specialists (one group for
The Henry Ford
The Henry Ford is a large indoor and outdoor history museum complex and a National Historic Landmark in the Detroit suburb of Dearborn, United States. The museum collection contains the presidential limousine of John F. Kennedy, Abraham Lincoln's chair from Ford's Theatre, Thomas Edison's laboratory, the Wright Brothers' bicycle shop, the Rosa Parks bus, many other historical exhibits, it is the largest indoor-outdoor museum complex in the United States and is visited by over 1.7 million people each year. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969 as Greenfield Village and Henry Ford Museum and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1981 as "Edison Institute". Named for its founder, the automobile industrialist Henry Ford, based on his efforts to preserve items of historical interest and portray the Industrial Revolution, the property houses homes, machinery and Americana of significant items as well as common memorabilia, both of which help to capture the history of life in early America.
It is one of the largest such collections in the nation. Henry Ford said of his museum: I am collecting the history of our people as written into things their hands made and used.... When we are through, we shall have reproduced American life as lived, that, I think, is the best way of preserving at least a part of our history and tradition... Architect Robert O. Derrick designed the museum with a 523,000 square feet exhibit hall that extends 400 feet behind the main façade; the façade spans 800 feet and incorporates facsimiles of three structures from Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia — Old City Hall, Independence Hall and Congress Hall. The Edison Institute was dedicated by President Herbert Hoover to Ford's longtime friend Thomas Edison on October 21, 1929 – the 50th anniversary of the first successful incandescent light bulb; the attendees included Marie Curie, George Eastman, John D. Rockefeller, Will Rogers, Orville Wright, about 250 others; the dedication was broadcast on radio with listeners encouraged to turn off their electric lights until the switch was flipped at the Museum.
The Edison Institute was, at first, a private site for educational purposes only, but after numerous inquiries about the complex, it was opened as a museum to the general public on June 22, 1933. It was composed of the Henry Ford Museum, Greenfield Village, the Greenfield Village Schools. Greenfield Village and the Henry Ford Museum were owned by the Ford Motor Company, a sponsor of the school and cooperates with the Henry Ford to provide the Ford Rouge Factory Tour; the Henry Ford is sited between the Ford Dearborn Development Center and several Ford engineering buildings with which it shares the same style gates and brick fences. In 1970, the museum purchased what it believed to be a 17th-century Brewster Chair, created for one of the Pilgrim settlers in the Plymouth Colony, for $9,000. In September 1977, the chair was determined to be a modern forgery created in 1969 by Rhode Island sculptor Armand LaMontagne; the museum retains the piece as an educational tool on forgeries. In the early 2000s, the museum added an auditorium to the building's south corner.
This housed an IMAX theater until January 2016 when museum management decided to change formats for the facility to better fit with its mission. The renovated theater reopened in April of that year; the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation began as Henry Ford's personal collection of historic objects, which he began collecting as far back as 1906. Today, the 12 acre site is a collection of antique machinery, pop culture items, locomotives and other items: The museum features a 4K digital projection theater, which shows scientific, natural, or historical documentaries, as well as major feature films. An Oscar Mayer Wienermobile The 1961 Lincoln Continental, SS-100-X that President John F. Kennedy was riding in when he was assassinated; the rocking chair from Ford's Theatre in which President Abraham Lincoln was sitting when he was shot. George Washington's camp bed. A collection of several fine 17th- and 18th-century violins including a Stradivarius. Thomas Edison's alleged last breath in a sealed tube.
Buckminster Fuller's prototype Dymaxion house. The bus on which Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat, leading to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Igor Sikorsky's prototype helicopter. Fokker Trimotor airplane. Bill Elliott's record-breaking race car clocking in at over 212 MPH at Talladega in 1987 Fairbottom Bobs, the Newcomen engine A steam engine from Cobb's Engine House in England. A working fragment of the original Holiday Inn "Great Sign" A Chesapeake & Ohio Railway 2-6-6-6 "Allegheny"-class steam locomotive built by Lima Locomotive Works in Lima, Ohio; the Allegheny was the most powerful steam locomotive built. Behind the scenes, the Benson Ford Research Center uses the resources of The Henry Ford the photographic and archival material, displayed, to allow visitors to gain a deeper understanding of American people, places and things; the Research Center contains the Ford Motor Archives. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, the Henry Ford Museum exhibited a vast array of artifacts and media documenting the Titanic's voyage and demise.
The exhibit was hosted from 31 March to 30 September 2012. Greenfield Village, the outdoor living history museum section of the Henry Ford complex, was dedicated in 192
A Brewster Chair is a style of turned chair made in mid-17th-century New England, United States. The "Brewster Chair" was named after Willam Brewster, one of the Pilgrim fathers who landed in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620. In 1830 the Brewster family of Duxbury donated Elder Brewster's original chair to Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth, where it remains today, his chair was created in New England between 1660 of American white ash. Other similar New England chairs from the 17th century have been named after this piece. In the 1970s, Rhode Island sculptor Armand LaMontagne produced a notorious fake Brewster Chair that fooled the national experts at the Henry Ford Museum, which acquired the piece. Original Brewster Chair at the Pilgrim Hall Museum LaMontagne's Fake Chair "Furniture of the Pilgrim Century" by Wallace Nutting pg 182-184
Cooperstown, New York
Cooperstown is a village in and county seat of Otsego County, New York, United States. Most of the village lies within the town of Otsego, but some of the eastern part is in the town of Middlefield, it is located in the Central New York Region of New York. Cooperstown is best known as the home of the National Baseball Hall of Museum; the Farmers' Museum, opened in 1944 on farm land that had once belonged to James Fenimore Cooper, the Fenimore Art Museum, Glimmerglass Opera, the New York State Historical Association are based here. Most of the historic pre-1900 core of the village is included in the Cooperstown Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980; the population of the village was 1,852 as of the 2010 census. The village was developed within part of the Cooper Patent, which William Cooper – who became a county judge – purchased in 1785 from Colonel George Croghan, former Deputy to Sir William Johnson, British Superintendent of Indian Affairs of the Northern District.
The land amounted to 10,000 acres. William Cooper founded a village on Otsego Lake, his son James Fenimore Cooper grew up in the frontier town. He became a noted American author with The Leatherstocking Tales, a series of historical novels that includes The Last of the Mohicans. Cooper established the village of Cooperstown in 1786, laid out by surveyor William Ellison. At the time, the area was part of Montgomery County, it was incorporated as the "Village of Otsego" on April 3, 1807. The name was changed to "Village of Cooperstown" June 1812 after the founder. William Cooper was appointed as a county judge in the late 18th century, was elected to the state assembly from Otsego County. Cooperstown is one of only twelve villages in New York still incorporated under a charter, the other villages having incorporated or re-incorporated under the provisions of Village Law; the sister city of Cooperstown is Nova Scotia. This is due to Windsor claiming to be the birthplace of Ice Hockey and Cooperstown at one time being considered to be the birthplace of Baseball.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.6 square miles, of which 1.5 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The source of the Susquehanna River is in Cooperstown at the outlet of Otsego Lake. Blackbird Bay of Otsego Lake is north of the village; the junction of New York State Route 28 and New York State Route 80 was constructed at Cooperstown. The village is served by County Routes 31 and 33. Climate Cooperstown has a humid continental climate, with cold snowy winters, warm summers, abundant precipitation year-round. Freezing temperatures have been observed except for July; the record low temperature is −34 °F, set on February 9, 1934, the record high temperature is 99 °F, set on July 9 and 10, 1936. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,032 people, 906 households, 479 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,317.5 people per square mile. There were 1,070 housing units at an average density of 693.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.21% White, 0.94% African American, 0.10% Native American, 1.62% Asian, 0.34% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.31% of the population. There were 906 households out of which 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.1% were non-families. 41.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.83. In the village the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 26.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $36,992, the median income for a family was $50,250. Males had a median income of $39,625 versus $20,595 for females; the per capita income for the village was $26,799. About 5.0% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.5% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over.
Notable historic year-round or summer residents of Cooperstown included: Erastus Flavel Beadle - pioneer in publishing pulp fiction, in particular creating the dime novel F Ambrose Clark - equine sportsman, art collector Robert Sterling Clark - philanthropist, race horse owner, art collector Stephen Carlton Clark - philanthropist, art collector William Cooper and politician James Fenimore Cooper, grew up here and lived here as an adult, novelist of the New York frontier John A. Dix − Civil War general and political leader Abner Doubleday − Civil War officer and supposed inventor of baseball Bud Fowler − baseball player Kevin Guilfoile - Author of Cast of Shadows and The Thousand Samuel F. B. Morse − inventor, painter Samuel Nelson − Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court Thurlow Weed − political bossThe actress Michaela Dietz is a more recent notable Cooperstown resident. Aside from James Fenimore Cooper, noted Cooperstown authors include his daughter Susan Fenimore Cooper, the author of Rural Hours, his great-great-grandson Paul Fenimore Cooper, author of Tal: His Marvelous Adventures with Noom-Zor-Noom.
Other writers include the prolific poet W. W. Lord, who captured Cooperstown
The Stone-ender is a unique style of Rhode Island architecture that developed in the 17th century where one wall in a house is made up of a large stone chimney. Rhode Island was first settled in 1636 by other colonists from England. Many of the colonists came from western England and brought the prevalent British architectural ideas with them to New England, but adapted these to the environment of Rhode Island; the colonists built “stone enders” which made use of the material, in abundance in the area: timber and stone. Rhode Island had an abundance of limestone, this allowed Rhode Islanders to make mortar to build massive end chimneys on their houses. Much of the lime was quarried at Limerock in Rhode Island. Only a few stone enders remain in the 21st century. Architectural restorationist Norman Isham restored several original stone enders in the early 20th century. Scituate sculptor Armand LaMontagne hand built a large 17th-century style stone-ender off of Route 6 in Scituate, Rhode Island in the 1970s.
Stone ender houses were timber-framed and one-half or two stories in height, with one room on each floor. One end of the house contained a massive stone chimney which filled the entire end wall, thus giving the dwelling the name of “stone ender.” Robert O. Jones noted that the windows were small “casements filled with oiled paper” and that “the stairs to the upper chambers were steep, ladder-like structures squeezed in between the chimney and the front entrance.” He points out that a few houses may have had leaded glass windows, but, rare. Clemence-Irons House, Rhode Island 1691 Clement Weaver House, East Greenwich, Rhode Island 1679 Edward Searle House, Rhode Island 1670–1720 Eleazer Arnold House, Rhode Island 1693 John Bliss House, Rhode Island c. 1680 John Tripp House, Providence/Newport, Rhode Island 1720 Joseph Smith House, North Providence 1705 Smith-Appleby House, Rhode Island, 1696 Thomas Fenner House, Rhode Island 1677 Valentine Whitman House, Rhode Island 1694 Greene-Bowen House, Rhode Island c.
Clement Weaver House - 1679 Warwick Site Clemence Irons House Arnold House Norman A. Isham & Alber Frederic Brown, Early Rhode Island Houses:, -Rhode Island Historical Society Library Walter Nebiker, The History of North Smithfield