Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Candida, Millionairess is a 1941 Argentine musical comedy film directed by Luis Bayón Herrera. Niní Marshall... Cándida Alberto Bello Armando Bo Osvaldo Miranda Pedro Vargas Alejandro Maximino Lucy Galián Adrián Cúneo María Goicoechea Billy Days Maruja Vergara Susana Castilla Regina Laval Carlos Roller José Dorado Lina Estévez Vicente Forastieri Los Rancheros Candida, Millionairess on IMDb
Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu is a Mexican film director and screenwriter. His feature films have garnered critical acclaim and numerous accolades, including five Academy Awards. In 2006, he became the first Mexican director to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director and the Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing for Babel. In 2015, he won three Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay for Birdman or; the following year, he won a second Academy Award for Best Director for The Revenant, making him the third director to win back to back Academy Awards, the first since 1950. Iñárritu was awarded a Special Achievement Academy Award for his virtual reality project Flesh and Sand in 2017, the first time it had been awarded since 1995. In 2019, Alejandro González Iñárritu was named the President of the jury of the 72nd Cannes Film Festival Iñárritu was born in Mexico City, the youngest of seven children to Luz María Iñárritu and Héctor González Gama.
Crossing the Atlantic Ocean on a cargo ship at the ages of 16 and 18, Iñárritu worked his way across Europe and Africa. He has noted that these early travels as a young man have had a great influence on him as a filmmaker; the settings of his films have been in the places he visited during this period. After his travels, Iñárritu returned to Mexico City and majored in communications at Universidad Iberoamericana, one of the most prestigious private universities in Mexico. Iñárritu began his career in 1984 as a radio host at the Mexican radio station WFM, the country's most popular rock music station, where he "pieced together playlists into a loose narrative arc". During his time in radio he wrote and broadcast small audio stories and storytelling promos, that would become a reference for generations of audio producers, radio Dj's and broadcasters as to how to use radio as a more creative media outlet, he became the youngest producer for Televisa, the largest mass media company in Latin America.
From 1987 to 1989, he composed music for six Mexican feature films. During this time, Iñárritu became acquainted with Mexican writer Guillermo Arriaga, beginning their screenwriting collaborations. Iñárritu has stated that he believes music has had a bigger influence on him as an artist than film itself. In the early 1990s, Iñárritu created a production company, with Raul Olvera in Mexico. Under Z Films, he started writing and directing short films and advertisements. Making the final transition into TV and film directing, he studied under well-known theater director Ludwik Margules, as well as Judith Weston in Los Angeles. In 1995, Iñárritu wrote and directed his first TV pilot for Z Films, called Detrás del dinero, or Behind the Money, starring Miguel Bosé. In 2000, Iñárritu directed his first feature film Amores perros, co-written with Guillermo Arriaga. Amores perros explored Mexican society in Mexico City told via three intertwining stories. In 2000, Amores perros won the Critics' Week Grand Prize.
It was the film debut of actor Gael García Bernal, who would appear in Babel and the Iñárritu-produced Mexican film Rudo y Cursi. Amores perros was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. After the success of Amores Perros, Iñárritu and Arriaga revisited the intersected-stories structure of Amores perros in Iñárritu's second feature film, 21 Grams; the film starred Naomi Watts and Sean Penn.. It was selected to compete for the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival, where Penn received the Volpi Cup for Best Actor. At the 76th Academy Awards, Del Toro and Watts received nominations for their performances. Iñárritu embarked on Babel, co-written with Arriaga. Babel comprises four interrelated stories set in Morocco, the United States, Japan, in four different languages; the film stars Brad Pitt, Cate Blanchett, Adriana Barraza, Gael Garcia Bernal, Rinko Kikuchi and Kōji Yakusho. The rest of the cast comprised non-professional actors; the film competed at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, where Iñárritu received the Best Director Award, becoming the first Mexican-born director to win the award.
Babel received seven nominations at the 79th Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director. Gustavo Santaolalla, the film's composer, won the Academy Award for Best Original Score; the film won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama in 2007. Iñárritu became the first Mexican director to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Directing and the Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing. After this third feature film collaboration with writing partner Arriaga, Iñárritu and he professionally parted ways, following Iñárritu's barring of Arriaga from the set during filming. Arriaga told the Los Angeles Times in 2009, "It had to come to an end, but I still respect." In 2010, Iñárritu directed and produced Biutiful, starring Javier Bardem, written by Iñárritu, Armando Bó Jr. and Nicolás Giacobone. The film premiered at the Cannes Film Festival in May 2010. Bardem went on to win Best Actor at Cannes. Biutiful is Iñárritu's first film in his native Spanish since his debut feature Amores perros.
The film was nominated at the 2011 Golden Globes for Best Foreign Language Film, at the BAFTA Awards for Best Film Not in the English Language and Best Actor. For the second time in his career, Iñárritu's film was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the Academy Awards.
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
By the Sweat of Your Brow
By the Sweat of Your Brow is a 1949 Argentine film directed by Román Viñoly Barreto. Armando Bo Diana Ingro Alba Múgica Ernesto Bianco Raúl del Valle Oscar Combi Domingo Garibotto Con el sudor de tu frente on IMDb
Fangio, the Demon of the Tracks
Fangio, the Demon of the Tracks is a 1950 Argentine motor racing film directed by Román Viñoly Barreto, starring Yvonne Bastien, Ernesto Bianco, Armando Bo and Néstor Deval. The film is a biopic about the life of legendary Argentine motor racer Juan Manuel Fangio and features himself in a few cameo roles. Armando Bo Miguel Gómez Bao Eva Dongé Ivonne De Lys Domingo Sapelli Ernesto Bianco Maruja Roig Luis Elías Sojit Jacinto Herrera Néstor Deval Fernando Labat Vicente Thomas Ricardo Degrossi Juan Manuel Fangio as himself. Aníbal Romero Fangio, el demonio de las pistas on IMDb
Biutiful is a 2010 drama film directed, produced and co-written by Alejandro González Iñárritu and starring Javier Bardem. This film was González Iñárritu's first feature since Babel and fourth overall, his first film in his native Spanish language since his debut feature Amores perros; the film was nominated for 2 Academy Awards in 2011: Best Foreign Language and Best Actor for Javier Bardem. Bardem received the Best Actor Award at Cannes for his work on the film; the title Biutiful is in reference to the phonological spelling in Spanish of the English word beautiful. The entirety of the film is representing the beauty of life through various difficulties, represented by Uxbal's character played by Javier Bardem. Uxbal lives in a shabby apartment in Barcelona with his two young children and Mateo, he is separated from their mother Marambra, a woman suffering from alcoholism and bipolar disorder and works as a prostitute. Having grown up an orphan, Uxbal has no family other than his wealthier brother Tito, who works in the construction business.
Uxbal earns a living by procuring work for illegal immigrants, a group of Chinese who make forged designer goods which a group of African street vendors sell. He is a psychic medium to the dead and is sometimes paid for passing on messages from the deceased at wakes and funerals; when he is diagnosed with terminal prostate cancer leaving him with only a few months to live, his world progressively falls apart. Uxbal begins chemotherapy, but he ends the treatment at the advice of his friend and alternative healer Bea, she gives him two black stones which she asks him to give his children before he dies. The group of Africans are brutally arrested by the police, despite Uxbal's regular payment of bribes, because they deal in drugs; when one of them is deported back to Senegal, Uxbal offers his wife Ige and baby son a room in his apartment. Meanwhile, an attempt at reconciliation with Marambra fails when Uxbal realizes she cannot be trusted to look after their children; as the Chinese are out of work, Tito brokers a deal to get them employed at a construction site.
However all of them die in the night from carbon monoxide poisoning, as the cheap gas heaters Uxbal bought in an effort to help were not safe. An attempt by a human trafficker to dump the bodies into the sea fails when they are washed up on the shore shortly after, causing a media sensation; as Uxbal's health continues to deteriorate, he is plagued with guilt that he is responsible for the expulsion of the Senegalese and the death of the Chinese. With his death drawing nearer, he realizes that there will be nobody to take care of Ana and Mateo once he is gone, he entrusts the remainder of his savings to Ige, asking her to stay with the children after his death. She accepts his request but decides to use the money to return to Africa. At the railway station she changes her mind and returns to the apartment. Knowing that Ige will now take care of his children, Uxbal lies down next to Ana and, after having passed on to her a diamond ring which his father had once given to his mother, he dies. In a snowy winter landscape he is reunited with his father, who had died before Uxbal's birth shortly after having fled Francoist Spain for Mexico.
Biutiful is produced in both Mexico. The film is produced by Menageatroz, Mod Producciones, Focus Features, Television Espanola, Televisió de Catalunya, Ikiru Films, Cha Cha Cha Films. Individual producers of the film include Alejandro González Iñárritu, Jon Kilik, Fernando Bovaira, Ann Ruark, Sandra Hermida; the writers of the film include Alejandro González Iñárritu, Armando Bó, Jr, Nicolás Giacobone. The film's model, Akira Kurosawa's Ikiru, is described as a similar structure and morale in The Guardian's article by Philip French. French writes, "the way a middle-aged Japanese civil servant reacts to the news that he has terminal cancer – and transformed it into a profound statement about the human condition." Javier Bardem as Uxbal Luo Jin as Li Wei Maricel Álvarez as Marambra Hanaa Bouchaib as Ana Guillermo Estrella as Mateo Diaryatou Daff as Ige Taishen Cheng as Hai Nasser Saleh as Muchacho Review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports an approval rating of 65% based on 147 reviews, with an average rating of 6.4/10.
The site's critical consensus reads, "Javier Bardem's searing performance helps to elevate Biutiful, as does Alejandro González Iñárritu's craftsmanship, but the film lapses into contrivance and grimness." On Metacritic the film has a weighted average score of 58 out of 100, based on 33 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter calls the film, "a gorgeous melancholy tone poem about love and guilt", describes Bardem’s performance as "...a knockout." Betsy Sharkey of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "Bardem gives a performance of staggering depth, unquestionably one of the year’s best."Some dismissed the story as too bleak. Biutiful grossed $5.1 million in North America and $19.6 million overseas for a worldwide total of $24.7 million, against a production budget of $35 million. The film competed for the Palme d'Or at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival, it premiered at Cannes on 17 May 2010, with Bardem winning for Best Actor, an award shared with Elio Germano for La Nostra Vita.
On 17 December 2010, the film was named Best Foreign Language Film of 2010 at the 17th Dallas–Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards. On 25 January 2011, the film was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 83rd Academy Awards while Javier Bardem received a no