click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Armed Forces of Armenia

The Armed Forces of Armenia comprise two services: the Army, the Air Force and Air Defense. Though it was formed out of the former Soviet Army forces stationed in the Armenian SSR, the military of Armenia can be traced back to the founding of the First Republic of Armenia in 1918. Being a landlocked country, Armenia has no navy; the Commander-in-Chief of the military is the Prime Minister of Nikol Pashinyan. The Ministry of Defence is in charge of political leadership, headed by Davit Tonoyan, while military command remains in the hands of the general staff, headed by the Chief of Staff, Lieutenant-General Artak Davtyan. Armenia established a Ministry of Defence on 28 January 1992. Border guards subject to the Ministry patrol Armenia's borders with Georgia and Azerbaijan, while Russian troops continue to monitor its borders with Iran and Turkey. Since 2002, Armenia has been a member of the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia signed a military cooperation plan with Lebanon on 27 November 2015.

The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe was ratified by the Armenian parliament in July 1992. The treaty establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of military equipment, such as tanks, armored combat vehicles, combat aircraft, combat helicopters, provides for the destruction of weaponry in excess of those limits. Armenian officials have expressed determination to comply with its provisions and thus Armenia has provided data on armaments as required under the CFE Treaty. Despite this, Azerbaijan accuses Armenia of diverting a large part of its military forces to Nagorno-Karabakh and thus circumventing these international regulations. Armenia is not a significant exporter of conventional weapons, but it has provided support, including material, to the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh during the Nagorno-Karabakh War. In March 1993, Armenia signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention, which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons. Armenia acceded to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapons state in July 1993.

The U. S. and other Western governments have discussed efforts to establish effective nuclear export control systems with Armenia and expressed satisfaction with Armenia's full cooperation. The Armenian Armed Forces are Headquartered in Yerevan. Headed by Chief of Staff Artak Davtyan, the general staff is responsible for operational command of the Armenian Military and its three major branches. Major General Artak Davtyan Colonel-General Movses Hakobyan - Head of Military Supervision Service Colonel-General Harut Kassabian - Commander of Capital Guard Lieutenant-General Aghik Myurzabekyan Lieutenant-General Arthur Aghabekyan Lieutenant-General Gurgen Melkonyan Lieutenant-General Roland KereshyanIn addition to the services listed above, Armenia established its own Internal Troops from the former Soviet Interior Troops after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until December 2002, Armenia maintained a Ministry of Internal Affairs, but along with the Ministry of National Security, it was reorganised as a non-ministerial institution.

The two organisations became the Police of the National Security Service. In February 1999 the Deputy Minister of the Interior and Commander of the Internal Troops, Major General Artsrun Makarian, was found shot dead. In 2013 the International Institute for Strategic Studies attributed the force with four paramilitary battalions, 55 AIFV including 44 BMP-1, 24 wheeled armoured personnel carriers. According to IISS 2010, Armenia has 20 T-80 tanks, 137 T-72 tanks, 8 T-54/55 tanks and 80 BMP-1's, 7 BMP-1K, 55 BMP-2 and 12 BRM-1K. Wheeled APCs reported included 11 BTR-60s, 21 BTR-70s, 4 BTR-80s, 145 MT-LBs, 5 BMD-1S, 120 BRDM-2 scout vehicles. Although the Russians have supplied newer equipment to Armenia over the years, the numbers have never been sufficient to upgrade all ground force formations and many of the lower readiness units still have older, Soviet-legacy systems that have not been upgraded or in many cases maintained; these older systems are placing great demands on the logistics system for service, replacement parts and necessary upgrades, costing the army both financially and in overall readiness.

The ground force is engaged in an effort of reassessment and restructuring, as the future of Armenia's defence needs a revised force structure and unit mix. The army sees the need to maintain much of its traditional mechanised formations, but is looking to lighten and make more mobile and self-sustainable a small number of other formations, it must develop these newer formations to support its international requirements and operate in mountainous and other rugged terrain, but it must do this without affecting the mechanised capability, needed to confront Azerbaijan's conventional forces. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, Armenia has followed a policy of developing its armed forces into a professional, well trained, mobile military. In 2000, the Centre for International Studies and Research reported that at that time the Armenian Army had the strongest combat capability of the three South Caucasus countries' armies. CSTO Secretary, Nikolay Bordyuzha, came to a similar conclusion after collective military drills in 2007 when he stated that, "the Armenian Army is the most efficient one in the post-Soviet space".

This was echoed more by Igor Korotchenko, a member of the Public Council, Russian Ministry of Defense, in a March 2011 interview with Voice of Russia radio. The Army is functionally divided into Active and Reserve Forces

Echium hypertropicum

Echium hypertropicum is a species of flowering plants of the Boraginaceae family. The species is endemic to Cape Verde, it is listed as an endangered plant by the IUCN. Its local name is língua-de-vaca, a name that may refer to the related species Echium vulcanorum and Echium stenosiphon; the oil of its seeds contains γ-linolenic acid, is used for medicinal and dietary purposes. The plant can reach 2 m height, its leaves can be up to 20 cm long. Its flowers are purplish or bluish. Old plants higher than 0.5–1 m are rare today. Echium hypertropicum occurs on the islands of Brava, it occurs in sub-humid and humid zones. Schmidt, Johann Anton. Beiträge zur Flora der Cap Verdischen Inseln. P. 66. The endemic vascular plants of the Cape Verde Islands, W Africa, Sommerfeltia 24, 1997, C. Brochmann, Ø. H. Rustan, W. Lobin & N. Kilian, ISSN 0800-6865, ISBN 82-7420-033-0

The Clockmaker

The Clockmaker is a 1974 French crime drama film directed by Bertrand Tavernier. Based on the novel L'Horloger d'Everton by Georges Simenon, it tells the story of a widowed father who first discovers how little he knows about his teenage son, who kills a man and with his girl goes on the run, but decides that whatever their faults he will stand by the pair; the film was entered into the 24th Berlin International Film Festival where it won the Silver Bear - Special Jury Prize. In the United States, it was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film by the U. S. National Board of Review. Respected professionally and the widowed watchmaker Michel Descombes lives peacefully over his shop in Lyons with his teenage son Bernard, who works in a factory. One morning when his son has not come home, not unusual, police arrive and take Michel to see their inspector, who breaks the news that the boy has killed a man and fled with a girl called Liliane. Michel knows nothing of the victim, an unpopular security guard at the factory, or of the girl, who worked there.

In shock, he naively tells intrusive journalists. Once calmer, he realises he must be on his guard and when two thugs break his windows, he and his assistant beat them up, throwing one in the river, he visits the old woman who looked after Bernard when his mother died and discovers that she is closer to the boy than he is. The inspector, hoping that Michel may lead them to the runaway pair, puts a lot of effort into winning his confidence; when the police do trace the two to a town in the north, he invites Michel to travel up with him. Arrested, the young people are flown back to Lyon for trial and Michel hires a lawyer, who has his own ideas on defence, it is alleged that the murdered man demanded sex from Liliane or he would frame her for stealing. The inspector thinks the crime was not premeditated but the court is not convinced, giving Bernard 20 years for murder and Liliane 5 for abetting. Michel visits Bernard in prison to tell him that Liliane is pregnant and that he, with her parents, will look after the child.

The two discuss possible names. Philippe Noiret as Michel Descombes Jean Rochefort as Insp. Guilboud Jacques Denis as Antoine Yves Afonso as Insp. Bricard Julien Bertheau as Edouard Jacques Hilling as Costes Clotilde Joano as Janine Boitard Andrée Tainsy as Madeleine Fourmet William Sabatier as Lawyer Cécile Vassort as Martine Sylvain Rougerie as Bernard Descombes Christine Pascal as Liliane Torrini The Clockmaker on IMDb The Clockmaker at AllMovie

1982 Australian Grand Prix

The 1982 Australian Grand Prix was a motor race held at the Melbourne International Raceway Calder Raceway, in Victoria, Australia on 8 November 1982. The race, the 47th Australian Grand Prix, was open to racing cars complying with Australian Formula 1 regulations, which for this year included only Formula Pacific cars, it was the second Australian Grand Prix. For the Australian-based competitors the race was the eighth and final round of the 1982 Australian Drivers' Championship; the race was won by Alain Prost of France driving a Ralt RT4. His subsequent victory in the 1986 Australian Grand Prix would see him secure his second straight Formula One World Championship for Drivers title and become the first driver to win the Australian Grand Prix in both its Australian domestic and World Championship formats; as of 2016 he remains as the only driver to have achieved this. The 1982 race was the first Australian Grand Prix since 1968 in which no Australian driver placed in the first three positions.

The highest-placed Australian was the Alfredo Costanzo who finished fifth in a Tiga FA81 Ford, thus clinching the 1982 Australian Drivers' Championship title. Costanzo was the fastest Australian qualifier, starting from the third grid position behind the Ralt RT4 Fords of French Formula One drivers Alain Prost and Jacques Laffite. Results as follows: Note 1: Hanger and Fisher were listed as reserves for the race however Hanger was allowed to start after Jones withdrew during the warm-up laps. Pole position: Alain Prost - 0'39.18 Fastest lap: Jacques Laffite - 0'39.62 New Formula Pacific lap record. Winner's average speed: 143.6 km/h Image of Alain Prost on 7.11.1982, www.prostfan.com, as archived at www.webcitation.org Australian Grand Prix, Calder, 7 Nov 1982, /www.oldracingcars.com

Dan Peterman

Dan Peterman is an internationally known artist, recognized for his work with ecologically themed installation art. Additionally, he is employed as associate professor of art at the University of Chicago. Peterman's work is an example of adaptive reuse though he was practicing it long before it had an official title. Peterman takes existing objects and manipulates them to show their original purpose while exposing the possibility for newness, his work explores the "intersection of art and ecology" and he "embraces a wide variety of formal and situational strategies, employs a range of materials including recycled plastic and metals, as well as organic and post-consumer waste."Though Peterman exhibits his work in museums and at art galleries, he is known for displaying his art for the general public. The most known example is his running table, a 100-foot-long picnic table located in Chicago's Millennium Park; the table "considers issues around consumption and recycling" and is "made from the equivalent of two million recycled milk bottles."

Another of Peterman's works, an 80' x 80' dance floor used by the City of Chicago for summer events, is located just a few blocks away in Grant Park. Frieze Magazine: "Situated within the contradictions that damn and glorify public space, Peterman’s work takes on a class-crossing potential, in addition to its material ironies, that it could not achieve in a more circumscribed art space." Klosterfelde Gallery: "In using human waste for his sculpture work or installed environments he reveals the interrelated social and political effects of our generation of waste." Museum of Contemporary Art: "'Environmental' is the lazy way of describing Dan Peterman's work. While his art is about resource recovery-he incorporates recycled materials into his projects-it's alchemical and activist." Liechtenstein Art Museum Smart Museum of Art Baltimore Museum of Art Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago Gothenburg Museum of Art Abteiberg Museum National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto Richard Driehaus Foundation award Lewis Comfort Tiffany Foundation award UIC University Scholar Award B.

F. A. University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire M. F. A. University of Chicago

Radon-222

Radon-222 is the most stable isotope of radon, with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is transient in the decay chain of primordial uranium-238 and is the immediate decay product of radium-226. Radon-222 was first observed in 1899, was identified as an isotope of a new element several years later. In 1957, the name radon the name of only radon-222, became the name of the element. Owing to its gaseous nature and high radioactivity, radon-222 is one of the leading causes of lung cancer. Following the 1898 discovery of radium through chemical analysis of radioactive ore and Pierre Curie observed a new radioactive substance emanating from radium in 1899, radioactive for several days. Around the same time, Ernest Rutherford and Robert B. Owens observed a similar emission from thorium compounds. German physicist Friedrich Ernst Dorn extensively studied these emanations in the early 1900s and attributed them to a new gaseous element, radon. In particular, he studied the product in the uranium series, radon-222, which he called "radium emanation."In the early 20th century, the element radon was known by several different names.

Chemist William Ramsay, who extensively studied the element's chemical properties, suggested the name niton, Rutherford suggested emanation. At that time, radon only referred to the isotope 222Rn, whereas the names actinon and thoron denoted 219Rn and 220Rn, respectively. In 1957, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry promoted the name radon to refer to the element rather than just 222Rn; this decision was controversial because it was believed to give undue credit to Dorn's identification of radon-222 over Rutherford's identification of radon-220, the historical use of the name radon created confusion as to whether the element or the isotope 222Rn was being discussed. Radon-222 is generated in the uranium series from the alpha decay of radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years. Radon-222 itself alpha decays to polonium-218 with a half-life of 3.82 days, making it the most stable isotope of radon. Its final decay product is stable lead-206. In theory, 222Rn is capable of double beta decay to 222Ra, depending on the mass measurement, single beta decay to 222Fr may be allowed.

These decay modes have been searched for, yielding lower partial half-life limits of 8 years for both transitions. If the beta decay of 222Rn is possible, it is predicted to have a low decay energy and thus a half-life on the order of 105 years resulting in a low branching probability relative to alpha decay. All radon isotopes are hazardous owing to their radioactivity, gaseous nature, chemical inertness, radioactivity of their decay products. Radon-222 is dangerous because its longer half-life allows it to permeate soil and rocks, where it is produced in trace quantities from decays of uranium-238, concentrate in buildings and uranium mines; this contrasts with the other natural isotopes that decay far more and thus do not contribute to radiation exposure. At higher concentrations, gaseous 222Rn may be inhaled and decay before exhalation, which leads to a buildup of its daughters 218Po and 214Po in the lungs, whose high-energy alpha and gamma radiation damages cells. Extended periods of exposure to 222Rn and its progeny induce lung cancer.

Alternatively, radon may enter the body through contaminated drinking water or through the decay of ingested radium – making radon diffusion one of the greatest dangers of radium. Thus, 222Rn is a carcinogen. Isotopes of radon