The Armed Forces of El Salvador are the official governmental military forces of El Salvador. The Forces have three branches: the Salvadoran Army, the Air Force of El Salvador and the Navy of El Salvador; the Forces were founded in 1840 at the time of the dissolution of the United Provinces of Central America. Between 1978 and 1992, the Salvadoran armed forces fought a civil war against the Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberacion Nacional; the military is accused of committing massacres, killings and abuses of human rights during this time. In the 19th century, soldiers in El Salvador may have been nominally employed by the governing body. However, if not paid their wage, the soldiers would supplement their income as mercenaries and militia for local politicians and landowners. In the late 19th century, El Salvador went through a period of internal discord. In 1871, Santiago Gonzales seized power by military coup. General Carlos Ezeta did the same in 1890 and General Rafael Gutierrez in 1894.
However, these changes in power were fought between networks of rival landowners and politicians under their patronage rather than between official military and government forces. Military operations in El Salvador continued in a similar way until the early 20th century. During the Great Depression, coffee prices fell, the wages of indigenous Salvadoran workers were cut and unemployment was widespread. For three days in 1932, the indigenous workers rebelled; the ruling general, Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez, responded with force. Under his command, the national army proper, slaughtered up to 40,000 peasants. Twelve years of autocratic rule followed. Martinez withheld civil rights. On 2 March 1944, a Palm Sunday, the landowners, intellectuals and some sections of the Salvadoran armed forces rebelled; the First Infantry Regiment and the Second Artillery Regiment of San Salvador joined the rebels as did the Garrison of Santa Ana. Santa Ana was bombed from the air; the rebellion was put down by the remaining loyal sections of the military.
Reprisals of torture and execution of those who had joined the rebellion followed. Martial law was put in place. However, in May 1944, non-violent protest leading to a general strike caused Martinez to fall from power. During the years that followed, young military officers became dissatisfied with their situation, they saw the generals clinging to senior posts for which they had little training and without making way for the younger officers. They saw the generals failing to prepare for the social and economic changes coming to Central America, they objected to unfair surveillance. In 1948, fighting broke out between the younger officers and troops under their command and the senior generals and the police force under their command; the president, Salvador Castaneda Castro was imprisoned. Senior officers and politicians were dismissed; the new government promoted the formation of a national and professional army in El Salvador. From 1947 to 1953, El Salvador held an agreement with the US whereby an American military aviation mission would be sent to El Salvador.
Some Salvadoran military officers were trained in the Panama Canal Zone. The amount of American military aid purchased by El Salvador in the 1950s was small. In the 1950s, Salvadoran men underwent one year of national service before being discharged to a reserve army, they underwent further training on a regular basis and could be called to join active provincial patrols. Regular meetings of the men were held reinforcing loyalty to the opposition to communism. Men from disadvantaged circumstances were offered monetary and practical assistance and education for their children; the number of reservists grew to 40,000. In the 1960s, a junta of conservative military officers and landowners took power in a coup and organised elections. In 1961, the junta's candidate Lieutenant Colonel Julio Adalberto Rivera was elected president. In 1967, Colonel Fidel Sanchez Hernandez became president. In 1969, tensions between El Salvador and Honduras increased. There was dispute concerning the border between the two countries.
300,000 Salvadorans had moved to Honduras due to population and land pressures in their homeland but Honduras had not renewed the El Salvador – Honduras Bilateral Treaty on Immigration. Honduras and El Salvador were competitors in the Central American Common Market. Honduras' economy was struggling and the Honduran Government started to deport the Salvadorans who they saw as illegal immigrants. Many Salvadorans fled. In June 1969, El Salvador played three games against Honduras in the qualifying rounds of the World Cup. On 26 June 1969, El Salvador won a play-off game 3 goals to 2 against Haiti, taking a place in the cup finals. On 14 July 1969, armed hostilities began between El Honduras. Due to the war's proximity to the World Cup qualifying games, it was called the "Football War" or the "Soccer War". At this time, the Salvadoran forces included 8,000 infantrymen with rifles, machine guns and bazookas, 105 mm cannons and a few armoured personnel carriers. Few arms were manufactured in El Salvador.
Most arms were supplied by the US. Honduras' infantry was less well equipped; the El Salvador Air Force flying P-51 Mustangs attacked Honduran targets and vice versa but each air force had only a few working aeroplanes and were
Uhlerstown is an unincorporated community in Tinicum Township, Bucks County, along Pennsylvania Route 32. It is served by the 18920 ZIP code. Uhlerstown is one of the many Delaware River communities in the county. In 1949, painter Frederick Harer died here. Uhlerstown uses the post office and ZIP code of nearby Erwinna; the Uhlerstown-Frenchtown Bridge, a free Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission bridge over the Delaware River, connects Pennsylvania Route 32 in Uhlerstown to New Jersey Route 12 in Frenchtown in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. The existing bridge has a roadway width of 16 feet 6 inches. A sidewalk is supported on steel cantilever brackets; the bridge maintains a fifteen-mile per hour speed limit. The Uhlerstown Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1994
The Cordillera Darwin is an extensive mountain range mantled by an ice field, located in Chile. Cordillera Darwin is located in the southwestern portion of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego within the Chilean territory, it is part of the longest Andes range and includes the highest mountains in Tierra del Fuego, with elevations reaching over 2,000 m. The Darwin Range extends in a west–east direction from the Monte Sarmiento to Yendegaia Valley, it is bounded by the Almirantazgo Fjord on the Beagle Channel on the south. The range is named after Charles Darwin and is the most important feature of Alberto de Agostini National Park, which includes a number of well-known glaciers including the Marinelli Glacier, now under prolonged retreat as of 2008. In October 2011, a team of French mountaineers from the French Army's Groupe Militaire de Haute Montagne announced the first crossing of the Cordillera Darwin in a 29-day trip which included an ascent of Mount Darwin, the highest peak in the range. Monte Darwin Monte Sarmiento Monte Italia Monte Bove Monte Roncagli Monte Luis de Saboya Monte Della Vedova Monte Buckland Ainsworth Bay, Chile Cordillera Darwin Metamorphic Complex C. Michael Hogan.
2008 Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens, Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham United States Geological Survey. 1999. Southern Patagonia Icefield and Southernmost Andes Icefield Darwin exploration by the French explorer Christian Clot Darwin exploration
Events from the year 1973 in Scotland... Monarch – Elizabeth II Secretary of State for Scotland and Keeper of the Great Seal – Gordon Campbell Lord Advocate – Norman Wylie Solicitor General for Scotland – William Stewart Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General – Lord Emslie Lord Justice Clerk – Lord Wheatley Chairman of the Scottish Land Court – Lord Birsay 1 January – most of the west coast shipping services of David MacBrayne are merged with those of the Caledonian Steam Packet Company as Caledonian MacBrayne. 1 March – Dundee East by-election: Labour retains the seat by only 1,141 votes in the face of a strong SNP challenge. May – The Co-operative Group: The Scottish Co-operative Society Ltd merges into the UK-wide Co-operative Wholesale Society Ltd following serious financial mismanagement of the SCWS Bank. 17 July -- Stonehouse, South Lanarkshire, is formally never developed. 25 October – Local Government Act initiates a major reorganisation of local government in Scotland with effect from May 1975).
26 October – firefighters in Glasgow stage a one-day strike following a pay dispute. Troops are drafted in to run the fire stations. 31 October – the Kilbrandon Report is published and recommends the establishment of a directly elected Scottish Assembly. 8 November – Glasgow Govan by-election results in Margo MacDonald of the Scottish National Party gaining the seat from Labour on a 26.7% swing. In a second Scottish by election that day, the Conservatives retain Edinburgh North. 14 December – third Bonar Bridge opened. 21 December – armed robbery of British Rail Engineering Limited in Glasgow, in which James Kennedy, a security guard, is killed, earning a posthumous George Cross for his gallantry. 31 December – Radio Clyde begins broadcasting, from Clydebank. The Church of Scotland introduces the Church Hymnary, third edition, an new compilation. 20 January – Stephen Crabb, Welsh Conservative politician 18 March – Patrick Harvie, Green politician 10 May – Dario Franchitti, racing driver 14 May – Fraser Nelson, political journalist 26 May – Julie Wilson Nimmo, actress 15 September – Alyn Smith, SNP MEP, MP Iain Finlay Macleod and novelist 15 January – Neil M. Gunn, novelist and dramatist 22 February – F. Marian McNeill, folklorist 23 September – A. S. Neill, progressive educator and author 8 October – John Rankin, Labour politician 5 December – Robert Watson-Watt, pioneer of radar 21 December – James Kennedy, security guard murdered in raid 30 December D. E. Stevenson, romantic novelist Vagaland, Shetland Scots poet Sir William Gillies, painter 31 March – John McGrath's play The Cheviot, the Stag, the Black Black Oil is premiered by 7:84 in Aberdeen.
11 May–8 June – The political thriller Scotch on the Rocks, concerning a terrorist group fighting for Scottish independence in the near future, is broadcast by BBC Scotland. Canongate Books is established as a publisher in Edinburgh. George Mackay Brown's novel Magnus is published. Celtic rock group Runrig formed on Skye. 1973 in Northern Ireland
Cody Glenn is a former American football linebacker in the National Football League. He was drafted by the Washington Redskins in the fifth round of the 2009 NFL Draft, he played college football at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Glenn was a member of the Indianapolis Colts and Baltimore Ravens. Glenn played high school football at Rusk High School, he was a running back who only switched to linebacker in his 4th year at Nebraska. In his four years in high school, he rushed for 87 touchdowns, his total rushing yards rank eighth in Texas Class 3A history and 27th overall in the entire state of Texas. In 2008 Glenn moved from running back to linebacker and in nine games, he racked up 51 tackles, including six tackles for loss and four pass breakups. In 2007, he played in five games and finished with 27 carries for 78 yards and finished the year with six catches for 52 yards. In 2006, he scored a team-high eight touchdowns. In 2005, he was as a short-yardage back and finished with 131 yards and four touchdowns on 45 carries.
Glenn was drafted by the Washington Redskins in the fifth round, with the 158th overall pick, in the 2009 NFL Draft. The Redskins waived him on September 5, 2009. On September 6, 2009, Glenn was claimed off waivers by the Indianapolis Colts; the team signed him to the practice squad two days later. Glenn signed a futures contract with Baltimore Ravens on January 26, 2012, he was waived by the team on June 13. Glenn did a promotional video for Trinity Mother Frances Health System, where he had both shoulders surgically repaired from dislocations during his high school career. Indianapolis Colts bio Nebraska Cornhuskers bio
Tingena armigerella is a species of moth in the family Oecophoridae. T. armigerella is endemic to New Zealand. The larvae of this species feed on plant litter, it was named Oecophora armigerella. George Hudson discussed and illustrated this species in his 1928 book The butterflies and moths of New Zealand under the name Borkhausenia armigerella. In 1988 John S. Dugdale assigned this species to the genus Tingena. In the same publication Dugdale synonymised Tingena bifaciella with this species; this species was described by Walker: Male. Gilded yellow. Palpi nearly twice longer than the breadth of the head. Abdomen, hind wings and under side blackish cinereous. Abdomen extending a little beyond the hind wings. Hind tibiae fringed. Fore wings moderately broad, hardly acute, with many minute blackish points. Hind wings blackish. Length of the body 3 lines; this species is endemic to New Zealand. It is found throughout the North Island, it is visually similar to other yellow species of moth but differs from many of these as it has noticeable dark scales on its wings.
It has been hypothesised that observations of T. armigerella in the South Island result from misidentification with these visually similar yellow species. Larvae feed on plant litter found in Nothofagaceae forest; the larvae are found in between the upper layer of dry loose leaves and the lower layer of compacted moist soil. They live in a shelter they construct with their silk; the larvae feed from this shelter. The parasitic wasp Fustiserphus intrudens parasitises the larvae of this species