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Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabian Armed Forces SAAF known as Royal Saudi Armed Forces are the military forces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They include the General Staff of the five services responsible for the defence the Army, the Navy, the Air Forces, the Air Defense, the Missiles Force, under the Minister of Defense; the Saudi Arabian National Guard falls under the administrative control of the Ministry of National Guard, instead of the MOD as the Royal Guard and Border Guard forces. In addition, the Arabian Kingdom maintains large paramilitary forces under the control of the Ministry of Interior. There is GIP, the general military intelligence service; the SAAF are one of the best-funded defence forces in the world. Saudi Arabia has the world's third largest defense budget. International Institute for Strategic Studies estimates in 2017 listed a total of 127,000 personnel; the RSLF figure is quite inflated. The National Guard, with 100,000 personnel, many tribal and only-available-on-callup, 24,500 paramilitary personnel round out the figures.

The IISS Military Balance lists reserve personnel when reliable figures are available, but did not list any reserve personnel for Saudi Arabia. The first steps towards building an institutionalised armed force for Saudi Arabia began in the 1940s, when Saudi regulars numbered 1,000–1,500, Gaub saying that officers came from the Ottoman troops who had served the Sharif of Mecca before his being expelled in 1924. A Ministry of Defence was created in 1944. After the failure of this UK programme, a subsequent U. S. programme which ran from 1951 failed to reach its objective (the creation for three to five Regimental Combat Teams. Growth of the armed forces was slow, to some 7,500–10,000 by 1953, that growth halted towards the end of the 1950s because of political factors. In 2019, the government of Saudi Arabia stated. In the past they could only work in police; the armed forces are the responsibility of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation, which oversees the construction of civilian airports as well as military bases, meteorology departments.

Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdulaziz was Saudi Arabia's Minister of Defence and Aviation from 1962 to 2011. The vice minister, Abdulrahman bin Abdulaziz, was his full brother and served until November 2011, his oldest son, Khalid bin Sultan, was appointed assistant minister in 2001 and was in office until April 2013. In 1987, members of the air force and navy used to be recruits from groups of people without a strong identity from the Nejd tribal system and people from urban areas. Spending on defense and security has increased since the mid-1990s and was about US$67 billion in 2013. Saudi Arabia ranks among the top five nations in the world in government spending for its military, representing about 9% of GDP in 2013, its modern, high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied by the United States and Britain. According to SIPRI, in 2010–14 Saudi Arabia became the world's second largest arms importer, receiving four times more major arms than in 2005–2009.

Major imports in 2010–14 included 45 combat aircraft from the United Kingdom, 38 combat helicopters from the U. S. 4 tanker aircraft from Spain and over 600 armored vehicles from Canada. Saudi Arabia has a long list of outstanding orders for arms, including 27 more combat aircraft from the United Kingdom, 154 combat aircraft from the U. S. and a large number of armoured vehicles from Canada. The United States sold more than $80 billion in military hardware between 1951 and 2006 to the Saudi military. In comparison, the Israel Defense Forces received $53.6 billion in U. S. military grants between 1949 and 2007. On 20 October 2010, U. S. State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history—an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The package represented a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces; the United States emphasized that the arms transfer would increase "interoperability" with U.

S. forces. In the Persian Gulf War, having U. S.-trained Saudi Arabian forces, along with military installations built to U. S. specifications, allowed the U. S. military to deploy in a comfortable and familiar battle environment. This new deal would increase these capabilities, as an advanced American military infrastructure is about to be built; the U. S. government was in talks with Saudi Arabia about the potential sale of advanced naval and missile-defense upgrades. The United Kingdom has been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since 1965. Since 1985, the United Kingdom has supplied military aircraft—notably the Tornado and Eurofighter Typhoon combat aircraft—and other equipment as part of the long-term Al-Yamamah arms deal estimated to have been worth £43 billion by 2006 and thought to be worth a further £40 billion. Canada won a contract worth at least US$10 billion to supply the Saudi Arabian army with armored military vehicles; the Royal Saudi Land Forces are composed of three armored brigades, five mechanized brigades, one airborne brigade, one Royal Guard brigade, eight artillery battalions.

The army has one aviation command with two aviation brigades. The army's main equipment cons


Pierella is a butterfly genus from the subfamily Satyrinae in the family Nymphalidae found from Mexico through Central America to South America. The species of Pierella have larger hindwings than forewings, unique among butterflies; the oval green flash on the forewing is unique. It is caused by the wing scales forming a diffraction grating, their caterpillars have been found on the host plants Calathea. Pierella amalia Weymer, 1885 Pierella astyoche – Astyoche satyr Pierella astyoche astyoche Pierella astyoche bernhardina Bryk, 1953 Pierella astyoche stollei Ribeiro, 1931 Pierella helvina Pierella helvina helvina – red-washed satyr Pierella helvina hymettia Staudinger, Pierella helvina incanescens Godman & Salvin, 1877 Pierella helvina ocreata Salvin & Godman, 1868 Pierella helvina pacifica Niepelt, 1924 Pierella hortona – white-barred lady slipperPierella hortona hortona Pierella hortona albofasciata Rosenberg & Talbot, 1914 Pierella hyalinus – glassy pierella Pierella hyalinus hyalinus Pierella hyalinus extincta Weymer, 1910 Pierella hyalinus schmidti Constantino, 1995 Pierella hyalinus velezi Constantino, 1995 Pierella hyceta – golden lady slipperPierella hyceta hyceta Pierella hyceta ceryce Pierella hyceta latona Pierella incanescens Pierella lamia – Sulzer's lady slipperPierella lamia lamia Pierella lamia boliviana F.

M. Brown, 1948 Pierella lamia chalybaea Godman, 1905 Pierella lena – Lena pierella Pierella lena lena Pierella lena brasiliensis Pierella lucia Weymer, 1885 – Lucia pierella Pierella luna – Moon Satyr Pierella luna luna Pierella luna lesbia Staudinger, 1887 Pierella luna pallida Pierella luna rubecula Salvin & Godman, 1868 Pierella nereis Nymphalidae Study Group species list Urich, F. C. and T. C. Emmel. 1990. Life histories of Neotropical butterflies from Trinidad 1. Pierella hyalinus fusimaculata. Tropical Lepidoptera 1: 25-26.pdf Barcode of life Images

General Lee (car)

The General Lee is a 1969 Dodge Charger driven in the television series The Dukes of Hazzard by the Duke boys, Bo and Luke, along with cousins Coy and Vance. It is known for its signature horn, its police chases, stunts—especially its long jumps—and for having its doors welded shut, leaving the Dukes to climb in and out through the windows; the car appears in every episode but one. The car's name is a reference to American Civil War general Robert E. Lee, it bears a Confederate flag on its roof, has a horn which plays the first 12 notes of the song "Dixie". The idea for the General Lee was developed from the bootlegger Jerry Rushing's car, named for Lee's favorite horse, Traveller. Traveller was the name of the car in Moonrunners, the 1975 movie precursor to The Dukes of Hazzard. Although the estimated number of General Lees used varies from different sources, according to former cast member Ben Jones, as well as builders involved with the show, 325 General Lees were used to film the series. Others claim.

17 still exist in various states of repair. On average, more than one General Lee was used up per show; when filming a jump, anywhere from 500 to 1,000 pounds of sand bags or concrete ballast was placed in the trunk to prevent the car from nosing over. In the series the mechanics would raise the front end of the car to keep it from scraping against the ramp causing it to lose speed, thereby providing a cushion for the driver upon landing. Stunt drivers report hating the landings. Despite the ballast, the landing attitude of the car was somewhat unpredictable, resulting in moderate to violent forces, depending on how it landed. On many of the jumps the cars bent upon impact. All cars used in large jumps were retired due to structural damage. Chargers from model-years 1968 & 1969 were converted to General Lee specifications. Despite popular belief, according to all builders involved over the years, obtaining cars was not a problem until years. By that time, the car was the star of the show and Warner Bros. moved building of the cars in-house to keep the cars consistent in appearance.

In the show's run, when it got too hard and/or expensive to continue procuring more Chargers, the producers started using more "jump footage" from previous episodes. In the final season radio-controlled miniatures were used, to the chagrin of several cast members. Episodes 1 through 5 were filmed in the Georgia towns of Covington and Conyers in November and December 1978. Georgia episode cars consisted of six Dodge Chargers; the first General Lees were built by Warner Bros. and shipped to Georgia where John Marendi labeled the first three cars "LEE 1", "LEE 2", "LEE 3" in no particular order for film editing purposes. LEE 1 was a second unit car with a full roll cage, it is a 383 V8-powered 1969 Charger equipped with air-conditioning, an AM/FM stereo, power steering, power drum brakes. It was painted in code T3 "Light Bronze Metallic" with a tan interior, a black vinyl top and chrome rocker trim; the rocker trim was left on due to poor body work on the left quarter panel, the gas cap trim, wheel well trim were missing so the trim was removed on LEE 2 and 3 to match.

The chrome vinyl top trim was supposed to be removed but since the left quarter panel had been replaced and was poorly installed the trim had to be left on to hide the body work and as a result most General Lees throughout the series had vinyl top trim. After the now-famous jump over Rosco P. Coltrane's police cruiser by stuntman Craig Baxley, it was stripped of its front seats and 1969-specific grill and taillight panel. LEE 1 was used once more as the "Richard Petty" tire test car in the fourth episode "Repo Men". LEE 2, like LEE 1, was a second unit car with a full roll cage, a 383 V-8, a floor shifted automatic transmission and A/C. Painted B5 Blue with a black interior, the interior was repainted tan to match LEE 1 and 3 though its steering wheel remained black, it was used for the opening scene in "One Armed Bandits". In this scene, Bo and Luke were chasing Rosco's police cruiser with the General after Cooter stole it. LEE 3 was the first General Lee built by Warner Brothers, it was a F5 Medium Green Metallic R/T SE model with a tan vinyl top.

It was powered by a 440 Magnum engine with 375 HP, the car weighed 3,671-pound. LEE 3 was equipped with A/C, power windows, a wood grain dash, an AM radio, it had a factory tachometer. This car had a tan leather interior and a removable roll bar that allowed installation of a camera for in-car shots; this car was painted 1975 Corvette Flame Red with a special base coat. The first three General Lees started to show visible damage, so the crew had to start making more; the first General Lee built in Georgia was a 1968 Charger converted to look like a 1969. Interiors not tan were sprayed with SEM brand "Saddle tan" vinyl dye; the first three Georgia Lees had a set of crossed flags on the panel between the

Shoemaker Peak

Shoemaker Peak is a peak on the east side of Ahrnsbrak Glacier, 3 miles east-southeast of Sutton Peak in the Enterprise Hills, Heritage Range, Antarctica. It was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U. S. Navy air photos from 1961-66, it was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for Dawaine A. Shoemaker, a meteorologist at Little America V Station in 1958; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Shoemaker Peak"

Stranger than Fiction (John Surman Quartet album)

Stranger than Fiction is an album by English saxophonist John Surman featuring John Taylor, Chris Laurence and John Marshall recorded in 1993 and released on the ECM label. The Allmusic review by Scott Yanow awarded the album 4 stars, stating, "Surman always sounds relaxed on the more heated originals. It's an interesting set of introverted music". All compositions by John Surman except. "Canticle with Response" – 6:10 "A Distant Spring" – 7:45 "Tess" – 6:44 "Promising Horizons" – 5:32 "Across the Bridge" – 7:55 "Moonshine Dancer" – 6:43 "Running Sands" – 9:10 "Triptych: Hidden Orchid/Synapsis/Paratactic Paths" – 14:43 John Surman – soprano saxophone, baritone saxophone, alto clarinet, bass clarinet John Taylor – piano Chris Laurence – bass John Marshall – drums


Spamigation is mass litigation conducted to intimidate large numbers of people. The term was coined by Brad Templeton of the Electronic Frontier Foundation to explain the tactics of the Recording Industry Association of America, which files large numbers of lawsuits against individuals for file sharing, DirecTV, which once filed large numbers of lawsuits against users of smart cards. Spamigation lawsuits are evidently rather inexpensive to conduct, which results in one source claiming that the RIAA makes more money from settlements in these cases than it costs to file the lawsuits; because of the costs of mounting a legal defense all defendants in these cases tend to settle. The RIAA uses the money from these settlements to "file more suits."In Brad Templeton's original message post about spamigation, he said: The RIAA strategy is an example of a new legal phenomenon that I have dubbed "spamigation" – bulk litigation that's only become practical due to the economies of scale of the computer era.

We see spamigation when a firm uses automation to send out thousands of cease and desist letters threatening legal action. We saw it when DirecTV took the customer database for a vendor of smartcard programmers and bulk-litigated everybody in it... The RIAA uses systems to gather lists of alleged infringers, bulk-sues them, it has set a price that seems to be profitable for it, while being low enough that it is not profitable for the accused to mount a defence, as they do not get the economies of scale involved. Spamigation is similar to a strategic lawsuit against public participation, filed by a large organization, or in some cases an individual plaintiff, to intimidate and silence a less powerful critic by so burdening them with the cost of a legal defense that they abandon their criticism. Spamigation differs in that it aims at stopping an economic activity, in the case of the RIAA's lawsuits the copying of copyrighted material. In the case of DirectTV's lawsuits, they were "sued for racketeering and the courts forced them to stop the spamigation campaign."

Viacom's recent lawsuits against YouTube and Google, in which over 100,000 DMCA takedown notices were sent, used a system of spamigation that sent notices to videos if they contained selected phrases of material under Viacom copyright. As a result of this technique, many non-infringing videos were removed. Scientology has been accused by critics of using spamigation under their Fair Game policy. L Ron Hubbard said that enemies of Scientology "May be deprived of property or injured by any means... May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed.". Hubbard is quoted as saying "The purpose of the suit is to harass and discourage rather than to win; the law can be used easily to harass, enough harassment on somebody, on the thin edge anyway, well knowing that he is not authorized, will be sufficient to cause his professional decease. If possible, of course, ruin him utterly. —L. Ron Hubbard, A Manual on the Dissemination of Material, 1955. See Scientology controversies Strategic lawsuit against public participation Chilling effect