The Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the state organisation responsible for defending the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The FARDC was rebuilt patchily as part of the peace process which followed the end of the Second Congo War in July 2003; the majority of FARDC members are land forces, but it has a small air force and an smaller navy. In 2010 -- 11 the three services may have numbered between 159,000 personnel. In addition, there is a presidential force called the Republican Guard, but it and the Congolese National Police are not part of the Armed Forces; the government in the capital city Kinshasa, the United Nations, the European Union, bilateral partners which include Angola, South Africa, Belgium are attempting to create a viable force with the ability to provide the Democratic Republic of Congo with stability and security. However, this process is being hampered by corruption, inadequate donor coordination, competition between donors; the various military units now grouped under the FARDC banner are some of the most unstable in Africa after years of war and underfunding.
To assist the new government, since February 2000 the United Nations has had the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which has a strength of over 16,000 peacekeepers in the country. Its principal tasks are to provide security in key areas, such as the South Kivu and North Kivu in the east, to assist the government in reconstruction. Foreign rebel groups are in the Congo, as they have been for most of the last half-century; the most important is the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, against which Laurent Nkunda's troops were fighting, but other smaller groups such as the anti-Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army are present. The legal standing of the FARDC was laid down in the Transitional Constitution, articles 118 and 188; this was superseded by provisions in the 2006 Constitution, articles 187 to 192. Law 04/023 of 12 November 2004 establishes the General Organisation of the Armed Forces. In mid-2010, the Congolese Parliament was debating a new defence law, provisionally designated Organic Law 130.
The first organised Congolese troops, known as the Force Publique, were created in 1888 when King Leopold II of Belgium, who held the Congo Free State as his private property, ordered his Secretary of the Interior to create military and police forces for the state. In 1908, under international pressure, Leopold ceded administration of the colony to the government of Belgium as the Belgian Congo, it remained under the command of a Belgian officer corps through to the independence of the colony in 1960. The Force Publique saw combat in Cameroun, invaded and conquered areas of German East Africa, notably present day Rwanda, during World War I. Elements of the Force Publique were used to form Belgian colonial units that fought in the East African Campaign during World War II. At independence on 30 June 1960, the army suffered from a dramatic deficit of trained leaders in the officer corps; this was because the Force Publique had always only been officered by Belgian or other expatriate whites. The Belgian Government made no effort to train Congolese commissioned officers until the end of the colonial period, in 1958, only 23 African cadets had been admitted to the military secondary school.
The highest rank available to Congolese was adjutant, which only four soldiers achieved before independence. Though 14 Congolese cadets were enrolled in the Royal Military Academy in Brussels in May, they were not scheduled to graduate as second lieutenants until 1963. Ill-advised actions by Belgian officers led to an enlisted ranks' rebellion on 5 July 1960, which helped spark the Congo Crisis. Lieutenant General Émile Janssens, the Force Publique commander, wrote during a meeting of soldiers that'Before independence=After Independence', pouring cold water on the soldiers' desires for an immediate raise in their status. Vanderstraeten says that on the morning of 8 July 1960, following a night during which all control had been lost over the soldiers, numerous ministers arrived at Camp Leopold with the aim of calming the situation. Both Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and President Joseph Kasa-Vubu arrived, the soldiers listened to Kasa-Vubu "religiously." After his speech, Kasa-Vubu and the ministers present retired into the camp canteen to hear a delegation from the soldiers.
Vanderstraeten says that, according to Joseph Ileo, their demands included the following: that the defence portfolio not be given to the Prime Minister that the name Force Publique be changed to Armée Nationale Congolaise and that the commander-in-chief and chief of staff should not be BelgiansThe "laborious" discussions which followed were retrospectively given the label of an "extraordinary ministerial council." Gérald-Libois writes that'..the special meeting of the council of ministers took steps for the immediate Africanisation of the officer corps and named Victor Lundula, born in Kasai and was burgomaster of Jadotville, as Commander-in-Chief of the ANC. Thus General Janssens was dismissed. Both Lundula and Mobutu were former sergeants of the Force Publique. On 8–9 July 1960, the soldiers were invited to appoint black officers, and'command of the army passed securely into the hands of former sergeants,' as the soldiers in general chose the most-educated and highest-ranked Congolese army soldiers as their new officers.
Most of the Belgian officers were retained as advisors to the new Congolese hiera
Prick Up Your Ears is a play by Simon Bent, based on the life of playwright Joe Orton. Produced by Sonia Friedman it opened at the Comedy Theatre in London's West End on 30 September 2009 following previews from 17 September, it starred Chris New as Matt Lucas as Orton's lover and murderer, Kenneth Halliwell. According to actor Chris New, the concept for a play came from New's roommate. New contacted actor and comedian Matt Lucas, looking to do a play. Simon Bent agreed to script the work, Sonia Friedman came aboard as producer and Daniel Kramer as director. New played Orton in the original production. Matt Lucas played the part of Kenneth Halliwell, but pulled out of the production following the death of his former partner; the part of Halliwell was played by Michael Chadwick until 22 October 2009. Con O'Neill took over the role on 23 October; the play closed on 15 November due to declining ticket sales following Lucas's departure. Official Website
William Reid Priddy, known as Reid Priddy, is an American volleyball player on the United States men's national volleyball team and Italian club Cucine Lube Civitanova. He has played on the AVP tour from 2000 to 2006; as of 2009, Priddy has resumed playing on the AVP Tour. Priddy was born in Virginia, to Ken and Sharon Priddy, he started playing volleyball after his family moved from Richmond to Florida, where he tried it in a summer-school P. E. class. Priddy graduated from Mountain Pointe High School in Phoenix, Arizona, in May 1996, he participated in the first year of Varsity Volleyball in the State of Arizona in 1994. Priddy played the Setter position for the Pride and helped lead the team as a Junior to the school's first State Championship in 1995. Priddy has been married to Lindsay Pierce since March 10, 2007. Priddy graduated from Loyola Marymount University with a degree in communication studies in 2000, he was recruited by Cal State Northridge, USC and UC Santa Barbara. He appeared in 18 matches.
Posted 150 kills, 70 digs and 12 service aces as a freshman. He led the Lions with 391 kills and in matches with 10-or-more kills and was second on the team in kills per game and digs per game in 1998. In 1999, he led the team in kills, kills per game and service aces as a senior Priddy played with the national team at the Pan American Games in 1999. In 2000 he debuted playing in Italy, for Volley Forlì. In 2001 Priddy led the team in kills and digs, was second on the team in blocks and tied for third in service aces, participating in the Japan Tour, Volleyball World League, World Championship Qualifier, NORCECA Zone Championships, the Jeep America's Cup; that year he played for the Vienna Hotvolleys club in Austria. Priddy rejoined the US team in late July 2002, he led the team in total points and blocks in six matches at the FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship, finished the season first on the team in points per game and sixth in total points, had 92 kills, 66 digs, 21 blocks and 10 service aces.
He participated for the national team in the Bulgaria Tour, Greece Tour, Florida Tour. Priddy served as the team captain at the 2003 Pan American Games where the team placed fourth. Although battling an abdominal injury for much of the season, he still finished third on the team in kills and fourth on the squad in service aces, he participated in the Colorado/Nebraska Tour, Canada Tour, NORCECA Zone Championships, the World Cup. Team USA qualified for the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, Greece, by winning the NORCECA Olympic Qualifying Tournament in Caguas, Puerto Rico; the team finished fourth overall at the Olympics. He participated in the Japan Tour, Houston Series, USA Global Challenge, the Serbia and Montenegro Tour; that year, he moved to Callipo Vibo Valentia club of southern Italy. In 2005, he made his indoor season debut in Japan at the World Grand Champions Cup as the team USA claimed the silver medal with a record of 4-1, he played in each of the final four matches and scored 27 points on 23 kills, two blocks and two service aces.
In 2005–2006 he played at club level in South Korea for Daejeon Samsung Bluefangs. The following year, Priddy led his team in scoring in seven out of 12 World League matches, including 21 points against Serbia & Montenegro, was one of the World League leaders in scoring and hitting; the U. S. team went undefeated at the Inaugural Pan American Cup in June. Priddy obtained the high score in the first and fifth matches in Argentina. At club level, in 2006–2007 he was hired by Olympiacos Piraeus in Greece, after which he moved to Russia club VC Lokomotiv Novosibirsk, where he remained until 2010. In 2008 Priddy was part of the team which won the gold medal in the 2008 Summer Olympics defeating Brazil in final. After leaving Lokomotiv, in 2010–2012 Priddy played for Russian club VC Zenit-Kazan and for Halkbank Ankara in Turkey, he returned to play for European clubs only in January 2016, when he was called to replace injured Simone Parodi by Lube Cucine Civitanova. At the 2016 Olympics, during the bronze medal game, he came off the bench and helped rally the team to a 3-2 victory.
2001: Finished 13th twice, 17th three times, 25th twice, 33rd once in 8 AVP tournaments. 2002:Finished 25th and 57th in 2 AVP tournaments. 2005: Finished ninth three times in 10 AVP tournaments. 2006: Finished ninth three times in 3 AVP tournaments. 2017: Finished third in Manhattan Beach Open 2019: Won Manhattan Beach Open 2014/2015 – with Cucine Lube Civitanova Reid Priddy at the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee Reid Priddy Reid Priddy bio at NBC Olympics website at the Wayback Machine
A fudge factor is an ad hoc quantity or element introduced into a calculation, formula or model in order to make it fit observations or expectations. Known as a "Correction Coefficient", defined by: κ c = Experimental value Theoretical value Examples include Einstein's Cosmological Constant, dark energy, the initial proposals of dark matter and inflation; some quantities in scientific theory are set arbitrarily according to measured results rather than by calculation. However, in the case of these fundamental constants, their arbitrariness is explicit. To suggest that other calculations may include a "fudge factor" may suggest that the calculation has been somehow tampered with to make results give a misleadingly good match to experimental data. In theoretical physics, when Einstein tried to produce a general theory of relativity, he found that the theory seemed to predict the gravitational collapse of the universe: it seemed that the universe should either be expanding or collapsing, to produce a model in which the universe was static and stable, he introduced an expansionist variable, whose sole purpose was to cancel out the cumulative effects of gravitation.
He called this, "the biggest blunder of my life." A common feature of "fudge factors" in science is their arbitrariness, their retrospective nature. However, in project management it is common to build a certain error margin into the predicted "resource cost" of a project to make predictions more realistic: there are many unforeseen factors that may delay a project or make it more costly, but few factors that could result in it being delivered before time or under the calculated budget... so to some degree, "unexpected" overruns are to be expected if their precise nature can't be predicted in advance. Experienced planners may know that a certain type of project will tend to overrun by a certain percentage of its calculated resource requirements, may multiply the "ideal" calculations by a safety margin to produce a more realistic estimate, this margin may sometimes be referred to as a fudge factor. However, when planning ahead for expected unpredictabilities, these "error margins" are assigned other, more specific names: for instance in warehouse stock control, where a certain amount of stock is expected to disappear through damage, pilfering or other unexplained problems, the discrepancy is referred to as shrinkage.
In engineering, a "fudge factor" may be introduced to allow a margin of error in unknown quantities. Anthropic principle Confidence interval plug
Bryson Kelly is a former American football defensive lineman. He played college football at Central Washington University and attended Kamiak High School in Mukilteo, Washington, he was a member of the Oakland Raiders, Wyoming Cavalry, Spokane Shock, Portland Steel, Calgary Stampeders, Washington Valor, Jacksonville Sharks, Iowa Barnstormers. Kelly attended Kamiak High School. Kelly helped the Dons to 11 wins. Kelly played for the Central Washington Wildcats from 2009 to 2010. Kelly was named Second Team All-Great Northwest Athletic Conference as a junior in 2009. Kelly was named First Team All-Great Northwest Athletic Conference as a senior in 2010. Kelly signed with the Oakland Raiders as an undrafted free agent in 2011. Kelly was waived after the preseason. Kelly was invited to rookie minicamp with the Seattle Seahawks in 2012, but did not sign with the team. Kelly did not sign with the team. Kelly signed with the Wyoming Cavalry of the Indoor Football League in 2013 and stayed with the team through 2014.
On April 7, 2014, Kelly was assigned to the Spokane Shock. On September 24, 2017, Kelly had his rookie option exercised. Kelly took over as the Shock's starting fullback. Kelly was assigned to the Portland Steel on November 18, 2015. Kelly signed with the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League. On May 16, 2017, Kelly was assigned to the Washington Valor. On May 17, 2017, Kelly was placed on reassignment. On June 12, 2017, Kelly signed with the Jacksonville Sharks. Central Washington Wildcats bio
Peter Hill Beard is an American artist, photographer and writer who lives and works in New York City and Kenya. His photographs of Africa, African animals and the journals that integrate his photographs have been shown and published since the 1960s. Peter Beard was born in 1938 as a New York aristocrat, heir to a railroad fortune on his mother’s side of the family and a tobacco inheritance on his father’s, he was raised in New York City and Islip, Long Island, Beard began keeping diaries as a young boy and making photographs, as an extension of the diaries, at the age of 12. A graduate of Pomfret School, he entered Yale University in 1957, with the intention of pursuing pre-med studies, only to switch his major to art history, his mentors at Yale included Richard Lindner and Vincent Scully. Inspired by earlier trips to Africa in both 1955 and 1960, Beard traveled to Kenya upon graduation. Working at Tsavo National Park, he photographed and documented the demise of 35,000 elephants and other wildlife to become the subject of his first book, “The End of the Game.”
During this time, Beard acquired Hog Ranch, a property near the Ngong Hills adjacent to the coffee farm owned by Karen Blixen, which would become his lifelong home-base in East Africa. Peter Beard’s photographs of Africa, African animals and journals that integrate his photographs have been shown and published since the 1970s; each of his works is unique, a combination of his photography with elements derived from his daily diary-keeping, a practice he continues to this day. These volumes contain newspaper clippings, dried leaves, old sepia-toned photos, transcribed telephone messages, marginalia in India ink, photographs of women, found objects, the like. Certain of his works incorporate animal blood, sometimes Beard’s own blood, a painting medium the artist favors. Beard’s first exhibition was at the Blum Helman Gallery, New York, in 1975. Landmark museum exhibitions have been held at the International Center of Photography, New York, in 1977, the Centre national de la photographie, Paris, in 1997.
Gallery exhibitions followed in Berlin, Toronto, Milan and Vienna. Beard’s work is included in private collections throughout the world. In 2017, Beard was sued by actor David Spade. Spade tried to resell a Peter Beard photograph that he had purchased from dealer Peter Tunney but the unsigned work could not be authenticated. Descended from distinguished American families on both sides, Beard is one of three sons born to Roseanne Hoar Beard and Anson McCook Beard, Jr. A great-grandfather, James Jerome Hill, was founder of the Great Northern Railway in the United States in the late 19th/early 20th centuries. Having made his fortune in the railroad business, James Jerome Hill was a great patron of the arts. All of his heirs were exposed to and owned great collections having a strong influence on Beard’s interests in the arts and beauty. Beard married his first wife in 1962, his second wife was supermodel Cheryl Tiegs, from 1982 to 1986. In 1986, he married Nejma Khanum; the couple has a daughter, for whom his book, Zara’s Tales, was written.
In 1996, he survived. Beard has befriended and in some cases collaborated with many legendary artists including Andy Warhol, Andrew Wyeth, Francis Bacon, Karen Blixen, Truman Capote, Richard Lindner, Salvador Dalí, he has photographed many well-known people. Beard, Peter. 50th Anniversary Edition of The End of the Game. Taschen. Beard, Peter. L.. Peter Beard. Germany: Taschen, 2006. Germany: Taschen, 2007. Germany: Taschen, 2008 and 2013. ISBN 978-3-8365-3088-0 Beard, Peter; the End of the Game. New York: Viking Press. Reprinted New York: Doubleday, 1977. Japan: Camera Manichi, 1978. Germany: Taschen, 2008. ISBN 978-3-8365-0530-7 Beard, Peter. Zara's Tales: Perilous Escapades in Equatorial Africa. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-679-42659-0 Beard, Peter. Longing for Darkness: Kamante's Tales from Out of Africa. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0-15-153080-7 Graham and Beard, Peter. Eyelids of Morning: The Mingled Destinies of Crocodiles and Men. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society. ISBN 0-8212-0464-5 Beard, Peter.
Peter Beard: Fifty Years of Portraits. Santa Fe, NM: Arena Editions. ISBN 1-892041-15-4 Beard, Peter. Peter Beard: Stress & Density. Vienna: KunstHausWien, Museums Betriebs Gesellschaft, mbH. ISBN 978-3901247071 Beard, Peter. Beyond the End of the World. Milan: Universe Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7893-0147-5 Beard, Peter. Oltre la fine del Mondo. Milan: Grafiche Milani. Beard and Caujolle, Christian. Peter Beard: Photo Poche #67. Paris: Centre national de la photographie, ISBN 2867541034 Beard, Peter. Diary: From a Dead Man’s Wallet: Confessions of a Bookmaker. Japan: Libroport Publishing Co. Ltd. ISBN 978-4-8457-0791-1 Bowermaster, Jon; the adventures and misadventures of Peter Beard in Africa. Boston: Bulfinch Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8212-1907-3 Geldzahler, Henry. Francis Bacon: Recent Paintings. Interview with Francis Bacon by Peter Beard. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Sotomayor, Karolina. "'Peter Beard: Last Word From Paradise' at Guild Hall Museum". Musee Magazine. Haden-Guest, Anthony. "Peter Beard Gives Us a Clear View of Para