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Armed Forces of the Philippines

The Armed Forces of the Philippines are the military forces of the Philippines. It consists of the three main service branches; the President of the Philippines is the Commander-in-Chief of the AFP and forms military policy with the Department of National Defense, an executive department acting as the principal organ by which military policy is carried out, while the Chief of Staff is the overall commander and the highest-ranking officer in the AFP. The Philippine Coast Guard serves as an attached service of the AFP in wartime. Military service is voluntary. Commander-in-chief - President Rodrigo Roa Duterte Secretary of National Defense - Sec. Delfin Lorenzana National Security Council Adviser - Sec. Hermogenes Esperon Pre-Hispanic Philippines maintained local militia groups under the barangay system. Reporting to the datu, these groups, aside from maintaining order in their communities served as their defense forces. With the arrival of Islam, the system of defense forces in the Mindanao region's sultanates under Muslim control mirrored those other existing sultanates in the region.

These local warriors who were in the service of the Sultan were responsible to qualified male citizens appointed by him. During the Spanish colonial period, the Spanish Army was responsible for the defense and general order of the archipelago in the land, while the Spanish Navy conducts maritime policing in the seas as well as providing naval logistics to the Army; the Guardia Civil took police duties and maintaining public order in villages and towns. In the early years of Spanish colonial era, most of the formations of the army were composed of conquistadors backed with native auxiliaries. By the 18th and 19th Centuries, line infantry and cavalry formations were created composed of mixed Spanish and Filipino personnel, as well as volunteer battalions composed of all-Filipino volunteers during the half of the 19th Century. Units from other colonies were levied to augment the existing formations in the Philippines. All of the formations of the Spanish Army in the archipelago participated in the local religious uprisings between 17th and 19th Centuries, in the Philippine Revolution in 1896 fighting against the revolutionary forces.

At the peak of the revolution, some Filipinos and a few Spaniards in the Spanish Army, Guardia Civil, Navy defected to the Philippine Revolutionary Army. The Spanish cession of the Philippines in the 1898 Treaty of Paris put the independence of the newly declared Southeast Asian republic in grave danger; the revolutionaries were fighting as the American forces landed in other islands and had taken over towns and villages. The Americans established the Philippine Constabulary in 1901 manned by Filipino fighters and used against Gen. Aguinaldo, captured. On April 9, 2002, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo proclaimed that the Philippine–American War had ended on April 16, 1902 with the surrender of General Miguel Malvar. Since the beginning of American rule in the Philippines, the United States Army had taken the responsibility for the defense of the country in the land, the United States Navy in the seas until the passage of the National Defense Act of 1935 which called for a separate defense force for the Philippines.

In accordance with the National Defense Act of 1935, the Armed Forces of the Philippines was established on December 21, 1935, when the act entered into force. Retired U. S. General Douglas MacArthur was asked to supervise its training. MacArthur accepted the offer and became a Field Marshal of the Philippines, a rank no other person has since held. Jean MacArthur, his wife, found the situation amusing and remarked that her husband had gone from holding the highest rank in the United States Army to holding the highest rank in a non-existent army. President Quezon conferred the title of Field Marshal on MacArthur in a ceremony at Malacañan Palace on August 24, 1936 when he appeared with a gold marshal's baton and a unique uniform; the Army of the Philippines included naval and air assets directly reporting to Army headquarters, the Philippine Constabulary part of the ground forces proper as a division. In 1938 the Constabulary Division was separated from the army and reorganized into a national police force.

MacArthur expanded the Army of the Philippines with the revival of the Navy in 1940 and the formation of the Philippine Army Air Corps, but they were not ready for combat at the start of the Pacific War in December 1941 and unable to defeat the 1941–42 Japanese invasion of the Philippines. In 1940-41, most soldiers of the Philippine military were incorporated in the U. S. Army Forces Far East, with MacArthur appointed as its commander. USAFFE made its last stand on Corregidor Island, after which Japanese forces were able to force all remaining Filipino and American troops to surrender; the establishment of the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army are military station went to the province during occupation. Those who survived the invasion but escaped from the Japanese formed the basis of recognized guerrilla units and ongoing local military force of the Philippine Commonwealth Army that continued the fighting against the enemy all over the islands; the Philippine Constabulary went on active service under the Armed Forces of the Philippines during liberation.

After Japan was defeated in World War II, the Philippines gained its independence in 1946.. In 1947 the modern AFP first emerged with the upgrade of th

From the Valley to the Stars

From the Valley to the Stars is the second official studio album by El Perro del Mar. The album was first released in Scandinavia on March 3, 2008, in the US on April 22, 2008 and in the UK on May 19, 2008; the first single is "How Did We Forget?", released on February 13, 2008. "Jubilee" - 2:12 "Glory to the World" - 2:52 "You Can't Steal a Gift" - 2:33 "How Did We Forget?" - 3:11 "Inside the Golden Egg" - 1:46 "To Give Love" - 2:28 "Inner Island" - 4:39 "Do Not Despair" - 3:20 "Somebody's Baby" - 2:29 "The Sun Is an Old Friend" - 1:02 "Happiness Won Me Over" - 3:44 "From the Valley to the Stars" - 2:23 "You Belong to the Sky Now" - 1:38 "Into the Sunshine" - 2:58 "Someday I'll Understand" - 3:44 "Your Name Is Neverending" - 2:08 "How Did We Forget?" b/w: "You Hit Me" The L Word Grey's Anatomy

Wine clubs

A wine club is a developing extension of modern wine culture. Wine clubs are designed to provide customers with a series of wine bottles on a monthly or quarterly basis that they would otherwise have to find and purchase on their own. Wine clubs behave in a themed manner, providing recipients with red wines, white wines, or a mixture of the two. Wine clubs are most offered by vineyards or specialty wine shops, but they can be found as independent bodies. Paul Kalemkiarian, Sr. claims to have invented the idea of wine in the mail in 1972, while managing a small liquor store in Palos Verdes Estates, California. When a customer needed advice on a wine purchase, Paul Kalemkiarian, Sr. would direct him or her toward a bottle of red and a bottle of white that he had designated as the "monthly selections." Soon customers began to request that these selections be delivered to their homes, newly licensed Paul Kalemkiarian, Jr. Kalemkiarian's teenage son, would load up the truck and make his rounds; the number of customers requesting this service increased over time, serving as the impetus for the Wine of the Month Club as it exists today.

The club, now owned and operated by Paul Kalemkiarian, Jr. continues its tradition of delivering two bottles of wine—both of which have been pared down from among the hundreds that Kalemkiarian, Jr. tastes each month—to the homes of its members nationwide. Most wine clubs involve all red bottles, all white bottles, or a combination of both, known as "mixed" clubs. However, there have arisen many stylistic variations in what wines are shipped (including grape varietals and wine regions and how many bottles. Various wine clubs can have many themes that alternate with each shipment; the cost range for wine clubs is vast since wine. The type of wines being selected for club shipments and the number of bottles, as well as the frequency of shipping, will influence the overall cost of a wine club. Common wine clubs are created by wineries themselves, wine stores, online wine retailers, or large media companies such as the New York Times and the WSJ Wine Club, among others. Wine tasting descriptors Wine accessory

1999 Rugby World Cup squads

This article lists the official squads for the 1999 Rugby World Cup in Wales. Head coach: Jim Telfer Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Nick Mallett Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Alfonso Feijoo Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Daniel Herrera Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Clive Woodward Leon Lloyd and Martyn Wood were called up on 23 September as injury replacements for Kyran Bracken and David Rees. Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Massimo Mascioletti Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: John Hart Head coach: Polutele Tuʻihalamaka Head coach: Brad Johnstone Head coach: Rudy Joubert Head coach: Jean-Claude Skrela 1 Fabien Galthié was called up to the squad to replace Pierre Mignoni after suffering an injury mid-tournament.

Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head Coach: / Patrick Parfrey Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Graham Henry Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coaches: Alex Wyllie and Héctor Mendéz Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Bryan Williams On 30 June 1999, Fosi Pala'amo was replaced by Robbie Ale due to a several knee medial ligament injury before the World Cup. Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Seiji Hirao Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Warren Gatland Gordon D'Arcy replaced the injured Girvan Dempsey on 11 September 1999. Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Jack Clark Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby.

Head coach: Rod MacQueen Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Head coach: Mircea Paraschiv Note: Flags indicate national union for the club/province as defined by World Rugby. Rugby World Cup – 1999 Tournament International Rugby Board 1999 Rugby World Cup SA Web Rugby World Cup Rosters CNN/Sports Illustrated

MarĂ­a Rosa Lida de Malkiel

María Rosa Lida de Malkiel, born Maria Rosa Lida, was an Argentine philologist. Notable as an Hispanist medievalist, she came to the United States on a Rockefeller Foundation program of study. Beginning in 1947, Lida de Malkiel lectured for many years in the US, including at Harvard University, the University of California at Berkeley, Stanford. An advisor to the editorial boards of two professional journals, in the 1950s she was admitted to the Real Academia Española and the Academia Argentina de Letras. Born María Rosa Lida to a family of Jewish immigrants in Buenos Aires, she had two older brothers: Emilio, who became a hematologist, Raimundo, who became a philologist, her brothers were born in an area now in Ukraine. As a child, she was raised in a family with a strong Jewish identity, who spoke Yiddish as their first language, she graduated from the Liceo Nacional de Señoritas Nº1 José Figueroa Alcorta in 1927. Her best friend during her high school years was Ana Rapaport. Lida graduated from the Faculty of Arts at the University of Buenos Aires in 1932, winning a prize as best student.

She completed her Doctorate in Philology in 1947, summa cum laude, at the Institute of Hispanic Languages and Literatures. Her dissertation was entitled Juan de poeta del Prerrenacimiento español, she had studied with the philologist Ángel Rosenblat. In 1947 she went to the United States on a post-graduate Rockefeller grant, studied with Dr. Amado Alonso at Harvard University, where she began teaching. In 1948, Lida married the Russian-born Yakov Malkiel, a scholar of Romance language etymology and philology at the University of California, Berkeley, they had no children. During the 1930s and 1940s, Lida taught courses in Latin and Greek at the Faculty of Arts at the University of Buenos Aires, she was studying and teaching medieval Spanish literature. In 1947, she was awarded a Rockefeller Foundation grant for post-graduate study in the United States, where she had appointments at Harvard University and the University of California, Berkeley. There she met the Romance philologist, Yakov Malkiel.

They settled in Oakland, California. Edited with Yakov Malkiel 1974, Dido en la literatura española: Su retrato y defensa 1978, Estudios sobre la literatura española del Siglo XV 1955, Lida de Malkiel was awarded an honorary doctorate from Smith College. 1958, Lida de Malkiel was awarded the Achievement Award by the American Association of University Women

Edwards Amasa Park

Edwards Amasa Park was an American Congregational theologian. Born in Providence, Rhode Island, Park was the son of Calvin Park. Edwards Amasa Park graduated at Brown University in 1826, was a teacher at Braintree for two years, in 1831 graduated from Andover Theological Seminary, he was co-pastor of the orthodox Congregational church of Braintree in 1831-1833. He died at Andover on 4 June 1900. An ardent admirer of Jonathan Edwards, whose great-granddaughter he married, Park was one of the most notable American theologians and orators, he was the most prominent leader of the new school of New England Theology. He left his theological impress on the Bibliotheca Sacra, which he and Bela B. Edwards took over in 1844 from Edward Robinson, who had founded it in 1843, of which Park was assistant editor until 1851 and editor-in-chief from 1851 to 1884; as a general statement of the position of orthodox Congregationalism he drew up and annotated the Associate Creed of Andover Theological Seminary, the anonymously published Worcester Creed of 1884 was his popularized and simplified statement.

He edited in 1890 The Atonement, a collection of essays by various hands, prefaced by his study of the Rise of the Edwardean Theory of the Atonement. Park's sermon, The Theology of the Intellect and that of the Feelings, delivered in 1850 before the convention of the Congregational ministers of Massachusetts, published in the Bibliotheca Sacra of July 1850, was the cause of a long and bitter controversy, metaphysical rather than doctrinal, with Charles Hodge; some of Park's sermons were published in 1885, under the title Discourses on Some Theological Doctrines as Related to the Religious Character. With Austin Phelps and Lowell Mason he prepared The Sabbath Hymn Book, he published memoirs of Samuel Hopkins, Nathanael Emmons, others. See Professor Park and His Pupils, a memorial of his 90th birthday, with articles by R. S. Storrs, G. R. W. Scott, Joseph Cook, G. Frederick Wright, others. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Park, Edwards Amasa".

Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 825–826