The dram is the monetary unit of Armenia and the neighboring unrecognized Republic of Artsakh. It was subdivided into 100 luma; the word "dram" translates into English as "money" and is cognate with the Greek drachma and the Arabic dirham, as well as the English weight unit dram. The first instance of a dram currency was in the period from 1199 to 1375, when silver coins called dram were issued. On 21 September 1991, a national referendum proclaimed Armenia as a republic independent from the Soviet Union; the Central Bank of Armenia, established on 27 March 1993, was given the exclusive right of issuing the national currency. In the immediate aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union attempts were made to maintain a common currency among CIS states. Armenia joined this ruble zone; however it soon became clear that maintaining a currency union in the unstable political and economical circumstances of the post-Soviet states would be difficult. The ruble zone collapsed with the unilateral monetary reform in Russia, 1993.
As result the states that were still participating were'pushed out' and forced to introduce separate currencies. Armenia was one of the last countries to do so when it introduced the dram on 22 November 1993. After its proclamation of independence, Armenia put into circulation its own national currency, the Armenian Dram; as the result of common business practice and the unique pattern of Armenian letters, the shape of the sign and its variations appeared in the business scratches. Until the official endorsement of the sign a number of artists and businessmen developed and offered various shapes for it. Now the dram symbol is included in the Armenian standard for the national characters and symbols and in the Armenian computer fonts; the current standard sign for the Armenian dram was designed in 1995. In Unicode, it is encoded at U+058F ֏ ARMENIAN DRAM SIGN. In 1994, a first series of aluminium coins was introduced in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 luma, 1, 3, 5 and 10 dram. In 2003 and 2004, a second series consisting of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 dram coins was introduced to replace the first series.
The Central Bank has issued a great number of commemorative coins intended for sale to collectors. A listing can be found at the authorized central bank distributors. In 1994, a first series of aluminium coins was introduced in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 luma, 1, 3, 5 and 10 dram; the other coins are in circulation but used because of their low nominal value. All coins bear the year of the first issue. In 2003 and 2004, a new series of coins was introduced in denominations of 10-, 20-, 50-, 100-, 200 and 500 dram. All coins bear the year of the first issue. A first series of banknotes was issued in November 1993, it was withdrawn from circulation by 2005. A second series was issued from 1998 onwards, still in use at present. On 22 November 1993, banknotes of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500 dram were issued. Notes for 1,000 and 5,000 dram were put into circulation later. Banknotes of 50-, 100, 500 dram are seen in circulation; the 50, 100, 500 dram coins are used instead. A commemorative 50,000 dram note was issued on 4 June 2001 in commemoration of the 1700th anniversary of the adoption of Christianity in Armenia.
A 500 dram commemorative note was issued on 22 November 2017 to commemorate the story of Noah's Ark. A third series of Armenian dram banknotes were issued in 2018, to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Armenia's national currency. All denominations for this series are the same as its previous issues, with the 2,000 dram banknote as a newly introduced denomination, the 50,000 dram banknote re-issued for this series and the omission of the 100,000 dram banknote for this issue; the first three denominations, 10,000, 20,000 and 50,000, were issued on November 22, 2018. The final three denominations, 1,000, 2,000 and 5,000 were issued on December 25, 2018; the modern dram came into effect on 22 November 1993, at a rate of 200 rubles = 1 dram. The dram is not pegged to any currency other than the Artsakh dram. Note: Rates obtained from these websites may be different from the rates the Central Bank of Armenia publishes Artsakh dram Economy of Armenia List of currencies List of currencies in Europe List of circulating currencies Central Bank of Armenia Central Bank of Armenia next day USD to AMD exchange rate prediction Engine Armenian Dram Sign History and promotion of Armenian Dram Sign Coin Types from Armenia Lists and values of Armenian coin types Coins of Armenia at CISCoins.net The banknotes of Armenia
Pak Jong-ran is a North Korean sport shooter. She won two gold medals in the women's skeet at the 1990 Asian Games in Beijing, at the 1991 ISSF World Shooting Championships in Perth, Western Australia, with scores of 197 and 191 targets, respectively. Pak made her official debut for the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, where she placed thirty-third in mixed skeet shooting, with a score of 144 hits, tying her position with eight other shooters including Egypt's Mohamed Khorshed and Norway's Harald Jensen. Sixteen years after competing in her last Olympics, Pak qualified for her second North Korean team, as a 42-year-old, at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, by winning the gold medal in the women's skeet from the 2007 Asian Shooting Championships in Kuwait City, Kuwait, she placed ninth in the qualifying rounds of the women's skeet shooting, by three points ahead of Romania's Lucia Mihalache from the second attempt, with a total score of 66 targets. NBC Olympics Profile
KAFF is a radio station broadcasting a classic country format. Licensed to Flagstaff, United States, it serves the Flagstaff area; the station is owned by Roger and Nancy Anderson, through licensee Flagstaff Radio, Inc. and features programming from ABC News Radio. 930 AM is a Regional broadcast frequency. KAFF is a 5,000-watt daytime station, with low power nighttime authority. KAFF is rebroadcast on FM translator K228XO 93.5 FM and is branded as KAFF Legends 93-5 AM930. KAFF went on the air in late October 1962 as KFGT, it was an automated station owned by Gene Philippi. Not long after signing on, the station went silent and was sold to Guy Christian, who changed the callsign to KAFF and put the station back on air that fall. An FM sister station, KFLG, signed on in 1968 playing adult contemporary during the day, country at night and classical music for a few hours on Sunday; the two stations swapped call letters on March 1, 1982, with the FM station becoming KAFF and the AM station becoming KFLG.
On December 16, 1986, KFLG changed its call sign back to KAFF. KAFF rebroadcasts on the following translator: FCC History Cards for KAFF Query the FCC's AM station database for KAFF Radio-Locator Information on KAFF Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KAFFRadio-Locator information on K228XO