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Armenian wine

Armenian wine is wine made in Armenia, in the region of South Caucasus. Armenia is one of the oldest wine producing regions of the world. Since ancient days Armenia was famous for the wine makers where original traditions were kept until this day, it is possible to learn about this from works of such philosophers, as Herodotus and Strabo. In 401–400 BC, when the Greek armies led by Xenophon "were passed" on the country Nairi, in the Armenian houses they were treated with wine and beer, kept in deep dugouts in special "karases". In karases with beer, reeds have been inserted. Archaeological excavations carried out by academic Pyatrovski in the 19th and 20th centuries have confirmed that in the 9th century BC, the area of modern-day Yerevan was a wine-making region. Archaeologists have found, in the fortress Teishebaini, a wine storehouse with 480 karases, which hold 37,000 daL of wine. During excavation in Karmir Blur and Erebuni had been found 10 wine storehouses in which were 200 karases. Still ancestors of Armenians – inhabitants of one of the most ancient states of the world – Urartu, were engaged in wine growing.

In historian certificates, that in thus one of the most ancient states in the world the special attention was given development of wine growing and fruit growing were kept. In the historical data which have reached to us manufacturing techniques of wine and beer are mentioned. During Soviet Union period the Armenian wine makers were on peak of the glory. From 1940 to 1985, manufacturing of wine increased by nine times, brandy by seventeen times, from 1960 to 1986, the production of sparkling wines increased by a factor of ten. In the 1980s Armenia annually processed an average of about 210 thousand tons of grapes from which received 14–15 million decalitres of wine. Two million from them were used in manufacturing of brandy. 37, 4% of incomes of Armenia in the field of foodstuffs were necessary for winemaking. In 1980s Armenia provided 25% of brandy made in all Soviet Union, 3% of wines were necessary on a share of Armenia. Three quarters of released production was exported to Russia. During that period the Armenian wine making has been concentrated in "Ararat-trest".

Having visited here, Maxim Gorky has told that it is easier to rise on mountain Ararat, than to leave storehouses "Ararat-trest". There, in the cut gorge, there is a museum of wine making in which collection is registered more than three thousand versions of wines, aged few centuries. There are only three similar storehouses of wines in all over the world: in France and Armenia. Today many peasants, as well as three millenniums ago, process grapes and receive wine in special premises. In wine factories the material for wine is stored in oak barrels, but in many villages kind traditions of fathers to now are used, karases are used for storage of materials of wine. Owing to its pinkish structure, Armenian oak allows receiving wines with natural taste of vanilla and dried fruits. Wines from local Armenian grades of grapes adjoining to the surface of the barrels from the Armenian oak, give rise to unique bouquet; this unique combination is impossible to reproduce in any other country of the world.

The fertile valleys of the South Caucasus, which Armenia straddles, are believed by many archaeologists to be the source of the world's first cultivated grapevines and neolithic wine production, over 6000 years ago. Although not a large player in the world of wine today, Armenian wine played an important role in the history of wine, it has been suggested that the domestication of the Eurasian grape first occurred in the mountainous regions of Armenia before moving to the south. During all this time they never stopped making wine, they were one of the main wine producers in the Soviet Union and have since started exporting their wine worldwide. Armenian wine spread to Africa. During the Armenian genocide perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire during World War I, some Armenians fled to Ethiopia, where they cultivated vineyards. Many Armenian reds are sweet and rich, Ethiopian wine has a similar quality. During periods of Islamic rule, Armenians were the suppliers of alcoholic beverages, such as wine, to the Muslims, who were not allowed to distill alcohol.

In 2011 archaeologists in Armenia announced the discovery of the world's oldest-known wine production facility. Located in the Areni cave complex, it consisted of a shallow basin to press grapes, a vat for storage, fermentation jars, they found grape seeds, remains of pressed grapes, dozens of dried vines. The seeds were from Vitis vinifera, a grape still used to make wine; the cave remains date to about 4000 BC – 900 years before the earliest comparable wine remains, found in Egyptian tombs. Archaeologist Gregory Areshian of UCLA says, "The site gives us a new insight into the earliest phase of horticulture—how they grew the first orchards and vineyards.""It's the oldest proven case of documented and dedicated wine production, stretching back the horizons of this important development by thousands of years," said Gregory Areshian, co-director of the excavation and assistant director of the University of California Los Angeles's Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. In Republics of the Soviet Union the development of studying and producing technologies of wine sherry type, took place between 1930 and 1970.

The production of sherry type wines had a significant role in development of viticultural te

Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt

Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt was the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz from 1629 to 1647. Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt was the son of Anna von Reiffenberg, he was born on 30 November 1582, most in Speyer, where his father was an official in the Reichskammergericht. His father had been a Calvinist, but converted to Catholicism in 1581. After being educated by the Jesuits, Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt was admitted to the cathedral chapter of Mainz Cathedral in Mainz in 1596, he spent 1596-97 studying at the Collegium Germanicum in Rome and 1597-99 at the University of Würzburg. He spent three years studying philosophy and theology in Rome, he returned to Mainz in 1604, was ordained as a deacon on 11 May 1605, at which time he became a member of the cathedral chapter. He spent the next two years studying law at the University of Padua. In June 1608, Archbishop of Mainz Johann Schweikhard von Kronberg named him a member of his Hofrat, becoming its president in January 1609, a position he held until 1618.

During this period, he served as the archbishop's representative to members of the Catholic League. In 1619, he became Amtmann of Mombach, a post he held until 1629, he was rector of the University of Mainz from 1620 to 1624. On 6 August 1629, the Mainz cathedral chapter elected Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt as the new Archbishop of Mainz. Pope Urban VIII confirmed his election on 28 January 1630. With the Thirty Years War raging, on Christmas 1631, forces under Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden occupied Mainz, though the archbishop had fled to Cologne; the city was recaptured from Swedish forces in December 1635, the archbishop returned on 22 June 1636. On 22 December 1636, at Regensburg, he crowned Ferdinand III as King of the Romans. In 1644, French troops occupied Mainz, the archbishop fled to Frankfurt. An ardent supporter of the Catholic position during the Thirty Years War, his intransigence was responsible for delaying the signing of the Peace of Westphalia until after his death. After concluding a peace with the French, Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt died in Frankfurt on 9 October 1647.

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Magnetic ink character recognition

Magnetic ink character recognition code, known in short as MICR code, is a character recognition technology used by the banking industry to streamline the processing and clearance of cheques and other documents. MICR encoding, called the MICR line, is at the bottom of cheques and other vouchers and includes the document-type indicator, bank code, bank account number, cheque number, cheque amount, a control indicator; the format for the bank code and bank account number is country-specific. The technology allows MICR readers to scan and read the information directly into a data-collection device. Unlike barcode and similar technologies, MICR characters can be read by humans. MICR encoded documents can be processed much faster and more than conventional OCR encoded documents. There are two major MICR fonts in use: E-13B and CMC-7. There is no particular international agreement. In practice, this does not create particular problems as cheques and other vouchers do not flow out of a particular jurisdiction.

The MICR E-13B font has been adopted as the international standard in ISO 1004:1995, is the standard in Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, as well as Central America and much of Asia, besides other countries. The CMC-7 font is used in Europe, including France and Italy, South America, including Argentina, Mexico, besides other countries. Israel is the only country that can use both fonts though the practice makes the system less efficient; this situation is the product of the Israelis adopting CMC7, while the Palestinians opted for E13B. E-13B has a 14 character set, comprising the 10 decimal digits, the following symbols: ⑆, ⑈, ⑇, ⑉. In the check printing and banking industries the E13B MICR line is commonly referred to as the TOAD line; this reference comes from the 4 characters: Transit, Onus and Dash. The E-13B repertoire can be represented in Unicode. Prior to Unicode, it could be encoded according to ISO 2033:1983. CMC-7 has a 15 character set, comprising the 10 numeric digits and 5 control characters, terminator, routing, an unused character.

CMC-7 has a barcode format, with every character having two distinct large gaps in different places, as well as distinct patterns in between, to minimize any chance for character confusion while reading. MICR characters are printed on documents in one of the two MICR fonts, using magnetizable ink or toner containing iron oxide. In scanning, the document is passed through a MICR reader, which performs two functions, the magnetization of the ink and the detection of the characters; the characters are read by a MICR reader head, a device similar to the playback head of a tape recorder. As each character passes over the head, it produces a unique waveform that can be identified by the system; the use of MICR allows the characters to be read reliably if they have been overprinted or obscured by other marks, such as cancellation stamps and the signature. The error rate for the magnetic scanning of a typical cheque is smaller than with optical character recognition systems. For well printed MICR documents, the "can't read" rate is less than 1%, while the substitution rate is in the order of 1 per 100,000 characters.

Rejected items are hand processed. MICR readers are the primary tool for cheque sorting and are utilised across the cheque distribution network at multiple stages. For example, a merchant will use a MICR reader to sort cheques by bank and send the sorted cheques to a clearing house for redistribution to those banks. Upon receipt, the banks perform another MICR sort to determine which customer's account is charged and to which branch the cheque should be sent on its way back to the customer. However, many banks no longer offer this last step of returning the cheque to the customer. Instead, cheques are stored digitally. Sorting of cheques is done as per the geographical coverage of banks in a nation. MICR characters were added to the Unicode Standard in June 1993 with the release of version 1.1. The Unicode block that includes MICR characters is called Optical Character Recognition and covers U+2440–U+245F: Before the mid-1940s, cheques were processed manually using the Sort-A-Matic or Top Tab Key method.

The processing and clearance of cheques was time consuming and was a significant cost in cheque clearance and bank operations. As the number of cheques increased, ways were sought for automating the process. Standards were developed to ensure uniformity in financial institutions. By the mid-1950s, the Stanford Research Institute and General Electric Computer Laboratory had developed the first automated system to process cheques using MICR; the same team developed the E13B MICR font. "E" refers to the font being the fifth considered, "B" to the fact that it was the second version. The "13" refers to the 0.013 inch character grid. The trial of MICR E13B font was shown to the American Bankers Association in July 1956, which adopted it in 1958 as the MICR standard for negotiable documents in the United States. ABA adopted MICR as its standard because machines could read MICR and MICR could be printed using existing technology. In addition, MICR remained machine readable through overstamping, marking and more.

The first cheques using MICR were printed by the end of 1959. Although compliance with MICR standards was voluntary in th