Bayerischer Rundfunk is a public-service radio and television broadcaster, based in Munich, capital city of the Free State of Bavaria in Germany. BR is a member organization of the ARD consortium of public broadcasters in Germany. Bayerischer Rundfunk was founded in Munich in 1922 as Deutsche Stunde in Bayern, it aired its first program on 30 March 1924. The first broadcasts consisted of time announcements, news and stock market reports, music. Programming expanded to include radio plays, programs for women, language courses, opera, radio and Catholic and Protestant morning services, its new 1929 studio was designed by Richard Riemerschmid. Deutsche Stunde in Bayern became Bayerischer Rundfunk in 1931. In 1933, shortly after the Nazi seizure of power, the station was put under the control of the Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. After the Allied victory over Nazi Germany, the American military occupation government took control of the station. Operating as Radio Munich, it broadcast, among other programming, live coverage of the Nuremberg trials and programs such as "War Never Again".
In 1949 Radio Munich became Bayerischer Rudfunk, in that year it established Europe's first VHF station. A station was added in Nuremberg in the early 1950s. Television broadcasts began in 1954. BR is a statutory corporation established under the Bavarian Broadcasting Law passed in 1948, updated in 1993 to take account of the demands of a changed media and political environment, its functions are determined by a legal foundation which lays down the principles under which the broadcaster operates and the structure of its internal organization. The broadcast law is supplemented by the so-called Broadcast State Contract, a multilateral agreement between all 16 German Länder which regulates the relationship of public and private broadcast in the dual broadcast system and which contains fundamental regulations for financing. Just as important for the work of Bavarian Broadcasting is the cooperation of the ARD consortium, consisting of nine other regional broadcasting corporates as well as Deutsche Welle.
The broadcasting service is further backed by the relevant European legal bases as well as the media service convention, which contain regulations for the on-line offerings of Bavarian Broadcasting. BR is in part funded by commercial activity, including the limited sale of on-air commercial advertising time; every household in Germany is lawfully bound to pay 17,50 Euro per month as a so-called Rundfunkbeitrag to finance the public broadcast system. The fee is collected by ZDF und Deutschlandradio. In 2012 BR derived 85.3% of its income from viewer and listener licence fees, 12.6% from other sources such as product licensing and investments, 2.1% from the sale of advertising time. 48.5% of this income was spent on programme production costs, 25.1% on staffing, 26.4% on other operating expenses and fixed charges. BR produces several series that are well known throughout Bavaria, some of these are re-broadcast throughout other parts of Germany; these include: Rundschau quer Münchner Runde alpha-Centauri Space Night Kunst und Krempel Unter unserem Himmel Café Meineid Zur Freiheit Melodien der Berge BR's TV channel, Bayerisches Fernsehen, as with all regional "Third Channel" broadcasters carry no commercials.
Advertising is not permitted on ARD's "Das Erste" or on ZDF on Sundays, national holidays, or on any day after 8:00pm. On weekdays, only 20 minutes of advertising is split between breaks between programs. Program sponsoring is not considered to be advertising, is not subject to these restrictions. BR operates a main broadcasting facility in downtown Munich as well as studios in Munich's northern Freimann quarter and the nearby municipality of Unterföhring. There are regional TV and radio studios in Nuremberg, Würzburg and Regensburg. BR provides programs to various TV and radio networks, some done in collaboration with other broadcasters, others independently. BR Fernsehen – Regional TV channel for Bavaria. ARD-alpha – educational programmingThese two are genuine BR television channels. Phoenix – collaborative network programming between the ARD and ZDF. KiKA – Children's network from the ARD and ZDF. arte – Franco-German cultural network 3sat – Cultural network from the ARD, ZDF, ORF, SRG. Bayern 1 – Popular music and information, with a target audience of adults over 35 Bayern 2 – Spoken word, some music output Bayern 3 – Pop music, targeting a younger audience, traffic information BR-Klassik – Classical music, live opera relays, music documentaries B5 aktuell – Monday through Saturday: Rolling news.
ARD-Infonacht takes over the midnight-6am timeslot
Ursula "Ulla" Schmidt is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Between 2013 and 2017, she served as Vice-President of the German Bundestag. Schmidt studied at RWTH Aachen University and FernUniversität Hagen before working as a teacher specialising in special needs education and the rehabilitation of children with learning difficulties and behavioural issues. In 1976 Schmidt was a candidate of the Maoist "Kommunistischer Bund Westdeutschland" for the Federal Assembly of Germany in Aachen; the KBW dissolved in 1985. In 1983, Schmidt changed to the Social Democratic Party. There she is a member of the local leadership and of the "Seeheimer Kreis", she was elected to the German Bundestag in the first elections in reunified Germany on 2 December 1990, representing the Aachen I constituency. As deputy leader of the Social Democratic parliamentary group between 1998 and 2001, Schmidt first gained respect in Parliament for her strong defense of pension reforms proposed by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder government in 2000.
After the resignation of incumbent Andrea Fischer, who took the blame for the government's chaotic response to the discovery of 10 cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Schmidt became Federal Minister for Health under Chancellor Gerhard Schröder in 2001. A year the responsibility for social security was added to her portfolio and she was appointed Federal Minister for Health and Social Security. During her tenure as Germany’s long-serving minister of health, Schmidt oversaw major system reforms, balancing social solidarity with fiscal responsibility. In September 2003, Schmidt worked to tighten the regulations allowing welfare benefits to German expatriates. Under the new rules, the only people to receive benefits are Germans who are receiving long-term medical treatment outside the country or who are in foreign jails. In November 2005, Schmidt again became Federal Minister for Health in the grand coalition of Angela Merkel. Social security was reunited with the portfolio of labour, which in 2002 had been added to that of the Federal Minister for Economics.
By 2006, Schmidt led negotiations for an agreement on changes to Germany’s healthcare financing. In July 2009, the Social Democrats’ candidate to challenge incumbent Chancellor Angela Merkel, Frank Walter Steinmeier, dropped Schmidt from his campaign team for the federal elections, after she embarrassed the party by taking her official Mercedes and chauffeur on a vacation to Spain; the SPD subsequently lost the elections. From February 2010, Schmidt was a member of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly and deputy chairwoman of the German delegation to that assembly, she served as a member of the Subcommittee on Cultural and Education Policy Abroad of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and as a member of the Committee on Cultural and Media Affairs. In 2010, Schmidt became chairwoman of Lebenshilfe, the association for people with mental disability, their families and friends. In her capacity as Vice President of the German Parliament, Schmidt was a member of the parliament’s Council of Elders, which – among other duties – determines daily legislative agenda items and assigns committee chairpersons based on party representation.
Charité, Member of the Supervisory Board K & S Unternehmensgruppe, Member of the Advisory Board Philips Germany, Member of the Supervisory Board Siegfried Holding, Member of the Supervisory Board Aktion Mensch, Member of the Supervisory Board Atlantik-Brücke, Member German Commission for UNESCO, Member German Federal Film Board, Alternate Member of the Supervisory Board German Red Cross, Member Goethe-Institut, Delegate to the General Meeting Haus der Geschichte, Member of the Board of Trustees IG Bergbau, Energie, Member Tarabya Academy, Member of the Advisory Board Terre des Femmes, Member Amid discussions on whether Iraq possesses the smallpox virus and that the Saddam Hussein regime has mobile factories capable of producing chemical and biological weapons, Schmidt recommended in 2003 that Germany stockpile smallpox vaccine to guard against a possible terrorist attack. In response, members of the conservative opposition accused Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's government of withholding a true picture of the threat from Iraq.
In 2009, Schmidt criticized statements made by Pope Benedict XVI, who claimed that condom usage promoted AIDS. Official Site of Ulla Schmidt Kommunistischer Bund Westdeutschland
Zaatari refugee camp
Zaatari is a refugee camp in Jordan, located 10 kilometres east of Mafraq, which has evolved into a permanent settlement. It was first opened on 28 July 2012 to host Syrians fleeing the violence in the ongoing Syrian Civil War that erupted in March 2011, it is connected to the road network by a short road which leads to Highway 10. The main concerns in early days related to the lack of sufficient food supplies and better accommodation. In 2013 it was reported. Demonstrations were or are used as a forum to create awareness of the conflict and to express political views against the current government led by Bashar al-Assad and the violence inflicted by the Syrian Armed Forces. Due to the maximum capacity of 60,000 refugees in March 2013 a second camp was built 20 kilometres east of Zarqa in the Marjeeb Al Fahood plains. On 5 April 2014 a riot resulted in a number of injuries to Jordanian police. One refugee was killed by gunshot. In 2015, filmmakers Zach Ingrasci and Chris Temple lived in Zaatari for a month, resulting in the documentary Salam Neighbor.
Accurate counting of the number of refugees in the camp stopped during March 2013 due to the high influx of refugees that skyrocketed that month. The figures during the initial days varied from day to day due to people'escaping' or leaving the camp back to Syria, due to initial over-counting. Movement out of the camp is restricted, controlled by temporary and limited permits to leave, which does not comply with the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of states. Since the opening of the refugee camp in July 2012, the camp saw a dramatic increase in its population, that made it the largest population center in Mafraq Governorate within a few months: On 27 August 2012, the number of refugees in the camp reached 15,000 refugees, comprising about 10% of the total number of Syrian refugees in Jordan; the camp was housing 30,000 Syrian refugees as of 6 September 2012 comprising about 30% of the total Syrian refugees in Jordan. On 29 November 2012 the number of refugees reached 45,000, while the total number of Syrian refugees in Jordan was 230,000.
On 10 January 2013 the total camp population reached 65,000 comprising 22% of the total Syrian refugees in Jordan. On 5 February 2013 the number of refugees in the camp reached 76,000, while the total number of Syrian refugees in Jordan was more than 345,000. In March 2013, the Syrian security forces started a large-scale security campaign in the southern regions of Syria, resulting in a significant increase in the refugees crossing the borders to Jordan. By 11 March there were more than 156,000 refugees in the camp; these estimates made Zataari the fourth largest city in Jordan at the time. On 30 April 2014, another refugee camp was opened in Azraq. All newly arrived refugees are now taken to Azraq, while the number of refugees in Zaatari had depleted. By September 2014, the number of refugees in Zaatari had fallen to 79,000, according to the latest figures from the UNHCR. On 26 March 2015, the camp population was estimated at 83,000 refugees; the August 2015 estimate was about 79,900. On 31 October 2018, the population housed about 78,357 refugees, of whom nearly 20% were under five years old.
20% of households were headed by females. The largest solar plant built in a refugee camp went live on 13 November 2016, estimated to reduce annual carbon dioxide emissions from the camp by 13,000 metric tonnes per year, equivalent to 30,000 barrels of oil and saving US$5.5 million annually. The 12.9 megawatt peak solar photovoltaic plant was funded by the German government, through the KfW Development Bank at a cost of 15 million euros. It provides families with between 14 hours electricity each day - longer than previously; as a host country, Jordan is estimated to spend $870 million a year supporting Syrian refugees. The camp is under joint administration of the Syrian Refugee Affairs Directorate and UNHCR. In March 2013 the UNHCR named Kilian Kleinschmidt Senior Field Coordinator of the camp. Other actors include: Community mobilization: Intersos is in charge of distributing "stoves for tents and winter clothes" as a part of the winterization campaign. International Relief and Development Inc.
Medical: Arabian Medical Relief Médecins Sans Frontières International Medical Corps French military field hospital providing a "surgical unit specialised in treating war injuries" Moroccan military field hospital Syrian American Medical Society Italian Field Hospital United Arab Emirates Red Crescent Jordan Hashemite Charity Organization Jordan Health Aid Society International, Partner with UNHCR Jordanian Red Crescent Handicap International IOM / International Organization for Migration Screening and Health relations with Jordanian Hospitals and Health Ministry for treatment. IFH Noor Al-Hussein Foundation, Partner with UNHCR, UNFPA Two clinics operated by UNFPA for primary health care and reproductive health careWASH coordination and overall responsibility: UNICEFWater and sanitation facilities: Federal Agency for Technical Relief THW constructed 160 kitchen units and 380 toilets; the THW was contracted by UNHCR. MSB MercyCorps OxfamFood: World Food Programme Hygiene Promotion: ACTED responsibility lies in the field of water treatment, water testing and waste management.
JEN OxfamEducation: UNICEF SCJ/S
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000. About 24 km south-southeast of Cologne, Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants, it is famously known as the birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven in 1770. Beethoven spent his childhood and teenage years in Bonn; because of a political compromise following German reunification, the German federal government maintains a substantial presence in Bonn, the city is considered a second, capital of the country. Bonn is the secondary seat of the President, the Chancellor, the Bundesrat and the primary seat of six federal government ministries and twenty federal authorities; the unique title of Federal City reflects its important political status within Germany. As the city of Weimar in eastern Germany has given its name to Germany's interwar period democracy, the Weimar Republic, so too has Bonn given its name to the historical name of the Bonn Republic for the Cold War era Federal Republic of Germany.
Founded in the 1st century BC as a Roman settlement, Bonn is one of Germany's oldest cities. From 1597 to 1794, Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne, residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne. From 1949 to 1990, Bonn was the capital of West Germany, Germany's present constitution, the Basic Law, was declared in the city in 1949. Berlin was re-affirmed by the Bundestag in Bonn as the capital of Germany, though due to the country's division a seat of government was maintained there by the German Democratic Republic, only in the eastern half. From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government – but no longer capital – of reunited Germany; the headquarters of Deutsche Post DHL and Deutsche Telekom, both DAX-listed corporations, are in Bonn. The city is home to the University of Bonn and a total of 20 United Nations institutions, including headquarters for Secretariat of the UN Framework Convention Climate Change, the Secretariat of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification, the UN Volunteers programme.
Situated in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germany's largest metropolitan area with over 11 million inhabitants, Bonn lies within the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, close to the border with Rhineland-Palatinate. Spanning an area of more 141.2 km2 on both sides of the river Rhine three quarters of the city lie on the river's left bank. To the south and to the west, Bonn is bordering the Eifel region which encompasses the Rhineland Nature Park. To the north, Bonn borders the Cologne Lowland. Natural borders are constituted by the river Sieg to the north-east and by the Siebengebirge to the east; the largest extension of the city in north-south dimensions is 15 km and 12.5 km in west-east dimensions. The city borders have a total length of 61 km; the geographical centre of Bonn is the Bundeskanzlerplatz in Bonn-Gronau. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia is divided into five governmental districts, Bonn is part of the governmental district of Cologne. Within this governmental district, the city of Bonn is an urban district in its own right.
The urban district of Bonn is again divided into four administrative municipal districts. These are Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Bonn-Beuel and Bonn-Hardtberg. In 1969, the independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before. Bonn has an oceanic climate. In the south of the Cologne lowland in the Rhine valley, Bonn is in one of Germany's warmest regions; the history of the city dates back to Roman times. In about 12 BC, the Roman army appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the city. Earlier, the army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the Ubii, in Bonn; the Latin name for that settlement, "Bonna", may stem from the original population of this and many other settlements in the area, the Eburoni. The Eburoni were members of a large tribal coalition wiped out during the final phase of Caesar's War in Gaul. After several decades, the army gave up the small camp linked to the Ubii-settlement.
During the 1st century AD, the army chose a site to the north of the emerging town in what is now the section of Bonn-Castell to build a large military installation dubbed Castra Bonnensis, i.e. "Fort Bonn". Built from wood, the fort was rebuilt in stone. With additions and new construction, the fort remained in use by the army into the waning days of the Western Roman Empire the mid-5th century; the structures themselves remained standing well into the Middle Ages, when they were called the Bonnburg. They were used by Frankish kings. Much of the building materials seem to have been re-used in the construction of Bonn's 13th-century city wall; the Sterntor in the city center is a reconstruction using the last remnants of the medieval city wall. To date, Bonn's Roman fort remains the largest fort of its type known from the ancient world, i.e. a fort built to accommodate a full-strength Imperial Legion and its auxiliaries. The fort covered an area of 250,000 square metres. Between its walls it contained a dense grid of streets and a multitude of buildings, ranging from spacious headquarters and large officers' quarters to barracks, stables and a military jail.
1994 German federal election
Federal elections were held in Germany on 16 October 1994 to elect the members of the 13th Bundestag. The CDU/CSU alliance led by Helmut Kohl remained the largest faction in parliament, with Kohl remaining Chancellor; this elected. The SPD let. Rudolf Scharping, Minister-President of Rhineland-Palatinate, beat Gerhard Schröder and Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul in the SPD's internal election. Tension between Scharping and other SPD leaders such as Oskar Lafontaine and Gerhard Schröder hampered his campaign. For the first time in their existence, the Greens seemed to be willing to join a government in the event that a centre-left SPD-Grünen coalition had a workable majority in the Bundestag. ^† — totals for the Greens reflect the merger of the Western and Eastern Green parties. The coalition between the CDU/CSU and the FDP was able to continue in power with Helmut Kohl as chancellor; the PDS won four constituency seats in its power base of the former East Berlin, qualifying it for proportional representation though the party won 4.4 percent of the vote, just short of the 5% electoral threshold required for full parliamentary status.
Under a longstanding electoral law intended to benefit regional parties, any party that wins at least three constituency seats is entitled to its share of proportionally-elected seats, regardless of vote share. This was the first time in the history of the Federal Republic that the FDP was not the third largest party in the chamber; the Federal Returning Officer Psephos
Jordan the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is an Arab country in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and Palestine to the west; the Dead Sea is located along its western borders and the country has a small coastline to the Red Sea in its extreme south-west, but is otherwise landlocked. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe; the capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon and Edom. Rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France; the Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite Emir, Abdullah I, the emirate became a British protectorate.
In 1946, Jordan became an independent state known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, became one of two Arab states to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994. Jordan is the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation; the sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers. Jordan is a small, semi-arid landlocked country with an area of 89,342 km2 and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan and coexists with an indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region, it has been unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.
From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census. The kingdom is a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL. While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure. Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy; the Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce. The country is a major tourist destination attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector. Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth. Jordan takes its name from the Jordan River. While several theories for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, it is most plausible that it derives from the Semitic word Yarad, meaning "the descender", reflecting the river's declivity.
Much of the area that makes up modern Jordan was called Transjordan, meaning "across the Jordan", used to denote the lands east of the river. The Old Testament refers to the area as "the other side of the Jordan". Early Arab chronicles referred to the river as corresponding to the Semitic Yarden. Jund Al-Urdunn was a military district around the river in the early Islamic era. During the Crusades in the beginning of the second millennium, a lordship was established in the area under the name of Oultrejordain; the oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years. Jordan is rich in Paleolithic remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged. Past lakeshore environments attracted different hominids, several remains of tools have been found from this period; the world's oldest evidence of bread-making was found in a 14,500 years old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. The transition from hunter-gatherer to establishing populous agricultural villages occurred during the Neolithic period.'Ain Ghazal, one such village located in today's eastern Amman, is one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East.
Dozens of plaster statues of the human form dating to 7250 BC were uncovered there and they are among the oldest found. Other than the usual Chalcolithic villages such as Tulaylet Ghassul in the Jordan Valley, a series of circular stone enclosures in the eastern basalt desert−whose purpose remains uncertain–have baffled archaeologists. Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age. Wadi Feynan became a regional center for copper extraction, exploited on a large-scale to produce bronze. Trade and movement of people in the Middle East peaked and refining civilizations. Villages in Transjordan expanded in areas with reliable water resources and agricultural land. Ancient Egyptians controlled both banks of the Jordan River. During the Iron Age after the withdrawal of the Egyptians, Transjordan was home to Ammon and Moab, they spoke Semitic languages of the Canaanite group, an
University of Bonn
The University of Bonn is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the Rhein University on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn, founded in 1777; the University of Bonn offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors and 32,500 students. Its library holds more than five million volumes; as of August 2018, among its notable alumni and researchers are 10 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, twelve Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners as well as August Kekulé, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine, Prince Albert, Pope Benedict XVI, Frederick III, Max Ernst, Konrad Adenauer, Joseph Schumpeter. The university's forerunner was the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn, founded in 1777 by Maximilian Frederick of Königsegg-Rothenfels, the prince-elector of Cologne. In the spirit of the Enlightenment the new academy was nonsectarian.
The academy had schools for theology, law and general studies. In 1784 Emperor Joseph II granted the academy the right to award academic degrees, turning the academy into a university; the academy was closed in 1798 after the left bank of the Rhine was occupied by France during the French Revolutionary Wars. The Rhineland became a part of Prussia in 1815 as a result of the Congress of Vienna. King Frederick William III of Prussia thereafter decreed the establishment of a new university in the new province on 18 October 1818. At this time there was no university in the Rhineland, as all three universities that existed until the end of the 18th century were closed as a result of the French occupation; the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn was one of these three universities. The other two were the Roman Catholic University of Cologne and the Protestant University of Duisburg; the new Rhein University was founded on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III. It was the sixth Prussian University, founded after the universities in Greifswald, Berlin, Königsberg and Breslau.
The new university was shared between the two Christian denominations. This was one of the reasons why Bonn, with its tradition of a nonsectarian university, was chosen over Cologne and Duisburg. Apart from a school of Roman Catholic theology and a school of Protestant theology, the university had schools for medicine and philosophy. 35 professors and eight adjunct professors were teaching in Bonn. The university constitution was adopted in 1827. In the spirit of Wilhelm von Humboldt the constitution emphasized the autonomy of the university and the unity of teaching and research. Similar to the University of Berlin, founded in 1810, the new constitution made the University of Bonn a modern research university. Only one year after the inception of the Rhein University the dramatist August von Kotzebue was murdered by Karl Ludwig Sand, a student at the University of Jena; the Carlsbad Decrees, introduced on 20 September 1819 led to a general crackdown on universities, the dissolution of the Burschenschaften and the introduction of censorship laws.
One victim was the author and poet Ernst Moritz Arndt, freshly appointed university professor in Bonn, was banned from teaching. Only after the death of Frederick William III in 1840 was he reinstated in his professorship. Another consequence of the Carlsbad Decrees was the refusal by Frederick William III to confer the chain of office, the official seal and an official name to the new university; the Rhein University was thus nameless until 1840, when the new King of Prussia, Frederick William IV gave it the official name Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. Despite these problems, the university attracted famous scholars and students. At the end of the 19th century the university was known as the Prinzenuniversität, as many of the sons of the king of Prussia studied here. In 1900, the university had 68 chairs, 23 adjunct chairs, two honorary professors, 57 Privatdozenten and six lecturers. Since 1896, women were allowed to attend classes as guest auditors at universities in Prussia. In 1908 the University of Bonn became coeducational.
The growth of the university came to a halt with World War I. Financial and economic problems in Germany in the aftermath of the war resulted in reduced government funding for the university; the University of Bonn responded by trying to find industrial sponsors. In 1930 the university adopted a new constitution. For the first time students were allowed to participate in the self-governing university administration. To that effect the student council Astag was founded in the same year. Members of the student council were elected in a secret ballot. After the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, the Gleichschaltung transformed the university into a Nazi educational institution. According to the Führerprinzip the autonomous and self-governening administration of the university was replaced by a hierarchy of leaders resembling the military, with the university president being subordinate to the ministry of education. Jewish professors and students and political opponents were ostracized and expelled from the university