The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts, the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, and the Royal Hungarian Honved, with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being. It existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918, all of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k. u. k. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new uniform color. The last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, Austria-Hungary avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. Nevertheless, the general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers, especially Italy, soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were used against Italian rioters in Trieste in 1902.
The most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy in this period was the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia, despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders. In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 255,000, this was significantly less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men. Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the start of the 20th century, Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0. 29% of its population, the 1889 army law was not revised until 1912, which allowed for an increase in annual conscriptions. From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Roman Catholics, in 1896, out of 1000 officers,791 were Roman Catholics,86 Protestants,84 Jews,39 Greek-Orthodox, and one Uniate.
Of the pre–World War military forces of the major European powers, while the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy was about 5%, Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps. Franz Ferdinand was accused of discriminating against Protestant officers, following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who generally regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség. Despite increases throughout the 1850s and 1860s, in the half of the century Austria-Hungary was still spending less on its army than were other major European powers. Attempts to increase the intake of recruits were proposed but repeatedly blocked by officials in Budapest until an agreement was reached in 1912. In the emerging field of aviation, Austria-Hungary lagged behind other European states
Raymond Allen Liotta is an American actor, film producer, and voice actor. His adoptive parents both unsuccessfully ran for local office and he has a sister, Linda Liotta, who is adopted. Liotta has said he knew he was adopted as a young child, Liotta located his biological mother in the 2000s. His adoptive parents were of Italian and Scottish ancestry, after research and talks with his biological mother, he learned he is part Scottish. He has one brother, five half sisters, and a full sister. Liotta was raised Roman Catholic, although his family was not very religious, Liotta said the family went to church and he received first communion and was confirmed, but the family did not pray much. He occasionally uses prayer in his daily life, Liotta recalls attending parades handing out flyers for his fathers run for Township Committee. He graduated from Union High School in 1973 in Union, New Jersey where he grew up, Liotta graduated from the University of Miami, where he received a degree in Fine Arts in 1978 and studied acting with Robert Buckets Lowery.
He performed in such as Cabaret, Dames at Sea, Oklahoma. After college, Liotta moved to New York City and he got a job as a bartender at the Shubert theaters and landed an agent within six months. One of Liottas earliest roles was as Joey Perrini on the soap opera Another World and he quit the show so he could try his luck in the film industry, and moved to Los Angeles. He made his debut in a sexual assault scene with Pia Zadora. His first major acting role was Something Wild, which earned him his first Golden Globe nomination, in 1989, he costarred alongside Kevin Costner in the fantasy/drama film Field of Dreams— Liotta portrayed Shoeless Joe Jackson, the ghost of the famed baseball player. His voice over line, If you build it, he will come, is #39 on the American Film Institutes list of 100 movie quotes, in 1990, Liotta portrayed real-life mobster Henry Hill in Martin Scorseses film Goodfellas. In 1992, he costarred as a cop alongside Kurt Russell. He appeared in a role in the sci-fi/action film No Escape.
Liotta earned critical praise for his turn in James Mangolds film Cop Land, starring alongside Sylvester Stallone, Robert De Niro, in 1998, he received critical praise for his performance in Phoenix playing a compulsive gambler. The ER role earned Liotta an Emmy for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series
A character actor or character actress is a supporting actor who plays unusual, interesting, or eccentric characters. The term, often contrasted with that of leading actor, is somewhat abstract, in a literal sense, all actors can be considered character actors since they all play characters, but in the usual sense it is an actor who plays a distinctive and important supporting role. In either case, character actor roles are more substantial than bit parts or non-speaking extras, the term is used primarily to describe television and film actors, and is less used to describe theater actors. An early use of the term was in the 1883 edition of The Stage, Actors with a long career history of playing character roles may be difficult for audiences to recognize as being the same actor, if they play such roles convincingly and memorably. Unlike leading actors, they are seen as less glamorous. Generally, the names of actors are not featured prominently in movie and television advertising on the marquee.
Some character actors have distinctive voices or accents, or they develop memorable mannerisms, a character actor with a long career may not have a well-known name, yet may be instantly recognizable. During the course of a career, an actor can sometimes shift between leading roles and secondary roles. Some leading actors, as they get older, find that access to leading roles is limited by their increasing age, in the past, actors of color, who were often barred from roles for which they were otherwise suited, found work performing ethnic stereotypes. Sometimes character actors have developed based on specific talents needed in genre films, such as dancing, acrobatics, swimming ability. Some character actors develop a following with a particular audience. Ed Lauter usually portrayed a menacing figure because of his long, angular face which was recognized in public. Character actors can play a variety of types, such as the femme fatale, sidekick, town drunk, whore with a heart of gold, Character actors subsume themselves into the characters they portray, such that their off-screen acting persona is practically unrecognizable.
According to one view, great actors are rarely out of work. They are highly regarded by fellow actors. Stock character Commedia dellarte Quinlan, quinlans Illustrated Directory of Film Character Actors. Character Kings, Hollywoods Familiar Faces Discuss the Art & Business of Acting
Jacob the Liar (1975 film)
Jacob the Liar is a 1975 East German–Czechoslovakian Holocaust film directed by Frank Beyer and based on the novel of the same name by Jurek Becker. It starred Vlastimil Brodský in the title role, work on the picture began in 1965, but production was halted in summer 1966. Becker, who had originally planned Jacob the Liar as a screenplay, in 1972, after the book garnered considerable success, work on the picture resumed. In a Jewish ghetto in German-occupied Poland, a man named Jakob is caught on the streets after curfew and he is told to report to a German military office where he finds the officer in charge passed out drunk. The radio is running and Jakob hears a broadcast about the advances of the Soviet Army, Jakob sneaks out and goes home. Later he tells his friends that the Russians are not very far away, as no one believes he went to the Nazi office and came out alive, Jakob makes up a lie, claiming he owns a radio – a crime punishable by death. This puts Jakob in a position since he is constantly asked for further news.
He starts encouraging his friends with false reports about the advance of the Red Army towards their ghetto, the residents, who are desperate and starved, find new hope in Jakobs stories. Even when he confesses to his friend that only the first report was true and all the rest is made up, his friend points out that his stories give people hope. The film ends with the deportation of Jakob and the others to the extermination camps, Frankfurter Margit Bara – Josefa Litwin Reimar J. Baur – Herschel Schtamm Zsuzsa Gordon – Mrs. Frankfurter Friedrich Richter – Dr. As Becker became a screenwriter in the early 1960s, he decided to compose a script based on the story. On 10 January 1963, he submitted a 32 pages long treatment to the DEFA studio, the studio approved of the work and authorized to further develop it. Becker was paid 2,000 East German Mark, on 17 February 1965, he handed a 111 pages long scenario over to the studio, and a full script of 185 pages was submitted by him on 15 December. During 1965, as work on the script progressed, Frank Beyer requested to direct the future film and received the role.
Maaß replied the scenario should be accurate, in Beckers work. The chairman pointed out no Jewish ghettos were rescued in such a manner at the war, however, on 22 February he granted permission to begin work on the picture. Beyer decided to cast Czechoslovak actor Vlastimil Brodský for the role of Jakob, in the end of 1965, from the 16th to the 18th of December, the Socialist Unity Party of Germany assembled for its XI Plenum. During the convention, the industry was severely criticized and blamed for taking artistic liberties incongruous with Marxist ideology
Angels & Demons (film)
Angels & Demons is a 2009 American mystery thriller film directed by Ron Howard and written by Akiva Goldsman and David Koepp, based on Dan Browns novel of the same name. It is the sequel to the 2006 film The Da Vinci Code, directed by Howard, the novel was published first and The Da Vinci Code novel followed it. Filming took place in Rome and the Sony Pictures Studios in Culver City, tom Hanks reprises his role as Professor Robert Langdon. Producer Brian Grazer, composer Hans Zimmer and screenwriter Akiva Goldsman return, the film grossed $485 million worldwide. A sequel, titled Inferno, was released on October 28,2016, almost immediately, Father Silvano is killed and one of the vials of antimatter goes missing. At the same time, the Roman Catholic Church is mourning the death of Pope Pius XVI in Rome. The Camerlengo, Father Patrick McKenna, assumes control of the Vatican. Before the conclave enters seclusion, four of the preferiti are kidnapped by a man claiming to represent the Illuminati.
In a video message, he threatens to one candidate every hour starting at 8pm and to destroy all of Vatican City at midnight. The Vatican summons symbologist Robert Langdon from Harvard University and Vetra to help save the four preferiti. Over the objections of Commander Maximilian Richter, head of the Swiss Guard and he examines Galileo Galileis banned book with Vetra. There they find Cardinal Ebner dead, suffocated with soil and branded with an ambigrammatic word Earth and they verify the second location is the crowded Saint Peters Square and arrive just as a bloody Cardinal Lamassé emerges with his chest branded with Air. Vetra unsuccessfully attempts to perform CPR on him, only to discover his lungs had been punctured, a gunfight erupts between the assassin and the officers, with Olivetti and Vincenzi being killed in the process. Langdon manages to escape, but not before being spotted by the assassin, Langdon convinces two Carabinieri officers to take him to the next location and the trio race to the Water altar, the Fountain of the Four Rivers, just as the assassin arrives in a van.
The assassin murders the officers and drops a bound and weighted Cardinal Baggia into the fountain before bidding farewell to Langdon, with the help of bystanders, Langdon rescues the cardinal, who tells him the Illuminatis lair is Castel SantAngelo. There and Vetra discover a hidden passageway leading to the Vatican, discovering a case with marks for five branding irons, they realize the fifth brand is for the Camerlengo but are confronted by the assassin before they can alert McKenna. The assassin spares their lives once more, stating killing them is not a part of his mission unless they pursue him and he cryptically warns them to be careful as his contractors are men of God before departing. He escapes to a car left for him by his contractor and Vetra rush back to the Vatican where they find Commander Richter hovering over McKenna with a gun, the Vatican symbol branded into McKennas chest
Paul Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. His highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas are noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and his analysis and critique of the European and German soul used modernized German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Goethe and Schopenhauer. Mann was a member of the Hanseatic Mann family and portrayed his family and class in his first novel and his older brother was the radical writer Heinrich Mann and three of his six children, Erika Mann, Klaus Mann and Golo Mann, became important German writers. When Hitler came to power in 1933, Mann fled to Switzerland, when World War II broke out in 1939, he moved to the United States, returning to Switzerland in 1952. Thomas Mann is one of the exponents of the so-called Exilliteratur. Manns work influenced many authors, including Heinrich Böll, Joseph Heller, Yukio Mishima. Paul Thomas Mann was born to a family in Lübeck.
His mother was Roman Catholic but Mann was baptised into his fathers Lutheran religion, Manns father died in 1891 and his trading firm was liquidated. The family subsequently moved to Munich, Mann lived in Munich from 1891 until 1933, with the exception of a year in Palestrina, with his novelist elder brother Heinrich. Thomas worked with the South German Fire Insurance Company in 1894-95 and his career as a writer began when he wrote for Simplicissimus. Manns first short story, Little Mr Friedemann, was published in 1898, in 1905, Mann married Katia Pringsheim, daughter of a wealthy, secular Jewish industrialist family. She joined the Lutheran church, today the cottage is a cultural center dedicated to him, with a small memorial exhibition. In 1933, while traveling in the South of France, Mann heard from Klaus and Erika in Munich, the family emigrated to Küsnacht, near Zurich, Switzerland but received Czechoslovak citizenship and a passport in 1936. After Nazi Germany took over Czechoslovakia, he emigrated to the United States in 1939.
In 1942, the Mann family moved to 1550 San Remo Drive in the Pacific Palisades suburb of Los Angeles, on 23 June 1944 Thomas Mann was naturalized as a citizen of the United States. The Manns lived in Los Angeles until 1952, the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, prompted Mann to offer anti-Nazi speeches to the German people via the BBC. In October 1940 he began monthly broadcasts, recorded in the U. S. and flown to London, in these eight-minute addresses, Mann condemned Hitler and his paladins as crude philistines completely out of touch with European culture. In one noted speech he said, The war is horrible, Mann was one of the few publicly active opponents of Nazism among German expatriates in the U. S
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actor who has delivered a performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Walter Brennan was the first winner of award for his role in Come. Initially, winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, winners received full-sized statuettes, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS, winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy. Since its inception, the award has given to 72 actors. Brennan has received the most awards in this category with three awards, Jeff Bridges, Robert Duvall, Arthur Kennedy, Jack Nicholson, and Claude Rains were nominated on four occasions, more than any other actor. As of the 2017 ceremony, Mahershala Ali is the most recent winner in category for his role as Juan in Moonlight.
In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, and generally correspond to the year of release in Los Angeles County. Toronto, Canada, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-1-55002-574-3. org The Academy Awards Database Oscar. com Complete Downloadable List of Academy Award Nominees
American Broadcasting Company
The network is headquartered on Columbus Avenue and West 66th Street in Manhattan, New York City. There are additional offices and production facilities elsewhere in New York City, as well as in Los Angeles and Burbank. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC originally launched on October 12,1943, as a radio network, separated from and serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, which had been purchased by Edward J. Noble. It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS, in the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that formerly operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, who had been the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop, in 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABCs assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company. The television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States, most Canadians have access to at least one U. S.
ABC News provides news and features content for radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies, the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System and the National Broadcasting Company. The last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, in 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940. The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC Red or NBC Blue, at that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Once Mutuals appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, Edward John Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million.
Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, which was to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCCs approval, the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12,1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, both stations were managed by Don Searle, the vice-president of the Blue Networks West Coast division. The ABC Radio Network created its audience slowly, the network became known for such suspenseful dramas as Sherlock Holmes, Gang Busters and Counterspy, as well as several mid-afternoon youth-oriented programs. S. From Nazi Germany after its conquest, to pre-record its programming, while its radio network was undergoing reconstruction, ABC found it difficult to avoid falling behind on the new medium of television.
To ensure a space, in 1947, ABC submitted five applications for television station licenses, the ABC television network made its debut on April 19,1948, with WFIL-TV in Philadelphia becoming its first primary affiliate
Naomi Ellen Watts is an English actress and film producer. She made her debut in the Australian drama film For Love Alone. Brides of Christ and Home and Away and alongside Nicole Kidman, after moving to America, Watts appeared in films, including Tank Girl, Children of the Corn IV, The Gathering and Dangerous Beauty and had the lead role in the television series Sleepwalkers. After years as an actress, Watts came to attention in David Lynchs psychological thriller Mulholland Drive. The following year she enjoyed success with her role as Rachel Keller in The Ring. Her subsequent films include David O. Russells comedy I Heart Huckabees, the 2005 remake of King Kong, the crime-thriller Eastern Promises, since then, Watts has portrayed Valerie Plame Wilson in the biographical drama Fair Game and Helen Gandy in Clint Eastwoods biographical drama J. Edgar. In 2002, Watts was included in People magazines 50 Most Beautiful People, in 2006, she became a goodwill ambassador for Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, which helps to raise awareness of AIDS-related issues.
She has participated in fundraisers for the cause, and she is presented as an inaugural member of AIDS Red Ribbon Awards. Watts was born 28 September 1968, in Shoreham and she is the daughter of Myfanwy Edwards, an antiques dealer and costume and set designer, and Peter Watts, a road manager and sound engineer who worked with Pink Floyd. Miv was born in England but lived in Australia between the ages of one and seven and her maternal grandfather was Welsh and her maternal grandmother was Australian. Watts parents divorced when she was four years old, after the divorce and her elder brother, Ben Watts, moved several times across South East England with their mother. Peter Watts left Pink Floyd in 1974, and he and Myfanwy were reconciled, Two years later, in August 1976, he was found dead in a flat in Notting Hill, of an apparent heroin overdose. During this time, Watts attended a Welsh language school, Ysgol Gyfun Llangefni and she said of her time in Wales, We took Welsh lessons in a school in the middle of nowhere while everyone else was taking English.
Wherever we moved, I would adapt and pick up the regional accent and its obviously significant now, me being an actress. Anyway, there was quite a lot of sadness in my childhood, in 1978, her mother remarried and Watts and her brother moved to Suffolk where she attended Thomas Mills High School. Watts has stated that she wanted to become an actress after seeing her performing on stage. In 1982, when Watts was 14, she moved to Sydney, Myfanwy established a career in the burgeoning film business, working as a stylist for television commercials, turning to costume design, ultimately working for the soap opera Return to Eden. After emigrating, Watts was enrolled in acting lessons by her mother, she auditioned for television advertisements
Leipzig is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 570,087 inhabitants it is Germanys tenth most populous city, Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became an urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War. Leipzig played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took place in, Leipzig today is an economic center and the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system, Leipzig is currently listed as Gamma World City and Germanys Boomtown.
Outside of Leipzig the Neuseenland district forms a lake area of approximately 300 square kilometres. Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means settlement where the linden trees stand, an older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. The Latin name Lipsia was used, the name is cognate with Lipetsk in Russia and Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt. de. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city, Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. During the Thirty Years War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls, the first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642.
Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side, on 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and a coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War, in 1913 the Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. The railway station has two entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
Rainer Werner Fassbinder was a German film director, film producer and actor. Fassbinder was part of the New German Cinema movement and he worked as an actor, cameraman, designer and theater manager. Fassbinder died on 10 June 1982 at the age of 37 from a cocktail of cocaine. Fassbinder was born in Bavaria in the town of Bad Wörishofen on 31 May 1945. He was born three weeks after the Allies occupied the town and the surrender of Germany. The aftermath of World War II deeply marked his childhood and the lives of his family, in compliance with his mothers wishes, Fassbinder claimed he was born in 1946 in order to enhance his status as a cinematic prodigy. His real age was revealed shortly before his death and he was the only child of Liselotte Pempeit, a translator and Helmut Fassbinder, a doctor who worked out of the couples apartment in Sendlinger Strasse, near Munichs red light district. Fassbinders had an unconventional childhood about which he would express grievances in interviews, when he was three months old, he was left with a paternal uncle and aunt in the country, since his parents feared he would not survive the winter with them.
He was a year old when he was returned to his parents in Munich, Fassbinders mother came from the Free City of Danzig, from which many ethnic Germans had fled following World War II. As a result, a number of her relatives came to live them in Munich. Fassbinders parents were cultured members of the bourgeoisie and his father mainly concentrated on his career, which he saw as a means to indulge his passion for writing poetry. His mother largely ignored him as well, spending the majority of her helping her husband with his medical practice. In 1951, Liselotte Pempeit and Helmut Fassbinder divorced, when she was working, she often sent her son to the cinema in order to concentrate. Later in life, Fassbinder claimed that he saw a film every day. During this period, Pempeit was often away from her son for long periods while she recuperated from tuberculosis, in his mothers absence, Fassbinder was looked after by his mothers tenants and friends. As he was left alone, he became independent and uncontrollable.
He clashed with his mothers younger lover Siggi, who lived with them when Fassbinder was around eight or nine years old and he had a similar difficult relationship with the much older journalist Wolff Eder, who became his stepfather in 1959. Early in his adolescence, Fassbinder identified as homosexual, as a teen, Fassbinder was sent to boarding school