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Armistice

An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not the end of a war, as it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace, it is derived from the Latin arma, meaning "arms" and -stitium, meaning "a stopping". The United Nations Security Council imposes, or tries to impose, cease-fire resolutions on parties in modern conflicts. Armistices are always negotiated between the parties themselves and are thus seen as more binding than non-mandatory UN cease-fire resolutions in modern international law. An armistice is a modus vivendi and is not the same as a peace treaty, which may take months or years to agree on; the 1953 Korean War Armistice Agreement is a major example of an armistice which has not been followed by a peace treaty. An armistice is different from a truce or ceasefire, which refer to a temporary cessation of hostilities for an agreed limited time or within a limited area. A truce may be needed in order to negotiate an armistice.

Under international law an armistice is a legal agreement which ends fighting between the "belligerent parties" of a war or conflict. At the Hague Convention of 1899, where three treaties were agreed and three declarations made, the Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land stated that "If duration is not fixed," the parties can resume fighting as they choose, but with proper notifications; this is in comparison to a "fixed duration" armistice, where the parties can renew fighting only at the end of the particular fixed duration. When the belligerent parties say, "this armistice ends the fighting" without any end date for the armistice duration of the armistice is fixed in the sense that no resumption of the fighting is allowed at any time. For example, the Korean Armistice Agreement calls for a "ceasefire and armistice" and has the "objective of establishing an armistice which will ensure a complete cessation of hostilities and of all acts of armed force in Korea until a final peaceful settlement is achieved.

Armistice Day is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the Armistice of 11 November 1918 signed between the Allies of World War I and the German Empire at Compiègne, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918. Most countries changed the name of the holiday after World War II, to honor veterans of that and subsequent conflicts. Most member states of the Commonwealth of Nations adopted the name Remembrance Day, while the United States chose Veterans Day. Armistice of Copenhagen of 1537 ended the Danish war known as the Count's Feud Armistice of Stuhmsdorf of 1635 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden Peace of Westphalia of 1648 that ended the Thirty Years' War and Eighty Years' War World War I Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, December 1917 Armistice of Salonika between Bulgaria and the Allies, September 1918 Armistice of Mudros between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies, October 1918 Austrian-Italian Armistice of Villa Giusti ended the fighting of the war on the Italian front in early November 1918 Armistice with Germany, ended the fighting of the war on the western front, November 11, 1918 Armistice of Mudanya between Turkey, Italy and the UK and Greece, 1922 World War II Armistice with France, 1940 Armistice of Saint Jean d'Acre between British forces in the Middle East and Vichy France forces in Syria, 1941 Armistice with Italy, formal agreement of warring parties, the Allies and Italy, to stop fighting, signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano.

Moscow Armistice, signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 ending the Continuation War 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan and Syria Korean War Armistice Agreement, July 1953 Geneva Agreements signed by France and the Viet Minh on 20 July 1954 ending the First Indochina War Armistice in Algeria, 1962, which attempted to end the Algerian War "Allied Armistice Terms, 11 November 1918". The War to End All Wars. FirstWorldWar.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-04; the Expanded Cease-Fires Data Set Code Book

Medial circumflex femoral artery

The medial circumflex femoral artery is an artery in the upper thigh that helps supply blood to the neck of the femur. Damage to the artery following a femoral neck fracture may lead to avascular necrosis of the femoral neck/head; the medial femoral circumflex artery arises from the medial and posterior aspect of the profunda femoris artery, winds around the medial side of the femur, passing first between the pectineus and iliopsoas muscles, between the obturator externus and the adductor brevis muscles. The medial femoral circumflex artery may arise directly from the femoral artery. At the upper border of the adductor brevis it gives off two branches: The ascending branch The descending branch descends beneath the adductor brevis, to supply it and the adductor magnus; the superficial branch The deep branch The acetabular branch Lateral femoral circumflex artery This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 630 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Medial_femoral_circumflex_artery at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program Anatomy figure: 12:04-06 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Arteries of the lower extremity shown in association with major landmarks."

Zacarías González Velázquez

Zacarías González Velázquez was a Spanish painter. Velázquez was born in Madrid to a family of artists, his father was the painter Antonio González Velázquez. His grandfather Pablo and his uncles Luis and Alejandro were all painters, his brothers, Isidro and Cástor became painters. He began his training in 1777 at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, where his father was the Director, a position he would hold himself. While there, he studied with Mariano Salvador Maella. After his second year, he won first prize in the Second Class Paintings category, he graduated in 1782 and began to acquire commissions immediately. He decorated several rooms in the Royal Palace of El Pardo with mythological scenes, he worked as a designer at the Royal Tapestry Factory and painted decorations at the Jaén Cathedral, Toledo Cathedral and the Oratory of the Caballero de Gracia in Madrid. He received another degree at the Academy in 1790 and, three years was appointed an assistant professor there. At that time, he was promoted to Deputy Director of Painting.

This came at a difficult time, as the country was embroiled in the Napoleonic Wars and cultural life came to a virtual standstill. Things improved with the accession of Ferdinand VII to the throne, he rose to the position of Director of the Academy in 1828. He died in Madrid, aged 69. ArtNet: More works by González Velázquez

Amniote

Amniotes are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles and mammals. Amniotes lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother, are distinguished from the anamniotes, which lay their eggs in water. Older sources prior to the 20th century, may refer to amniotes as "higher vertebrates" and anamniotes as "lower vertebrates", based on the discredited idea of the evolutionary great chain of being. Amniotes are tetrapods that are characterised by having an egg equipped with an amnion, an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as the anamniotes do. Amniotes include sauropsids, as well as their ancestors, back to amphibians. Amniote embryos, whether laid as eggs or carried by the female, are protected and aided by several extensive membranes. In eutherian mammals, these membranes include the amniotic sac; these embryonic membranes and the lack of a larval stage distinguish amniotes from tetrapod amphibians. The first amniotes, referred to as "basal amniotes", resembled small lizards and evolved from the amphibian reptiliomorphs about 312 million years ago, in the Carboniferous geologic period.

Their eggs could survive out of the water, allowing amniotes to branch out into drier environments. The eggs could "breathe" and cope with wastes, allowing the eggs and the amniotes themselves to evolve into larger forms; the amniotic egg represents a critical divergence within the vertebrates, one enabling amniotes to reproduce on dry land—free of the need to return to water for reproduction as required of the amphibians. From this point the amniotes spread around the globe to become the dominant land vertebrates. Early in their evolutionary history, basal amniotes diverged into two main lines, the synapsids and the sauropsids, both of which persist into the modern era; the oldest known fossil synapsid is Protoclepsydrops from about 312 million years ago, while the oldest known sauropsid is Paleothyris, in the order Captorhinida, from the Middle Pennsylvanian epoch. Zoologists characterize amniotes in part by embryonic development that includes the formation of several extensive membranes, the amnion and allantois.

Amniotes develop directly into a terrestrial form with a thick stratified epithelium. In amniotes, the transition from a two-layered periderm to a cornified epithelium is triggered by thyroid hormone during embryonic development, rather than by metamorphosis; the unique embryonic features of amniotes may reflect specializations for eggs to survive drier environments. Features of amniotes evolved for survival on land include a sturdy but porous leathery or hard eggshell and an allantois that facilitates respiration while providing a reservoir for disposal of wastes, their kidneys and large intestines are well-suited to water retention. Most mammals do not lay eggs; the ancestors of true amniotes, such as Casineria kiddi, which lived about 340 million years ago, evolved from amphibian reptiliomorphs and resembled small lizards. At the late Devonian mass extinction, all known tetrapods were aquatic and fish-like; because the reptiliomorphs were established 20 million years when all their fishlike relatives were extinct, it appears they separated from the other tetrapods somewhere during Romer's gap, when the adult tetrapods became terrestrial.

The modest-sized ancestors of the amniotes laid their eggs in moist places, such as depressions under fallen logs or other suitable places in the Carboniferous swamps and forests. Indeed, many modern-day amniotes require moisture to keep their eggs from desiccating. Although some modern amphibians lay eggs on land, all amphibians lack advanced traits like an amnion; the amniotic egg formed through a series of evolutionary steps. After internal fertilization and the habit of laying eggs in terrestrial environments became a reproduction strategy amongst the amniote ancestors, the next major breakthrough appears to have involved a gradual replacement of the gelatinous coating covering the amphibian egg with a fibrous shell membrane; this allowed the egg to increase both its size and in the rate of gas exchange, permitting a larger, metabolically more active embryo to reach full development before hatching. Further developments, like extraembryonic membranes and a calcified shell, were not essential and evolved later.

It has been suggested that shelled terrestrial eggs without extraembryonic membranes could still not have been more than about 1 cm in diameter because of diffusion problems, like the inability to get rid of carbon dioxide if the egg was larger. The combination of small eggs and the absence of a larval stage, where posthatching growth occurs in anamniotic tetrapods before turning into juveniles, would limit the size of the adults; this is supported by the fact that extant squamate species that lay eggs less than 1 cm in diameter have adults whose snout-vent length is less

Yuexi County, Anhui

Yuexi County, is a county in the southwest of Anhui Province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hubei Province to the west. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Anqing, it has an area of 2,398 square kilometres. The government of Yuexi County is located in Tiantang Town. Yuexi County has jurisdiction over eleven towns and thirteen townships. Towns: Tiantang, Laipang, Toutuo, Wenquan, Hetu, Zhubu, Huangwei Townships: Lianyun Township, Qingtian Township, Baojia Township, Gufang Township, Tiantou Township, Zhongguan Township, Shiguan Township, Yaohe Township, Heping Township, Yuexi County, Weiling Township, Maojianshan Township China National Highway 318

Bub (film)

Bub is an Indian film in Kashmiri language directed by Jyoti Sarup. It was released in Jammu on 1 December 2001, it is the third Kashmiri film, the preceding one was released 38 years previously. The film won the Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration at the 49th National Film Awards; the film is based on the Wandhama Massacre, where several Kashmiri Pandits were killed by militants before Republic Day on 26 January and focuses on a family, massacred. K. K. Raina... Shiban Lal Kuber Sarup... Vinod Virendra Razdan... Vinod's uncle Raju Kher... Neighbor Yogesh Kilam... Shiban's younger brother Meenakshi Koul... Neighbor's daughter Sameer Sahni... Meenakshi's friend Bub was greeted with a positive response from the media; the Hindu said that the film "describes the pain of a Kashmiri boy who lost his parents" and it "gives an insight into the various aspects of Kashmiri society, culture". Radio Kashmir praised the performances, saying "Mr. K. K. Raina, whose character runs throughout the movie, has done an excellent job".

Praising the newcomer it said, "The young Kuber Sarup, 14 years old, does a superb restrained part"."Radio Kashmir". Archived from the original on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2009. National Award Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration