Pacta conventa (Croatia)
Pacta conventa was an alleged agreement concluded between King Coloman of Hungary and the Croatian nobility in 1102 or afterwards, defining the status of Croatia in the union with Hungary. The earliest manuscript of the document is of the fourteenth century; the document titled Pacta Qualiter was found in a Trogir library. Until the 19th century it was considered that it dated to 1102. However, most historians today hold that it is not an authentic document from 1102 and a forgery from the 14th century, but that the contents of the Pacta Conventa still correspond to the political situation of that time in Croatia; the document is preserved in the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest. After Petar Svačić, the last Croatian king of Croat descent, was killed on the battlefield in 1097, the Croats had refused to surrender. To end the war, an agreement was made in 1102; the Croatian nobles concluded the Pacta conventa with King Coloman before his crowning as the Croatian king in Biograd. The Hungarian king offered "an agreement as pleases them" to the twelve noble Croatian tribes from the families of Čudomirić, Gusić, Kačić, Jamomet, Lasničić, Lapčan and Karinjan, Mogorović, Poletčić, Snačić, Šubić, Tugomirić.
The agreement determined that the Croatian nobles who signed the document with King Coloman would retain their possessions and properties without interference. It granted the mentioned families exemption from tax or tributes to the king; each of the twelve noble Croatian tribes were obliged to answer the king's call if someone attacked his borders and send at least ten armed horsemen to war, as far as the Drava River at their own expense. Beyond that point, the Hungarian king paid the expenses; the document's validity is questionable. While some claim the earliest text concerning the alleged agreement came from the second half of the 14th century others call it a late medieval forgery, not a twelfth-century source. While various items of the text seem anachronistic to some, other historians say these could be reworkings of a text from an actual agreement. Since the 19th century, a number of historians have claimed that the Pacta conventa was not a genuine document. In 1915 and also in 1925, Milan Šufflay mentioned the document in some of his works, first declaring it an outright forgery, saying it was a 14th-century "addendum" to the manuscript of Thomas the Archdeacon.
Hungarian historian János Karácsonyi thought it was a 14th-century forgery, Slovene historian Ljudmil Hauptmann dated the document to the 13th century, Croatian historians Miho Barada and Marko Kostrenčić thought it was made in 1102, while Croatian historian Nada Klaić thought it was a forgery made in the 14th century. Croatian historian Stjepan Antoljak in turn said the Pacta was an incomplete historical source, but not a forgery. Nada Klaić elaborated her "lack of opinion" over the matter of 1102 in a 1959 article disputing the Croatian writer Oleg Mandić's earlier work on the matter; the dispute and uncertainty over the Pacta conventa matches the overall uncertainty and dispute over the relationship between the Croatian and Hungarian kingdoms in the 10th and 11th century, with Croatian historian Ferdo Šišić and his followers assuming Tomislav of Croatia had ruled most of the area inhabited by Croats, including Slavonia, while the Hungarian historians Gyula Kristó, Bálint Hóman and János Karácsonyi thought the area between Drava and Sava belonged neither to Croatia nor to Hungary at the time, an opinion that Nada Klaić said she would not preclude, because the generic name "Slavonia" may have implied so.
Though the validity of the document is disputed, there was at least a non-written agreement that regulated the relations between Hungary and Croatia in the same way, since from 1102 until 1918 kings of Hungary were kings of Croatia, represented by a governor, but Croatia kept its own parliament and considerable autonomy. The source of inspiration for the text of the document must have been the political and social developments that had taken place over a 300-year period following 1102 when the two kingdoms united under the Hungarian king, either by the choice of the Croat nobility or by Hungarian force; the Croatian nobility retained its laws and privileges including the restriction of military service that they owed to the king within the boundaries of Croatia. According to the Library of Congress country study on the former Yugoslavia, King Coloman crushed opposition after the death of Ladislaus I of Hungary and won the crown of Dalmatia and Croatia in 1102; the crowning of Coloman forged a link between the Croatian and Hungarian crowns that lasted until the end of World War I.
Croatians have maintained for centuries that Croatia remained a sovereign state despite the voluntary union of the two crowns. A number of Hungarian historians accept the view that Croatia and Hungary entered in a personal union in 1102 and that, whatever the authenticity of the Pacta conventa, the contents of it correspond to the reality of rule in Croatia. However, some Hungarian and Serbian historians claim that Hungary annexed Croatia outright in 1102. According to Frederick Bernard Singleton, the Croatians have always maintained that they were never part of Hungary. In the eyes of Croatians, Croatia was a separate state which happened to share a ruler with the Hungarians; the degree of Croatian autonomy fluctuated from time to time, as well as its borders. According to Daniel Power, Croatia became part of Hungary in the late 11th and early twelfth century. According to the country study on Hungary Croatia was never assimilated into Hungary.
Battle of Vittorio Veneto
The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and contributed to the end of the First World War just one week later; the battle led to the capture of 5,000+ artillery pieces and over 350,000 Austro-Hungarian troops, including 120,000 Germans, 83,000 Czechs and Slovaks, 60,000 South Slavs, 40,000 Poles, several tens of thousands of Romanians and Ukrainians, 7,000 Italians and Friulians. Some Italian authors see Vittorio Veneto as the final culmination of the Risorgimento nationalist movement, in which Italy was unified; when the battle was fought in November 1918, the nearby city was called Vittorio, named in 1866 for Vittorio Emanuele II, monarch from 1861 of the newly created Kingdom of Italy. The engagement, the last major battle in the war between Italy and Austro-Hungary, was referred to as the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, i.e.'Vittorio in the Veneto region'.
The city's name was changed to Vittorio Veneto in July 1923. During the Battle of Caporetto, from 24 October to 9 November 1917, the Italian Army had over 300,000 casualties and was forced to withdraw, causing the replacement of the Italian Supreme Commander Luigi Cadorna with General Armando Diaz. Diaz reorganized the troops, blocked the enemy advance by implementing defense in depth and mobile reserves, stabilized the front-line around the Piave River. In June 1918, a large Austro-Hungarian offensive, aimed at breaking the Piave River defensive line and delivering a decisive blow to the Italian Army, was launched; the Austro-Hungarian Army tried on one side to force the Tonale Pass and enter Lombardy, on the other side to make two converging thrusts into central Venetia, the first one southeastward from the Trentino, the second one southwestward across the lower Piave. The whole offensive, which became known as the Battle of the Piave River ended in a heavy defeat for the imperial army, with the Austro-Hungarians losing 11,643 killed, 80,852 wounded and 25,547 captured.
After the Battle of the Piave, General Armando Diaz, despite aggressive appeals by Allied commanders, deliberately abstained from offensive action until Italy would be ready to strike with success assured. In the offensive he planned, three of the five armies lining the front from the Monte Grappa sector to the Adriatic end of the Piave were to drive across the river toward Vittorio Veneto, so as to cut communications between the two Austrian armies opposing them. Allied forces totaled 57 infantry divisions, including 51 Italian, 3 British, 2 French, 1 Czechoslovak and the 332nd US Infantry Regiment, along with supporting arms; the Austro-Hungarian army had 46 infantry divisions and 6 cavalry divisions, but both sides were ravaged by influenza and malaria and the Austrians only had 6,030 guns to 7,700 Allied. The Italian armies in the mountains were to hold the front line and follow up the enemy when he retreated; the task of opening the attack and taking on the strongest positions fell to Fourth Army on the Grappa.
Twelfth Army, consisting of one French and three Italian divisions was commanded by the English-speaking Lieutenant-General Enrico Caviglia and he had under command Tenth Army to protect his right flank. Lord Cavan's army consisted of two British and two Italian divisions and they too were expected to cross the Piave by breaking the Austrian defenses at Papadopoli Island. Third Army was to hold the lower Piave and cross the river when enemy resistance was broken. Ninth Army, which contained the Czechoslovak Division and the 332nd US Infantry Regiment as well two Italian divisions, was held in reserve; the Allies had 600 aircraft to gain complete air superiority in the final offensive. The Allies: 7th Italian Army: between the Stelvio and the western shore of Lake Garda. 2 Army corps 1st Italian Army: from the west bank of the Lake Garda to the Val d'Astico. 3 Army corps 6th Italian Army: from the plateau of Asiago to the left bank of the Brenta. 3 Army corps British 48th Division 4th Italian Army: Monte Grappa to Cima Palon.
3 army corps 4 assault groups 1 regiment of cavalry. 12th Franco-Italian Army: from Monte Tomba up to the bridges of Vidor on the Piave. 1 Italian Army corps 12th French Army Corps. 8th Italian Army: along the Piave, from Vidor to Priula Bridge. 4 Army corps The assault corps of General Francesco Saverio Grazioli. 10th British-Italian Army along the Piave from Ponte Priula to Ponte di Piave. 1 Italian Army corps 14th British Corps of General James Melville Babington. 332nd Infantry Regiment 3rd Italian Army: from Ponte di Piave to the sea. 2 Army Corps 2 assault units 3 cavalry regiments 9th Italian Army: in reserve. 2 Army corps 1 cavalry corps 6th Czechoslovak DivisionAustria-Hungary Heeresgruppe Erzherzog Joseph 10th Army 11th Army Heeresgruppe Boroević Armeegruppe Belluno 6th Army 5th Army As night fell on 23 October, leading elements of Lord Cavan's Tenth Army were to force a crossing at a point where there were a number of islands, Cavan
Udine is a city and comune in north-eastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps. Its population was 100,514 in 2012, 176,000 with the urban area. Udine was first attested in medieval Latin records as Udene in 983 and as Utinum around the year 1000; the origin of the name Udine is unclear. It has been tentatively suggested that the name may be of pre-Roman origin, connected with the Indo-European root *ou̯dh-'udder' used in a figurative sense to mean'hill'; the Slovene name Videm is a hypercorrection of the local Slovene name Vidan, based on settlements named Videm in Slovenia. The Slovene linguist Pavle Merkù characterized the Slovene form Videm as an "idiotic 19th-century hypercorrection." Udine is the historical capital of Friuli. The area has been inhabited since the Neolithic age, is believed to have been settled by Illyrians. Based on an old Hungarian legend, the leader of the Huns, built a hill there, when besieging Aquileia, because he needed a winter quarters billet: he instructed his soldiers to bring soil in their helmets and shields, because the landscape was too flat, without any hill.
He established the town there, built a square-shape tower. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area increased in importance after the decline of Aquileia and afterwards of Cividale also. In AD 983 Udine was mentioned for the first time, with the donation of the Utinum castle by emperor Otto II to the Patriarchs of Aquileia the main feudal lords of the region. In 1223, with the foundation of the market, the city became the most important in the area for economy and trade, became the Patriarch's seat. In 1420, it was conquered by the Republic of Venice. In 1511, it was the seat of a short civil war, followed by an earthquake and a plague. Udine remained under Venetian control until 1797. After the short French domination which ensued, it was part of the Austrian-puppet Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom, was included in the newly formed Kingdom of Italy in 1866. During World War I, before the defeat in the battle of Caporetto, Udine became the seat of the Italian High Command and was nicknamed "Capitale della Guerra".
After the battle, it was occupied by the Germans in 1917 and Austrians in 1918 until after the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in 1918. After the war it was made capital of a short-lived province which included the current provinces of Gorizia and Udine. After September 8, 1943, when Italy surrendered to the Allies in World War II, the city was under direct German administration, which ceased in April 1945. Udine has a humid subtropical climate. Precipitation is abundant year round with fall being the wettest seasons; the highest temperature recorded was 38.2 °C on July 21, 2006 while the lowest temperature recorded was −18.6 °C on December 19, 2009. In 2007, there were 97,880 people residing in Udine itself, located in the province of Udine, Friuli Venezia Giulia, of whom 46.9% were male and 53.1% were female. Minors totalled 14.36 percent of the population compared to pensioners. This compares with the Italian average of 19.94 percent. The average age of Udine residents is 47 compared to the Italian average of 42.
In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Udine grew by 1.48 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Udine is 9.13 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. The town and its nearby area have a Slovene population estimated at about 2,000. A 1475 document mentions Slovene as the language of the "lower class" in the town, the Udine Manuscript of 1458 contains Slovene vocabulary. Alasia da Sommaripa's Italian-Slovenian dictionary was printed in Udine in 1607. A chair for Slovene was established at the University of Udine in 1970; as of 2006, 90.90% of the population was of Italian descent. The largest immigrant group came from other European nations: 5.37%, followed by sub-saharan Africa: 1.65%, North African: 0.77%. The old residence of the patriarchs of Aquileia, the palazzo Patriarcale, was erected by Giovanni Fontana in 1517 in place of the older one destroyed by an earthquake in 1511. Under the Austrians it was used as a prison.
In the cathedral archives was preserved a recension of the Visigothic code of laws, called the Breviary of Alaric, in a manuscript known as the Codex Utinensis, printed before it was lost. In the 1550s, Andrea Palladio erected some buildings in Udine; the Oratorio della Purità has 18th-century frescoes by Giambattista Tiepolo and his son Giandomenico. The church dedicated to St. Mary of the Castle is the oldest in Udine, judging from extant fragments dating back to the Lombard era, it lost its parish status in 1263. It has been renovated many times over the centuries: the façade, for example, was rebuilt after the 1511 Idrija earthquake, its three naves preserve the suggestive atmosphere of silence and contemplation, found in old churches. The Venetian Governor, Tommaso Lippomano, commissioned the Venetian Gothic portico with steps and ramps leading down the hill in 1487. In the principal square stands the town hall built in 1448–1457 in the Venetian-G
Tarvisio is a comune in the Province of Udine, the northeastern part of the autonomous Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Italy. The town is in the Canal Valley between the Carnic Alps and Karawanks ranges in the north and the Julian Alps in the south. Located at the border with both Austria and Slovenia and its neighbouring municipalities of Arnoldstein and Kranjska Gora form the tripoint of Romance and Slavic Europe; the height west of the town centre marks the watershed between the Slizza creek, a tributary of the Gail River, part of the Danube basin, the Fella River, tributary of the Tagliamento discharging into the Adriatic Sea. Tarvisio has access to the A23 Alpe-Adria autostrada, part of the European route E55, running from the Austrian A2 Süd Autobahn to Udine, the A4 autostrada at Palmanova; the Tarvisio railway station is located at the new Pontebbana line from Villach to Udine opened in 2000, that replaced the tracks of the former Austro-Hungarian k.k. Staatsbahn built in 1879. Despite the modest elevation, the city has a continental climate with cold winters.
Summers can be hot. As a former component of the Austrian Empire, until 1918, the town, as was the rest of the Canal Valley, was overwhelmingly German- and Slovenian-speaking. Today the municipality speaks Italian. In 2012, the mayor put up multilingual signs in four languages, German and the regional minority language of Friulian, saying "the inhabitants deserve to use their mother tongues freely." The comune of Tarvisio includes the following frazioni: Names in: Italian:Camporosso Cave del Predil Coccau Fusine in Valromana Monte Lussari Muda Plezzut Poscolle Rutte Sant'Antonio Riofreddo As a place upon ancient trade routes across the Alps to Venice, Tarvisio's roots date back to Roman times. In 1007 Emperor Henry II vested the newly created Diocese of Bamberg with the Carinthian Canal Valley down to Pontebba, a region which had considerable importance because of nearby ore mines and ironworks around the village of Fusine in Valromana. Tarvisio remained a southern exclave of the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg, until in 1758 the bishop sold Tarvisio to the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.
Until 1918 it was part of the Duchy of Carinthia, it received town privileges in 1909. Tarvisio features include the parish church Saints Peter and Paul, built in the 15th century, as well as sceneries like the Fusine laghi mountain lakes. At the summit of the 1,789-metre Mount Lussari is a pilgrimage church, where according to legend in 1360 a shepherd discovered a statue of Virgin Mary; the church and the nearby ski centre can be reached by cable car from Malborghetto Valbruna. The area around the Sella Nevea mountain pass between Tarvisio and Chiusaforte is a popular ski resort. For decades, Tarvisio benefited economically from people coming from Austria and Yugoslavia for shopping trips. However, trade at the notorious "Rag Market" diminished after the implementation of Schengen Agreement and the establishment of the Eurozone. Today and winter sports in the Karawanks, the Carnic Alps, the Julian Alps have become important industries. Tarvisio is known for its heavy alpine snow, which attracts many tourists for skiing and snowboarding school groups.
It was the Women's 2007 Alpine Skiing World Cup. Tarvisio Boscoverde railway station Notable people that were born or lived in Tarvisio include: Lambert Ehrlich, Slovene Roman Catholic priest, political figure, ethnologist
Veneto is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is ranking fifth in Italy; the region's capital is Venice. Veneto was part of the Roman Empire until the 5th century AD. After a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice until 1797. Venice ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics and trade empires in the world. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it was merged with the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Besides Italian, most inhabitants speak Venetian, divided into five varieties. Since 1971 the Statute of Veneto has referred to the region's citizens as "the Venetian people". Article 1 defines Veneto as an "autonomous Region", "constituted by the Venetian people and the lands of the provinces of Belluno, Rovigo, Venice and Vicenza", while maintaining "bonds with Venetians in the world". Article 2 sets forth the principle of the "self-government of the Venetian people" and mandates the Region to "promote the historical identity of the Venetian people and civilisation".
Despite these affirmations, approved by the Italian Parliament, Veneto is not among the autonomous regions with special statute, differently from its north-eastern and north-western neighbours, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol respectively. Veneto is home to a notable nationalist movement, known as Venetian Venetism; the region's largest party is a founding component of the Lega Nord. The current President of Veneto is Luca Zaia, re-elected in 2015 with 50.1% of the vote. Zaia II Government includes Forza Italia and is externally supported by Independence We Veneto and the Brothers of Italy. An autonomy referendum took place in 2017: 57.2% of Venetians turned out, 98.1% voting "yes" to "further forms and special conditions of autonomy". Having been for a long period in history a land of mass emigration, Veneto is today one of the greatest immigrant-receiving regions in the country, with 487,493 foreigners, notably including Romanians, Chinese and Albanians. Veneto is the 8th largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,398.9 km2.
It is located in the north-eastern part of Italy and is bordered to the east by Friuli-Venezia Giulia, to the south by Emilia-Romagna, to the west by Lombardy and to the north by Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. At its northernmost corner it borders on Austria; the north-south extension of Veneto is 210 km from the Austrian border to the mouth of the River Po. By area, 29% of its surface is mountainous; the highest massif in the Dolomites is the Marmolada-massif at 3,342 m. Other dolomitic peaks are the Pale di San Martino; the Venetian Prealps range between 700 m and 2,200 m. A distinctive characteristic of the Pre-alps are the cave formations, including chasms and sink holes. Fossil deposits are abundant there; the Po Valley, covering 57% of Veneto, extends from the mountains to the Adriatic sea, broken only by some low hills: Euganean Hills, Berici Hills Colli Asolani and Montello, which constitute the remaining 14% of the territory. The plain itself is subdivided into the lower plain; the lower plain is both a mainstay of agricultural production and the most populated part of the region.
Several rivers flow through the region: the Po, Brenta, Livenza and Tagliamento. The eastern shore of the largest lake in Italy, Lake Garda, belongs to Veneto; the coastline covers 200 km, of which 100 km are beaches. The coasts of the Adriatic Sea are characterised by the Venetian Lagoon, a flat terrain with ponds and islands; the Po Delta to the south features dunes along the coastline. The inland portion contains cultivable land reclaimed by a system of canals and dykes. Fish ponds have been created there as well; the delta and the lagoon are a stopping-point for migratory birds. Veneto's morphology is characterised by its: mountains: 5,359.1 km2,. The climate changes from one area to another: while it is continental on the plains, it is milder along the Adriatic coast; the lowlands are covered by thick fog. Between the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, the region was inhabited by the Euganei. According to ancient historians, who wanted to link Venetic origins to legend of Roman origins in Troy, the Veneti came from Paphlagonia in Anatolia at the time of the Fall of Troy, led by prince Antenor, a comrade of Aeneas.
Other historians links Venetic origins with Celts. In the 7th–6th centuries BC th
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino, was an Italian general during both World Wars and the first viceroy of Italian East Africa. With the Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, he became Prime Minister of Italy. Badoglio was born in 1871, his father, Mario Badoglio, was a modest landowner, his mother, Antonietta Pittarelli, was of wealthy bourgeois background. On 5 October 1888 he was admitted to the Royal Military Academy in Turin, he received the rank of Second Lieutenant in 1890. In 1892, he was promoted to Lieutenant. After completing his studies, he served with the Italian Army from 1892, at first as a Lieutenant in artillery, taking part in the early Italian colonial wars in Eritrea, in Libya. At the beginning of Italian participation in World War I, he was a Lieutenant Colonel. With regard to the Battle of Caporetto, although he was blamed in various quarters for his disposition of the forces under his command before the battle, a commission of inquiry rejected most of the criticisms made upon him.
In the years after World War I, in which he held several high posts in the Italian Army, Badoglio exerted a constant effort in modifying official documents in order to hide his role in the defeat. Post-war, Badoglio was named as a Senator, but remained in the army with special assignments to Romania and the U. S. in 1920 and 1921. At first, he opposed Benito Mussolini. A change of political heart soon returned him to Italy and a senior role in the army as Chief of Staff from 4 May 1925. On 25 June 1926, Badoglio was promoted to the rank of Marshal of Italy. Badoglio was the first unique governor of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica from 1929 to 1933. During his governorship, he played a vital part in defeating the Libyan Resistance by waging a near-genocidal campaign. On 20 June 1930, Badoglio wrote to General Graziani: "As for overall strategy, it is necessary to create a significant and clear separation between the controlled population and the rebel formations. I do not hide the significance and seriousness of this measure, which might be the ruin of the subdued population...
But now the course has been set, we must carry it out to the end if the entire population of Cyrenaica must perish". By 1931, well over half of the population of Cyrenaica were confined to 15 concentration camps where many died as result of overcrowding together with a lack of water and medicine while Badoglio had the Air Force use chemical warfare against the Bedouin rebels in the desert. On 24 January 1932, Badoglio proclaimed the end of Libyan resistance for the first time since the Italian invasion in 1911. On 3 October 1935, because the progress of De Bono's invasion of Abyssinia was judged to be too slow by Mussolini, who had in the meantime launched an epistolary campaign against Emilio de Bono, replaced de Bono as the commander. Badoglio asked for and was given permission to use chemical warfare, using as a pretext the torture and murder of downed Italian pilot Tito Minniti during the Ethiopian "Christmas Offensive"; the British historian Ian Kershaw wrote the "barbarous initiatives in the conduct of the war" in Ethiopia "came as a rule from the military elite rather than from Mussolini himself, through the Duce gave the orders for measures of gross inhumanity".
He employed mustard gas to destroy the Ethiopian armies confronting him on the northern front. Badoglio commanded the Italian invasion army at the First Battle of Tembien, the Battle of Amba Aradam, the Second Battle of Tembien, the Battle of Shire. On 31 March 1936, Badoglio defeated Emperor Haile Selassie commanding the last Ethiopian army on the northern front at the Battle of Maychew. On 26 April, with no Ethiopian resistance left between his forces and Addis Ababa, Badoglio launched his "March of the Iron Will" to take the Ethiopian capital city and end the war. By 2 May, Haile Selassie had fled the country. On 5 May 1936, Marshal Badoglio led the victorious Italian troops into Addis Ababa. Mussolini declared King Victor Emmanuel to be the Emperor of Ethiopia, Ethiopia became part of the Italian Empire. On this occasion, Badoglio was appointed the first Viceroy and Governor General of Ethiopia and ennobled with the victory title of Duke of Addis Abeba ad personam. On 11 June 1936, Rodolfo Graziani replaced Governor General of Ethiopia.
Badoglio returned to his duties as the Supreme Chief of the Italian General Staff. According to Time magazine, Badoglio joined the Fascist Party in early June. Badoglio was Chief of Staff from 1925 to 1940, it was he who had the final say on the entire structure of the Armed Forces, including doctrine, selection of officers, during that period, influencing the whole military environment. Badoglio was not in favour of the Italian-German Pact of Steel and was pessimistic about the chances of Italian success in any European war but he did not oppose the decision of Mussolini and the King to declare war on France and Great Britain. Following the Italian army's poor performance in the invasion of Greece in December 1940, he resigned from the General Staff. Badoglio was replaced by U
Trento is a city on the Adige River in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol in Italy. It is the capital of the autonomous province of Trento. In the 16th century, the city was the location of the Council of Trent. Part of Austria and Austria-Hungary, it was annexed by Italy in 1919. With 120,000 inhabitants, Trento is the third largest city in the Alps and second largest in the Tyrol. Trento is an educational, scientific and political centre in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, in Tyrol and Northern Italy in general; the University of Trento ranks 2nd among'medium sized' Universities in the Census ranking and 5th in the Il Sole 24 Ore ranking of Italian universities. The city contains a picturesque Medieval and Renaissance historic centre, with ancient buildings such as Trento Cathedral and the Castello del Buonconsiglio. Together with other Alpine towns Trento engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention to achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc.
Trento was awarded the title of Alpine Town of the Year 2004. The city ranks among Italian cities for quality of life, standard of living, business and job opportunities, being ranked 5th in 2017. Trento is one of the nation's wealthiest and most prosperous cities, with its province being one of the richest in Italy, although poorer than its neighbors Lombardy and South Tyrol, with a GDP per capita of €31,200 and a GDP of €16.563 billion. The township of Trento encompasses the city centre as well as many suburbs of varied geographical and population conditions. Various distinctive suburbs still retain their traditional identity of rural or mountain villages. Trento lies in a wide glacial valley known as the Adige valley, just south of the Dolomite Mountains, where the Fersina River and Avisio rivers join the Adige River. River Adige is one of the three primary south-flowing Alpine rivers; the valley is surrounded by mountains, including Vigolana, Monte Bondone, Paganella and Monte Calisio. Nearby lakes include Lake Levico, Lake Garda and Lake Toblino.
Frazioni, or subdivisions of Trento: In 2007, there were 112,637 people residing in Trento, of whom 48% were male and 52% were female. Minors totalled 18.01 percent of the population compared to pensioners. This compares with the Italian average of 19.94 percent. The average age of Trento residents is 41 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Trento grew by 5.72 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Trento is 9.61 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. As of 2006, 92.68% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries: 4.13%, North Africa: 1.08%, the Americas: 0.85%. Trento Informa reports that in 2011 there were 117,190 people residing in Trento, of whom 48.5% aged between 45 and 65. The average age was 43.1 years. 13,535 were foreigners. The origins of this city on the river track to Bolzano and the low Alpine passes of Brenner and the Reschen Pass over the Alps are disputed.
Some scholars maintain it was a Rhaetian settlement: the Adige area was however influenced by neighbouring populations, including the Veneti, the Etruscans and the Gauls. According to other theories, the latter did instead found the city during the 4th century BC. Trento was conquered by the Romans in the late 1st century BC, after several clashes with the Rhaetian tribes. Before the Romans, Trento was a Celtic village. In reality, the name derives from Trent, a tribute to the Celtic god of the waters; the Romans is a tribute to the Roman god Neptune. The Latin name is the source of the adjective "tridentine". On the old city hall, a Latin inscription is still visible: "Montes argentum mihi dant nomenque Tridentum", attributed to Fra' Bartolomeo da Trento. Tridentum became an important stop on the Roman road. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the independent bishopric of Trento was conquered by Ostrogoths, Byzantines and Franks becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1027, Emperor Conrad II created the Prince-Bishops of Trento, who wielded both temporal and religious powers.
In the following centuries, the sovereignty was divided between the Bishopric of Trent and the County of Tyrol. Around 1200, Trento became a mining center of some significance: silver was mined from the Monte Calisio - Khalisperg, Prince-Bishop Federico Wanga issued the first mining code of the alpine region. In the 14th century, the region of Trento was part of Austria; the dukes of Austria were the counts of Tyrol and dominated the region for six centuries. A dark episode in the history of Trento was the Trento blood libel; when a 3-year-old Christian boy, Simonino known