A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments. Ligaments join one bone to bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone for a proper functioning of the body. Histologically, tendons consist of dense regular connective tissue fascicles encased in dense irregular connective tissue sheaths. Normal healthy tendons are composed of parallel arrays of collagen fibers packed together, they are anchored to bone by Sharpey's fibres. The dry mass of normal tendons, which makes up about 30% of their total mass, is composed of about 86% collagen, 2% elastin, 1–5% proteoglycans, 0.2% inorganic components such as copper and calcium. The collagen portion is made up of 97–98% type I collagen, with small amounts of other types of collagen; these include type II collagen in the cartilaginous zones, type III collagen in the reticulin fibres of the vascular walls, type IX collagen, type IV collagen in the basement membranes of the capillaries, type V collagen in the vascular walls, type X collagen in the mineralized fibrocartilage near the interface with the bone.
Collagen fibres coalesce into macroaggregates. After secretion from the cell, the cleaved by procollagen N- and C-proteinases, the tropocollagen molecules spontaneously assemble into insoluble fibrils. A collagen molecule is about 300 nm long and 1–2 nm wide, the diameter of the fibrils that are formed can range from 50–500 nm. In tendons, the fibrils assemble further to form fascicles, which are about 10 mm in length with a diameter of 50–300 μm, into a tendon fibre with a diameter of 100–500 μm. Fascicles are bound by the endotendineum, a delicate loose connective tissue containing thin collagen fibrils. and elastic fibres. Groups of fascicles are bounded by the epitenon. Filling the interstitia within the fascia where the tendon is located is the paratenon a fatty areolar tissue; the collagen in tendons are held together with proteoglycan components including decorin and, in compressed regions of tendon, which are capable of binding to the collagen fibrils at specific locations. The proteoglycans are interwoven with the collagen fibrils – their glycosaminoglycan side chains have multiple interactions with the surface of the fibrils – showing that the proteoglycans are important structurally in the interconnection of the fibrils.
The major GAG components of the tendon are dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which associate with collagen and are involved in the fibril assembly process during tendon development. Dermatan sulfate is thought to be responsible for forming associations between fibrils, while chondroitin sulfate is thought to be more involved with occupying volume between the fibrils to keep them separated and help withstand deformation; the dermatan sulfate side chains of decorin aggregate in solution, this behavior can assist with the assembly of the collagen fibrils. When decorin molecules are bound to a collagen fibril, their dermatan sulfate chains may extend and associate with other dermatan sulfate chains on decorin, bound to separate fibrils, therefore creating interfibrillar bridges and causing parallel alignment of the fibrils; the tenocytes produce the collagen molecules, which aggregate end-to-end and side-to-side to produce collagen fibrils. Fibril bundles are organized to form fibres with the elongated tenocytes packed between them.
There is a three-dimensional network of cell processes associated with collagen in the tendon. The cells communicate with each other through gap junctions, this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond to mechanical loading. Blood vessels may be visualized within the endotendon running parallel to collagen fibres, with occasional branching transverse anastomoses; the internal tendon bulk is thought to contain no nerve fibres, but the epitenon and paratenon contain nerve endings, while Golgi tendon organs are present at the junction between tendon and muscle. Tendon length varies from person to person. Tendon length is, in practice, the deciding factor regarding potential muscle size. For example, all other relevant biological factors being equal, a man with a shorter tendons and a longer biceps muscle will have greater potential for muscle mass than a man with a longer tendon and a shorter muscle. Successful bodybuilders will have shorter tendons. Conversely, in sports requiring athletes to excel in actions such as running or jumping, it is beneficial to have longer than average Achilles tendon and a shorter calf muscle.
Tendon length is determined by genetic predisposition, has not been shown to either increase or decrease in response to environment, unlike muscles, which can be shortened by trauma, use imbalances and a lack of recovery and stretching. Traditionally, tendons have been considered to be a mechanism by which muscles connect to bone as well as muscles itself, functioning to transmit forces; this connection allows tendons to passively modulate forces during locomotion, providing additional stability with no active work. However, over the past two decades, much research focused on the elastic properties of some tendons and their ability to function as springs. Not all tendons are required to perform the same functional role, with some predominantly positioning limbs, such as the fingers when writing and others acting as springs to make locomotion more efficient. Energy storing tendons can recover energy at high efficiency. For example, during a human stride, the Achilles tendon stretches as the ankle joint dorsiflexes.
During the last portion of the stride, as the foot plantar-flexes (pointing the
A grappling position refers to the positioning and holds of combatants engaged in grappling. Combatants are said to be in a neutral position. If one party has a clear advantage such as in the mount they are said to be in a "dominant position". Conversely, the other party is considered to be in an inferior position, in that case sometimes called the "under mount". Called clinch position or standing grappling position, these are the core of clinch fighting. From a separated stand-up position, a clinch is the result of one or both fighters applying a clinch hold; the process of attempting to advance into more dominant clinch positions is known as pummelling. The major types of standing clinch are such as: Bear hug Collar-and-elbow position Double collar tie Double underhooks Pinch grip tie Clinch holdFighters may attempt to break from the clinch, either as the rule requires it as in boxing or because they wish to obtain a better position by moving out and re-engaging, If the clinch continues, fighters may attempt to strike, takedown or throw an opponent.
This may result in the start of ground grappling. Positioning is the foundation of ground fighting, if one combatant is controlling an opponent from a top position, such as if they are pinning the opponent to the ground that combatant is said to have the top position, while their opponent is said to have the bottom position. Top positions are dominant as fighters can use their weight to their advantage, but depending on the set of rules used, it can have notable exceptions such as the guard. A dominant ground position is easier to obtain for the person who initiated the throw or takedown, it may be possible for a fighter in a dominant position to score points or win by pinning their opponent, applying a Submission hold or striking. There is a rough hierarchy of major ground grappling positions from the most advantageous to the least for the "top" fighter: Rear mount Mount Knee-on-stomach Side control North-south position Turtle Half guard Disengaged* Guard*Fighters are disengaged if neither has a grip on the other they can use to restrict their movementA reversal from a dominant or top position is called a sweep, these are the aim of a fight in the bottom position, though there are some submissions that can be executed from the bottom, most from the guard.
While a position may be considered dominant in one sport, that may not be the case in another, for example, the closed guard in BJJ may be dominant in terms of submission, in mixed martial arts however, where striking is allowed, while the guard still offers submission opportunities and defence, the fighter on top can strike better than the one on the bottom so the position is usual viewed as neutral in MMA and Budo Moussaraa MMA. Wrestling is different again viewing guard as inferior due to the risk of being pinned. In an amateur wrestling match, the wrestlers are standing in a symmetrical position, with both wrestlers having a pinch grip tie on the other wrestler; the wrestlers are in a neutral position. Wrestler'A' pummels through to gain Double underhooks so gaining a dominant position. In a Brazilian jiu-jitsu match, grappler'C' is holding the other grappler'D' in an open guard; the open guard allows grappler'C' to attempt a multitude of submission holds, while grappler'D's priority is to advance in position, grappler'C' is in a dominant position with the top grappler is in an inferior position, as it is hard for'D' to attack before they improve their position.'D' used a Near knee guard pass getting one leg though to gain Half guard, a more dominant position where they can attack'C' and'C' will find submitting them more difficult In Budo Moussaraa MMA and a mixed martial arts bout, fighter'E' has a strong closed guard and is using it to help defend against punches, fighter'F' cannot strike with full effect, but is unlikely to be struck or submitted so they are in a neutral fighter'F' is swept and mounted by fighter'E' giving them a dominant position.
In Muay Thai, the stand-up clinch is utilized. However, its grappling attacks are limited to sweeps, as the clinch is used for setting up uppercuts and strikes from the knees and elbows; the primary clinch in this art is known as the Collar Tie. Grappling Grappling hold Ground fighting
In hand-to-hand combat, grappling is a close fighting technique used to gain a physical advantage such as improving relative position, or causing injury to the opponent. Grappling covers techniques used in many disciplines and martial arts that are practiced both as combat sports and for self-defense. Grappling most does not include striking or the use of weapons. However, some fighting styles or martial arts known for their grappling techniques teach tactics that include strikes and weapons either alongside grappling or combined with it. Grappling techniques can be broadly subdivided into Clinch fighting. Clinching, or clinch work, takes place with both competitors on their feet using various clinch holds applied to the upper body of the opponent. Clinch work is used to set up or defend against throws or takedowns. Takedowns A takedown is used by one grappler to manipulate his opponent from a position where both are standing, to a position on the ground; the grappler completing the takedown aims to end on top of the opponent in a position of relative control.
Throws: A throw is a technique in which one grappler lifts or off-balances his opponent and maneuvers him forcefully through the air or to the ground. The purpose of throws varies among the different disciplines of grappling with some emphasizing throws with the potential to incapacitate the opponent, while leaving the thrower standing, or to gain a takedown or controlling position. Sprawling: A sprawl is a defensive technique done when the opponent attempts a takedown, it is spread out in one fast motion. If done one will land on their opponent's back and gain control. Submission holds: There are two types of submission holds: those that would strangle or suffocate an opponent, those that would cause injury to a joint or other body part. In sport grappling, a competitor is expected to submit, either verbally or by tapping the opponent, to admit defeat when he is caught in a submission hold that he cannot escape. Competitors who refuse to "tap out" risk serious injury. Securing or Controlling Techniques: A pin involves holding an opponent on his back in a position where he is unable to attack.
In some styles of competitive grappling a pin is an instant victory, in other styles it is considered a dominant position, rewarded with points. Other controlling techniques are used to hold an opponent face down on the ground or on all fours in order to prevent an escape or attack. Either of these types of technique may be used as a prelude to a submission hold. Escapes: In a general sense, an escape is accomplished by maneuvering out of danger or from an inferior position. Turnovers: used to maneuver an opponent, on all fours or flat on their stomach to their back, in order to score points, prepare for a pin or in order to gain a more dominant position. Reversals or Sweeps: These occur when a grappler, underneath his opponent on the ground is able to maneuver so that he gains a top position over his opponent; the degree to which grappling is utilized in different fighting systems varies. Some systems, such as amateur wrestling, Pehlwani submission wrestling, judo and Brazilian jiu-jitsu are grappling arts and do not allow striking.
Many combat sports, such as shooto and mixed martial arts competitions use grappling while retaining striking as part of the sport Grappling is not allowed in some martial arts and combat sports for the sake of focusing on other aspects of combat such as punching, kicking or mêlée weapons. Opponents in these types of matches, still grapple with each other when fatigued or in pain. Examples of these include boxing, taekwondo and fencing. While prolonged grappling in Muay Thai will result in a separation of the competitors, the art extensively uses the clinch hold known as a double collar tie. Grappling techniques and defenses to grappling techniques are considered important in self-defense applications and in law enforcement; the most common grappling techniques taught for self-defense are escapes from holds and application of pain compliance techniques. Grappling can be trained for self-defense and mixed martial arts competition. Stand-up grappling is arguably an integral part of all grappling and clinch fighting arts, considering that two combatants start fighting from a stand-up position.
The aim of stand-up grappling varies according to the martial arts or combat sports in question. Defensive stand-up grappling concerns itself with pain-compliance holds and escapes from possible grappling holds applied by an opponent, while offensive grappling techniques include submission holds, trapping and throws, all of which can be used to inflict serious damage, or to move the fight to the ground. Stand-up grappling can be used both offensively and defensively with striking, either to trap an opponents arms while striking, prevent the opponent from obtaining sufficient distance to strike or to bring the opponent close to apply, for instance, knee strikes. In combat sports, stand-up grappling revolves around successful takedowns and throws. G
Shoot wrestling is a combat sport that has its origins in Japan's professional wrestling circuit of the 1970s. Professional wrestlers of that era attempted to use more realistic or "full contact" moves in their matches to increase their excitement; the name "shoot wrestling" comes from the professional wrestling term "shoot", which refers to any unscripted occurrence within a scripted wrestling event. Prior to the emergence of the current sport of shoot wrestling, the term was used in the professional wrestling business in the United Kingdom, as a synonym for the sport of catch wrestling. Shoot wrestling can be used to describe a range of hybrid fighting systems such as shootfighting, shoot boxing and the styles of mixed martial arts done in the Shooto, Pancrase and RINGS promotions. Shoot wrestling has been influenced by many martial arts, most influential of them being catch wrestling, but freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, sambo, Muay Thai and judo in the sport's stages. Karl Gotch is one of the most important figures in the development of shoot wrestling.
Karl Gotch would begin his journey into wrestling in the German and North American professional wrestling circuits, where Gotch found moderate success. It was, however, in his tours of Japan. Gotch was a student of the "Snake Pit" gym, run by the renowned catch wrestler Billy Riley of Wigan; the gym was the centre of learning submission wrestling as practiced in the mining town of Wigan, popularly known as catch-as-catch-can wrestling. It was here. Karl Gotch travelled to India to practice the wrestling form of Pehlwani. Gotch attained legendary status in Japan. In the 1970s he taught catch wrestling-based hooking and shooting to the likes of Antonio Inoki, Tatsumi Fujinami, Yoshiaki Fujiwara, Satoru Sayama, Masami Soranaka, Akira Maeda. Most of these professional wrestlers had backgrounds in legitimate martial arts. Masami Soranaka had been a student of full contact karate, kodokan judo, sumo. Yoshiaki Fujiwara was a Muay Thai fighter and black belt in judo. Satoru Sayama had studied Muay Thai with Toshio Fujiwara and went on to study sambo with Victor Koga.
This would lead to the added influences of karate, Muay Thai and judo to the wrestling style. One of Gotch's students, Antonio Inoki, hosted a series of mixed martial arts matches in which he pitted his "strong style professional wrestling" against other martial arts in an attempt to show that professional wrestling and shoot wrestling were the strongest fighting disciplines. Inoki would go on to teach these fighting techniques to a new generation of wrestlers in the dojo of his professional wrestling promotion, New Japan Pro Wrestling. On, many wrestlers became interested in promoting this more realistic style of professional wrestling and in 1984, the Universal Wrestling Federation was formed; the UWF was a professional wrestling organisation that promoted the shoot and strong styles of wrestling. While predetermined, the UWF featured effective and practical martial arts moves, which were applied with force; the organization would host some legitimate mixed martial arts fights, where the UWF wrestlers were able to test their shoot wrestling techniques against fighters with other martial art styles.
After the breakup of the original Universal Wrestling Federation, shoot wrestling branched into several disciplines. Each of the disciplines were strongly influenced by other martial arts. Shoot wrestling branched into several sub disciplines after the breakup of the original Universal Wrestling Federation; the main forms and revivals are listed below. Yoshiaki Fujiwara's students Masakatsu Funaki and Minoru Suzuki founded Pancrase, a mixed martial arts promotion. "Tiger Mask" Satoru Sayama founded Shooto, which added Muay Thai and Judo to the shoot wrestling arsenal. Kickboxer Caesar Takeshi founded Shoot boxing, a Stand-up fighting league allowing standing submissions and throws. Akira Maeda founded a defunct organization which emphasised submissions. Another Yoshiaki Fujiwara student, Bart Vale, developed Shootfighting. World-renowned gyms like the Lion's Den, Takada Dojo, the Shamrock Martial Arts Academy propagate the shoot wrestling-based style of martial arts. Dutch kickboxer and MMA legend Bas Rutten trained with shoot wrestler Masakatsu Funaki.
Junior National Korean Tae Kwon Do. During a brief tour of Japan promoting Korean Martial Arts, Masa Kin Jim became fascinated with the shoot wrestling martial art style. In 1998, he would go on to open one of the first shoot wrestling academies in South Korea. In 2004, shoot wrestling received official sport status in western Canada and was eligible for licensing; the first of many matches were held open to the public to build a foundation of awareness for the new sport. Pancrase Professional wrestling in Japan Shootfighting Shooto Catch: The Hold Not Taken. 2005. Scientific Wrestling. Website of the film'Catch - the hold not taken', which looks at the history of shoot wrestling Chan, Sam; the Japanese Pro-Wrestling: Reality Based Martial Art Connection. Bjj.org. URL last accessed January 7, 2006
Sambo (martial art)
Sambo is a Soviet martial art and combat sport. It originated in the Russian SFSR in Soviet Union; the word "SAMBO" is a portmanteau for samozashchita bez oruzhiya, which translates as "self-defence without weapons". Sambo is modern, since its development began in the early 1920s by the Soviet Red Army to improve their hand-to-hand combat abilities, it was intended to be a merger of the most effective techniques of other martial arts. The pioneers of sambo were Vasili Oshchepkov. Oshchepkov spent several years training in judo under its founder Kano Jigoro. Oshchepkov died in prison as a result of the Great Purge after being accused of being a Japanese spy. Spiridonov and Oshchepkov independently developed two different styles, which cross-pollinated and became what is known as sambo. Compared to Oshchepkov's system, called "Free wrestling" in Russia, Spiridonov's style was softer and less brutal, it was less strength-dependent, which in large part was due to injuries Spiridonov sustained during World War I.
Anatoly Kharlampiev, a student of Vasili Oshchepkov, is considered a founder of sambo. In 1938, it was recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee. There are multiple competitive sport variations of sambo. Below are the main formats that are recognized by FIAS. Sport Sambo is stylistically similar to old time Catch wrestling and Judo, but with some differences in rules and uniform. More akin to Catch wrestling, in contrast with judo, sambo allows various types of leg locks, while not allowing chokeholds, it focuses on throwing, ground work and submissions, with few restrictions on gripping and holds. Combat Sambo. Utilized and developed for the military, combat sambo resembles modern mixed martial arts, including extensive forms of striking and grappling. Combat sambo allows punches, elbows, knees and groin strikes. Competitors wear jackets as in sport sambo, but hand protection and sometimes shin and head protection; the first FIAS World Combat Sambo Championships were held in 2001.
The World Combat Sambo Federation, based in Russia sanctions international combat sambo events. Combat Sambo is designed to tackle certain tasks; the effectiveness of this martial art determined by its structure, namely by three components: Combat Sambo: BOXING + SAMBO + ADAPTERS Adapters of combat sambo were developed by the academician G. S. Popov; the task of adapters is to ensure the safe transition from middle distance to close one, as well as the consistent usage of sambo and boxing techniques. The given configuration provides the fusion of two types of martial arts into a single system. Sambo's early development stemmed from the independent efforts of Vasili Oshchepkov and Viktor Spiridonov to integrate the techniques of Catch wrestling, Judo and other foreign martial arts into native Turkic wrestling styles. Oschepkov taught judo to elite Red Army forces at the Central Red Army House. Vasili Oschepkov was one of the first foreigners to learn Judo in Japan and had earned his nidan from judo's founder, Kano Jigoro.
Spiridonov's background involved indigenous martial arts from various Soviet regions as well as an interest in Japanese jujutsu. His reliance on movement over strength was in part because during World War I he received a bayonet wound which left his left arm lame. Both Oschepkov and Spiridonov independently hoped that Soviet military hand-to-hand combat techniques could be improved with an infusion of the techniques distilled from other foreign martial arts. Contrary to common lore and Spiridonov did not cooperate on the development of their hand-to-hand systems. Rather, their independent notions of hand-to-hand combat merged through cross-training between students and formulative efforts by their students and military staff. While Oschepkov and Spiridonov did have occasion to collaborate, their efforts were not united; each technique was dissected and considered for its merits, if found acceptable in unarmed combat, refined to reach sambo's ultimate goal: to stop an armed or unarmed adversary in the least time possible.
Thus, many techniques from jujutsu and other martial systems joined with the indigenous fighting styles to form the sambo repertoire. When the techniques were perfected, they were woven into sambo applications for personal self-defense, crowd control, border guards, secret police, dignitary protection, psychiatric hospital staff and commandos. In 1918, Lenin created Vsevobuch under the leadership of N. I. Podvoyskiy to train the Red Army; the task of developing and organizing Red Army military hand-to-hand combat training fell to K. Voroshilov, who in turn, created the NKVD physical training center, Dynamo Sports Society. Spiridonov was a combat veteran of World War I and one of the first wrestling and self-defense instructors hired for Dynamo, his background included Free wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, many Turkic folk wrestling styles, Japanese jujutsu. As a combatives investigator for Dynamo, he traveled to Mongolia and China to observe their native fighting styles. In 1923, Oschepkov and Spiridinov collaborated with a team of other experts on a grant from the Soviet government to improve the Red Army's hand-to-hand combat system.
Spiridonov had envisioned integrating the m
A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum. A lever is a rigid body capable of rotating on a point on itself. On the basis of the location of fulcrum and effort, the lever is divided into three types, it is one of the six simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists. A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force, said to provide leverage; the ratio of the output force to the input force is the mechanical advantage of the lever. The word "lever" entered English about 1300 from Old French; this sprang from the stem of the verb lever, meaning "to raise". The verb, in turn, goes back to the Latin levare, itself from the adjective levis, meaning "light"; the word's primary origin is the Proto-Indo-European stem legwh-, meaning "light", "easy" or "nimble", among other things. The PIE stem gave rise to the English word "light"; the earliest remaining writings regarding levers date from the 3rd century BCE and were provided by Archimedes.'Give me a lever long enough and a fulcrum on which to place it, I shall move the world.'
It is assumed that in ancient Egypt, workmen used the lever to move and uplift obelisks weighing more than 100 tons. A lever is a beam connected to ground by a pivot, called a fulcrum; the ideal lever does not dissipate or store energy, which means there is no friction in the hinge or bending in the beam. In this case, the power into the lever equals the power out, the ratio of output to input force is given by the ratio of the distances from the fulcrum to the points of application of these forces; this is known as the law of the lever. The mechanical advantage of a lever can be determined by considering the balance of moments or torque, T, about the fulcrum. T 1 = F 1 a, T 2 = F 2 b where F1 is the input force to the lever and F2 is the output force; the distances a and b are the perpendicular distances between the fulcrum. Since the moments of torque must be balanced, T 1 = T 2. So, F 1 a = F 2 b; the mechanical advantage of the lever is the ratio of output force to input force, M A = F 2 F 1 = a b.
This relationship shows that the mechanical advantage can be computed from ratio of the distances from the fulcrum to where the input and output forces are applied to the lever, assuming no losses due to friction, flexibility or wear. This remains true though the horizontal distance of both a and b change as the lever changes to any position away from the horizontal. Levers are classified by the relative positions of the fulcrum and resistance, it is common to call the input force the output force the load or the resistance. This allows the identification of three classes of levers by the relative locations of the fulcrum, the resistance and the effort: Class 1: Fulcrum in the middle: the effort is applied on one side of the fulcrum and the resistance on the other side, for example, a seesaw, a crowbar or a pair of scissors. Mechanical advantage may be greater than, less than, or equal to 1. Class 2: Resistance in the middle: the effort is applied on one side of the resistance and the fulcrum is located on the other side, for example, a wheelbarrow, a nutcracker, a bottle opener or the brake pedal of a car.
Load arm is smaller than the effort arm. Mechanical advantage is always greater than 1, it is called force multiplier lever. Class 3: Effort in the middle: the resistance is on one side of the effort and the fulcrum is located on the other side, for example, a pair of tweezers, a hammer, or the jaw; the effort arm is smaller than the load arm. Mechanical advantage is always less than 1, it is called speed multiplier lever. These cases are described by the mnemonic fre 123 where the fulcrum is in the middle for the 1st class lever, the resistance is in the middle for the 2nd class lever, the effort is in the middle for the 3rd class lever; the lever is a movable bar. The lever operates by applying forces at different distances from a pivot. Assuming the lever does not dissipate or store energy, the power into the lever must equal the power out of the lever; as the lever rotates around the fulcrum, points farther from this pivot move faster than points closer to the pivot. Therefore, a force applied to a point farther from the pivot must be less than the force located at a point closer in, because power is the product of force and velocity.
If a and b are distances from the fulcrum to points A and B and the force FA applied to A is the input and the force FB applied at B is the output, the ratio of the velocities of points A and B is given by a/b, so we have the ratio of the output force to the input force, or mechanical advantage, is given by M A = F B F A = a b. This is the law of the lever, proven by Archimedes using geometric reasoning, it shows that if the distance a from the fulcrum to w
Self-defense is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many jurisdictions. Physical self-defense is the use of physical force to counter an immediate threat of violence; such force can be either unarmed. In either case, the chances of success depend on a large number of parameters, related to the severity of the threat on one hand, but on the mental and physical preparedness of the defender. Many styles of martial arts include self-defense techniques; some styles train for self-defense, while other martial or combat sports can be applied for self-defense. Some martial arts train how to escape from a knife or gun situation, or how to break away from a punch, while others train how to attack. To provide more practical self-defense, many modern martial arts schools now use a combination of martial arts styles and techniques, will customize self-defense training to suit individual participants.
A wide variety of weapons can be used for self-defense. The most suitable depends on the threat presented, the victim or victims, the experience of the defender. Legal restrictions greatly influence self-defence options. In many cases there are legal restrictions. While in some jurisdictions firearms may be carried or concealed expressly for this purpose, many jurisdictions have tight restrictions on who can own firearms, what types they can own. Knives those categorized as switchblades may be controlled, as may batons, pepper spray and personal stun guns and Tasers - although some may be legal to carry with a license or for certain professions. Non-injurious water-based self-defense indelible dye-marker sprays, or ID-marker or DNA-marker sprays linking a suspect to a crime scene, would in most places be legal to own and carry. Everyday objects, such as flashlights, baseball bats, keyrings with keys, kitchen utensils and other tools, hair spray aerosol cans in combination with a lighter, can be used as improvised weapons for self-defense.
Tie-wraps double as an effective restraint. Weapons such as the Kubotan have been built for ease of to resemble everyday objects. Ballpoint pen knives, cane guns and modified umbrellas are similar categories of concealed self-defense weapons that serve a dual purpose. Being aware of and avoiding dangerous situations is one useful technique of self-defense. Attackers will select victims they feel they have an advantage against, such as greater physical size, numerical superiority or sobriety versus intoxication. Additionally, any ambush situation inherently puts the defender at a large initiative disadvantage; these factors make fighting to defeat an attacker unlikely to succeed. When avoidance is impossible, one has a better chance at fighting to escape, such methods have been referred to as'break away' techniques. Understanding the'mindset' of a potential attacker is essential if we are to avoid or escape a life-threatening situation. Verbal Self Defense known as Verbal Judo or Verbal Aikido, is defined as using one's words to prevent, de-escalate, or end an attempted assault.
This kind of'conflict management' is the use of voice and body language to calm a violent situation before violence ensues. This involves techniques such as deflecting the conversation to individuals who are less passionately involved, or entering into a protected empathetic position to understand the attacker better. Lowering an attacker's defense and raising their ego is one way to de-escalate a violent situation. Personal alarms are a way to practice passive self-defense. A personal alarm is a small, hand-held device that emits strong, high-pitched sounds to deter attackers because the noise will sometimes draw the attention of passersby. Child alarms can function as locators or device alarms such as for triggering an alert when a swimming pool is in use to help prevent dangerous situations in addition to being a deterrent against would-be aggressors. Self-defense techniques and recommended behavior under the threat of violence is systematically taught in self-defense classes. Commercial self-defense education is part of the martial arts industry in the wider sense, many martial arts instructors give self-defense classes.
While all martial arts training can be argued to have some self-defense applications, self-defense courses are marketed explicitly as being oriented towards effectiveness and optimized towards situations as they occur in the real world. There are a large number of systems taught commercially, many tailored to the needs of specific target audiences. Notable systems taught commercially include: civilian versions of modern military combatives, such as Krav-Maga, Defendo and Systema Jujutsu and arts derived from it, such as Aikijujutsu, Bartitsu, German ju-jutsu, Kodokan Goshin Jutsu. Model Mugging Traditional unarmed fighting styles like Karate, Kung fu, Pencak Silat, etc; these styles can include competing. Traditional armed fighting styles like Kali Eskrima and Arnis; these include competing, as well as unarmed combat. Street Fighting oriented, unarmed systems, such as. A course in self defense will compr