Armored cruiser

The armored cruiser was a type of warship of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was designed like other types of cruisers to operate as a long-range, independent warship, capable of defeating any ship apart from a battleship and fast enough to outrun any battleship it encountered. Varying in size, it was distinguished from other types of cruiser by its belt armor—thick iron plating on much of the hull to protect the ship from shellfire much like that on battleships; the first armored cruiser, the Imperial Russian Navy's General-Admiral, was launched in 1873 and combined sail and steam propulsion. By the 1890s cruisers took on a modern appearance. For many decades naval technology had not advanced far enough for designers to produce a cruiser which combined an armored belt with the long range and high speed required to fulfill its mission, it was possible to build cruisers which were faster and better all-round using this type of ship, which relied on a lighter armored deck to protect the vital parts of the ship.

The invention of face-hardened armor in the mid-1890s offered effective protection with less weight than previously. In 1908 the armored cruiser was supplanted by the battlecruiser which, with armament equivalent to that of a dreadnought battleship and steam turbine engines, was faster and more powerful than armored cruisers. At around the same time, the term "light cruiser" came into use for small cruisers with armored belts. Despite the fact they were now considered second-rate ships, armored cruisers were used in World War I. Most surviving armored cruisers from this conflict were scrapped under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, which imposed limits on warships and defined a cruiser as a ship of 10,000 tons or less carrying guns of 8-inch caliber or less—rather smaller than many of the large armored cruisers. A handful survived in one form or another until World War II. Only one, the Greek Navy's Georgios Averof, survived to the modern day as a museum ship; the armored cruiser was developed in the 1870s as an attempt to combine the virtues of the armored ironclad warship and the fast and long-ranged, but unarmored, cruisers of the time.

Such a ship was desirable to protect overseas trade and for the French and British, to police their vast overseas empires. The concern within higher naval circles was that without ships that could fulfill these requirements and incorporate new technology, their fleet would become obsolete and ineffective should a war at sea arise. Concern over obsolescence in official circles was further fueled by the race between the increasing size of naval guns and of armor strong enough to withstand such fire. In 1860, one of the largest naval cannons in standard use had a bore of 8 inches and fired a 68-pound solid shot or 51 pound spherical shell. By 1884, guns with as wide a bore as 16.25 inches, firing an 1,800-pound exploding shell, were being mounted on naval vessels. This gun could penetrate up to 34 inches of the earliest form of naval armor; these were muzzle-loading guns. Breech-loading cannon, which were readopted into naval use in the 1870s, were more destructive than muzzle loaders due to their higher rate of fire.

The development of rifled cannon, which improved accuracy, advancements in shells were other factors. Although a cruiser would not face the largest-caliber guns of a battleship and many navies used smaller weapons as they did not wear out as fast as larger ones did, cruisers still needed some form of protection to preclude being shot to pieces; the adoption of rolled iron armor in 1865 and sandwich armor in 1870 gave ships a chance to withstand fire from larger guns. Both these protective schemes used wood as an important component, which made them heavy and limited speed, the key factor in a cruiser's ability to perform its duties satisfactorily. While the first ocean-going ironclads had been launched around 1860, the "station ironclads" built for long-range colonial service such as the British Audacious class and French Belliqueuse were too slow, at 13 and 11 knots to raid enemy commerce or hunt down enemy commerce raiders, tasks assigned to frigates or corvettes. Powered by both sail and steam but without the additional weight of armor, these ships could reach speeds of up to 16 or 17 knots.

The most powerful among them were the British Inconstant, the U. S. Navy's the French Duquesne; the British had hoped to rely on these vessels to serve the more distant reaches of its empire. In the aftermath of the Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, where United States wooden warships were defeated by the Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia, the Admiralty realized that its ships could theoretically encounter an ironclad in any theater of operation. Ship propulsion was improving but was taking time to develop. Naval engines in the 1860s were single-expansion types, in which steam was expanded into a cylinder, pushed a piston and was released. Compounding, where steam is passed through a series of cylinders of increasing size before being released, was a more efficient process. With greater efficiency came complex machinery and the larger potential for breakdown. However, advances in metallurgy and engineering, the potential for smaller bunkerage and the successful use of compounding in commercial engines made it an attractive option for naval eng

Frederic Allsopp

The Hon. Frederic Allsopp was an English first-class cricketer who played for Marylebone Cricket Club in 1884. Allsopp was born at Hindlip Hall, the son of the brewer Henry Allsopp, 1st Baron Hindlip, he was educated at Cheltenham College. In 1884 he played two first-class cricket matches for Marylebone Cricket Club His highest score of 34 came when playing for Marylebone Cricket Club in the match against Derbyshire County Cricket Club, his best bowling of 1/8 came in the same match. He was a member of I Zingari and in 1911 he played two games for Worcestershire second XI which were both against Warwickshire second XI. Allsopp died at Hadzor House, Worcestershire at the age of 71, his brother Herbert Allsopp played first-class cricket. Cricket Archive Profile

Kirsty Hawkshaw

Kirsty Hawkshaw is an English electronic music vocalist and songwriter. In addition to her work as a solo artist, she is known as the lead vocalist of early 1990s dance group Opus III, her collaborative work with other musicians and producers. Kirsty Hawkshaw is the daughter of the British production music/film music composer and disco record producer Alan Hawkshaw who composed the theme to the Channel 4 weekday afternoon game show Countdown in the early 1980s, her mother is German-born Christiane Bieberbach. At a rave in 1990, she was noticed by producers Ian Munro, Kevin Dodds and Nigel Walton, who at the time were known as A. S. K. an offshoot of The Spiral Tribe, who at the time was signed to MCA Records UK and had released a single called "Dream", when she was invited to appear on stage as their dancer. It was through this meeting that they would form a dance act called Opus III, their first single, a cover version of the song "It's a Fine Day" from their debut album Mind Fruit, was an international success and Top 10 hit on UK Singles Chart, reached No. 1 on the US Billboard Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart in 1992.

A reversed sample of Hawkshaw's singing from this track was used in the Orbital track "Halcyon", the music video for which featured Hawkshaw. Opus III had another US number 1 hit on the same chart in 1994 with "When You Made the Mountain", from their second and final album, Guru Mother. In a 2009 interview, she recalled her decision to end her association with Opus III, saying she felt that she did not want to be part of a "commercialized" act, wanted to go in a different direction, felt that she did not have sufficient input in writing and production, which led to conflict with the rest of the band, she has been critical of the dance music industry more broadly performers lip synching other people's songs, using original artists' vocals without permission or credit. After the group broke up in 1994, Hawkshaw pursued a solo career and since has been in demand by other acts in the dance, Eurodance and electronica community, including Tiësto, Delerium, BT, Fragma and Paradox, among others, her solo single "Fine Day" peaked at number 62 in the UK Singles Chart in November 2002.

Hawkshaw contributed a track titled "Telephone Song" to the children's compilation album For the Kids Too!, released in 2004. On 10 October 2005, she released Meta-Message, a collection of older and newer songs, after a growing interest in her out-of-print album, O. U. T; the record label Magnatune released her ambient album, The Ice Castle, in 2008. Official website Shop - Kirsty Hawkshaw at the Wayback Machine Interview from 2005 by Progressive Sounds Interview from 2013 by TranceFixxed