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Armoured fighting vehicle

An armored fighting vehicle is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities. AFVs can be tracked. Main battle tanks, armoured cars, armoured self-propelled guns, armoured personnel carriers are all examples of AFVs. Armoured fighting vehicles are classified according to their intended role on the battlefield and characteristics; the classifications are not absolute. For example lightly armed armoured personnel carriers were superseded by infantry fighting vehicles with much heavier armament in a similar role. Successful designs are adapted to a wide variety of applications. For example, the MOWAG Piranha designed as an APC, has been adapted to fill numerous roles such as a mortar carrier, infantry fighting vehicle, assault gun; the concept of a mobile and protected fighting unit has been around for centuries. Armoured fighting vehicles were not possible until internal combustion engines of sufficient power became available at the start of the 20th century.

Modern armoured fighting vehicles represent the realization of an ancient concept - that of providing troops with mobile protection and firepower. Armies have deployed war cavalries with rudimentary armour in battle for millennia. Use of these animals and engineering designs sought to achieve a balance between the conflicting paradoxical needs of mobility and protection. Siege engines, such as battering rams and siege towers, would be armoured in order to protect their crews from enemy action. Polyidus of Thessaly developed a large movable siege tower, the helepolis, as early as 340 BC, Greek forces used such structures in the Siege of Rhodes; the idea of a protected fighting vehicle has been known since antiquity. Cited is Leonardo da Vinci's 15th-century sketch of a mobile, protected gun-platform; the machine was to be mounted on four wheels which would be turned by the crew through a system of hand cranks and cage gears. Leonardo claimed: "I will build armored wagons which will be invulnerable to enemy attacks.

There will be no obstacle which it cannot overcome." Modern replicas have demonstrated that the human crew would have been able to move it over only short distances. Hussite forces in Bohemia developed war wagons - medieval weapon-platforms - around 1420 during the Hussite Wars; these heavy wagons were given protective sides with firing slits. Heavy arquebuses mounted on wagons were called arquebus à croc; these carried a ball of about 3.5 ounces. The first modern AFVs were armed cars, dating back to the invention of the motor car; the British inventor F. R. Simms designed and built the Motor Scout in 1898, it was the first armed, petrol-engine powered vehicle built. It consisted of a De Dion-Bouton quadricycle with a Maxim machine gun mounted on the front bar. An iron shield offered some protection for the driver from the front, but it lacked all-around protective armour; the armoured car was the first modern armoured fighting vehicle. The first of these was the Simms' Motor War Car, designed by Simms and built by Vickers, Sons & Maxim in 1899.

The vehicle had Vickers armour 6 mm thick and was powered by a four-cylinder 3.3-litre 16 hp Cannstatt Daimler engine giving it a maximum speed of around 9 miles per hour. The armament, consisting of two Maxim guns, was carried in two turrets with 360° traverse. Another early armoured car of the period was the French Charron, Girardot et Voigt 1902, presented at the Salon de l'Automobile et du cycle in Brussels, on 8 March 1902; the vehicle was equipped with a Hotchkiss machine gun, with 7 mm armour for the gunner. Armoured cars were first used in large numbers on both sides during World War I as scouting vehicles. In 1903, H. G. Wells published the short story "The Land Ironclads," positing indomitable war machines that would bring a new age of land warfare, the way steam-powered ironclad warships had ended the age of sail. Wells' literary vision was realized in 1916, amidst the pyrrhic standstill of the Great War, the British Landships Committee, deployed revolutionary armoured vehicles to break the stalemate.

The tank was envisioned as an armoured machine that could cross ground under fire from machine guns and reply with its own mounted machine guns and cannons. These first British heavy tanks of World War I moved on caterpillar tracks that had lower ground pressure than wheeled vehicles, enabling them to pass the muddy, pocked terrain and slit trenches of the Battle of the Somme; the tank proved successful and, as technology improved. It became a weapon that could cross large distances at much higher speeds than supporting infantry and artillery; the need to provide the units that would fight alongside the tank led to the development of a wide range of specialised AFVs during the Second World War. The Armoured personnel carrier, designed to transport infantry troops to the frontline, emerged towards the end of World War I. During the first actions with tanks, it had become clear that close contact with infantry was essential in order to secure ground won by the tanks. Troops on foot were vulnerable to enemy fire, but they could not be transported in the

Pottery in Azerbaijan

Pottery is one of the most ancient handicrafts in Azerbaijan. Pottery is one of the oldest areas of handicraft in Azerbaijan; this art appeared in the Neolithic Age. In ancient times women dominated this craft. In the Eneolite Age this became an independent art as a result of technical advances; the Ethnography of Azerbaijan encyclopedia shows that pottery development accelerated from the end of the Middle Ages. The invention of foot-powered wheels increased the number of kinds of pottery products and the establishment of pottery centers. Demand for pottery products created favorable conditions for earthen ware products; these products spread across Azerbaijan. Unglazed and glazed products were both made. At the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century, the use of domestic ceramics was more developed. Potters were many clay products for use as water vessels, etc. Domestic pottery products were divided into several groups according to their usage. Water vessels pitchers, jugs, doliums and mugs.

Other earthenware products were used for performing wudu. During the Nakhchevan Khanate the workshop belonging to Ehsan Khan of Nakhchivan produced earthenware pitchers. Earthenware products were produced in Shamakhi, Tabriz and other cities. Clay dishes were produced in several villages of Sheki Khanate in Nukha. Pottery was developed in Baku; the outskirts of the city were rich with clay. Bowls and other artifacts from the seventeenth century were found there. Pottery production in Karabakh reached a high level after the Early Middle Ages. Earthenware products in those times were much more developed in comparison with earlier or work in terms of production mechanisms and decorative elements. Ceramic water pipes and decorative bricks began in that period. Mongol invasions caused heavy damage to pottery production along with other fields of handicrafts in Karabakh and in Azerbaijan as a whole. In modern times the pottery has three many lines: production of construction bricks. Pottery patterns are different in size, shape and technologies.

Types include Boralı ceramics, glossy ceramics, glazed ceramics, Basma-nakhıshlı ceramics and adhesion patterned ceramics. The different types were put to different applications: Pottery without glaze - cubes, cakes, aftershocks, milk containers, lamps, hookahs. Pottery with glaze - drum, vase, safe. In general, the glazed dishes in Karabakh were cooked in two stages: first they cook the product in the ordinary way and take them out fire made it with glaze, pushed back to cook. Construction materials - The glazed materials and ceramic mosaic were used during the construction of the Karabakh palace and baths. Pottery in Sri lanka Ancient Roman pottery

1932 United States presidential election in Maine

The 1932 United States presidential election in Maine took place on November 8, 1932, as part of the 1932 United States presidential election, held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose five representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Maine voted for the Republican nominee, incumbent President Herbert Hoover of California, over the Democratic nominee, Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York. Hoover's running mate was incumbent Vice President Charles Curtis of Kansas, while Roosevelt ran with incumbent Speaker of the House John Nance Garner of Texas. Hoover won Maine by a margin of 12.64%, with 55.83% of the popular vote, it would be his second strongest state in the nation after nearby Vermont. The state was one of only six states, four of them in New England, which voted to re-elect the embattled Republican incumbent Hoover, unpopular over his failure to adequately address the Great Depression. Maine would be one of the only two states in the nation to not vote for Roosevelt in all of his four election campaigns


Pharantzem known as P’arhanjem. She was regent of Armenia during the absence of her spouse and son in 368-370, are famous for her defense of the fortress of Artogerassa against Persia. Pharantzem was from the Syunik Province in Armenia, she was the daughter of Andovk known as Andok or Antiochus who served as a Naxarar of the Siunia Dynasty in the Syunik Province. Through her father, Pharantzem was a descendant of Sisak, her paternal uncle Valinak Siak c.330, was the first known Naxarar of the Siunia Dynasty in the Syunik Province, while Valinak's successor and brother, Pharantzem's father, Andovk served as the Naxarar of Syunik in c.340. Pharantzem's mother was an unnamed noblewoman from the Mamikonian family and she had at least one known sibling, a brother called Babik who served as a Naxarar of Syunik in 379. Little is known on her early life. Pharantzem was well known for her beauty and modesty. Pharantzem in 359 married the Arsacid Prince Gnel. Gnel was the son of the Arsacid Prince Tiridates whose brother was Arsaces II who ruled as Roman Client King of Armenia from 350 until 368.

During the reign of Arsaces II, Gnel was a popular prince in Armenia and could have been seen as a potential successor to his uncle. Pharantzem's reputation for her beauty had become renown and widespread to the point as Gnel's paternal cousin Tirit had become passionately in love with her and desired her to be his wife. Finding a way to plot against his cousin Gnel, Tirit approached their uncle Arsaces II and said to him: “Gnel wants to rule, to kill you. All the grandees, the Naxarars and the Azats like Gnel and all the Naxarars of the land prefer his lordship over them than yours. Now they say, ‘look and see what you do, king, so that you can save yourself”. Believing the words of Tirit, Arsaces II did confirm the statements of Tirit. Arsaces II from until Gnel's death had a grudge against Gnel which he had tried to persecute and plot treachery against him for a long time. From that moment Gnel was on the run with Pharantzem from Arsaces II. Arsaces II did kill Gnel around the time of the festival of Nawasard as his falsely lured his nephew and Pharantzem into Shahapivan a native camping place of the Arsacids, below a walled hunting preserve based on a lie that Arsaces II wanted to reconcile with Gnel.

When Gnel was captured by Arsaces II's soldiers he was taken to a nearby hill of the mountain called Lsin where he was executed. After the death and burial of Gnel, Arsaces II issued an order to mourn the death of his nephew which Arsaces II weep and mourn for Gnel while Pharantzem mourned so much for Gnel she tore off her clothes, was screaming and cried so much. Now Tirit had got rid of his cousin, he was unable to control his lust for Pharantzem. Tirit had sent his messenger to Pharantzem a note reading: “Do not mourn so much, for I am a better man that he was. I loved you and therefore betrayed him to death, so that I could take you in marriage”. In her mourning Pharantzem, raised a protest, pulling out her hair and screaming as she mourned that her husband died because of her; when the Armenians in particular Arsaces II heard the cries of Pharantzem, Arsaces II began to realise the plotting of Tirit and the senseless death of Gnel. Arsaces II was stunned in what had regretted in killing Gnel.

For a while Arsaces II, didn't do anything to Tirit. Tirit had sent a message to Arsaces II stating, “King, I want you to order that I be allowed to marry Gnel’s wife”; as Arsaces II heard this he said: "Now I know for sure. Gnel’s death occurred for his wife”. Arsaces II planned to kill Tirit in return for Gnel's murder; when Tirit heard this, he was in so much fear for Arsaces II. Arsaces II was informed that Tirit had ordered his soldiers to find Tirit and kill him, his soldiers killed him there. After the death of Tirit, Arsaces II married Pharantzem. Pharantzem married Arsaces II as her second husband. At the same time as Arsaces II had Pharantzem as his wife, he had another wife, a Greek Cretan noblewoman woman called Olympia known as Olympias whom he married before marrying Pharantzem. Olympia the Roman wife of Arsaces II, was given to him as an imperial bride from the Roman emperor Constantius II as Arsaces II was favored by the emperor, who considered him as an ally to Rome. Although the Romans considered Olympia as the legitimate wife of Arsaces II, he loved Pharantzem to a degree but Pharantzem loathed Arsaces II saying, “Physically, he is hairy, his color is dark”.

Arsaces II loved Olympia more than Pharantzem. Through marriage to Arsaces II, Pharantzem became an Armenian Queen consort and a powerful and influential woman in Armenian society. Sometime after her marriage to Arsaces II, Pharantzem fell pregnant. In 360 Pharantzem bore Arsaces II a son, whom they named Papas. Papas was the only known child born to Pharantzem and the only known child born to Arsaces II during his Armenian Kingship. Pharantzem was a stepmother to Anob, as Anob was the first son of Arsaces II born to him from a previous union prior to his Kingship of Armenia; as Arsaces II in Persian fashion had more than one wife Pharantzem had a grudge and had a great envy against Olympia. After the birth of her son, Pharantzem plotted to kill Olympia through poison. Pharantzem had arranged for Olympia to be poisoned in 361 administered to her in the Holy Sacrament of communion by a priest fr

Phenomena (band)

Phenomena is a rock music concept formed by record producer Tom Galley and his brother, Whitesnake guitarist Mel Galley. During the recording of Phenomena I, they were joined by Metalhammer founder Wilfried Rimensberger. Contributors were leading rock musicians such as Glenn Hughes, Brian May, John Wetton, amongst others. In a cover story run by Kerrang! magazine in 1985, Phenomena's production of rock songs based on a story line running through a whole album, attached to artworks and other multi-media aspects, was credited for the "return of the concept album" in the 1980s. Phenomena released three albums in the 1980s and early 1990s, had a number one hit single in South America with "Did It All For Love", while the album charted in Europe and Brazil. In 1993, Tom Galley sold his rights to the recordings and the brand concept to former Wishbone Ash member Merv Spence of Parachute Music Ltd, releasing Phenomena 3, with Spence singing and playing bass, under the name Inner Vision. In 2017, the rights to the recordings of the Phenomena trilogy of albums were obtained by Daniel Earnshaw of Explore Rights Management Ltd.

"Phenomena II Did It All For Love" Phenomena - UK #63 Phenomena II: Dream Runner Phenomena III: Inner Vision Psycho Fantasy Blind Faith Awakening Phenomena Project X 1985–1996 The Complete Works Phenomena Anthology Official website

Jarhead (book)

Jarhead is a 2003 Gulf War memoir by author and former U. S. Marine Anthony Swofford. After leaving military service, the author went on to college and earned a double master's degree in Fine Arts at the University of Iowa. Jarhead recounts Swofford's enlistment and service in the United States Marine Corps during the Persian Gulf War, in which he served as a Scout Sniper Trainee with the Surveillance and Target Acquisition Platoon of 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines. Like most of the troops stationed in the Middle East during the Gulf War, Swofford saw little actual combat. Swofford's narrative focuses on the physical and emotional struggles of the young Marines. One of the through lines of his first-person account involves the challenge of balancing the art and science and mind-set of the warrior with one's own basic sense of humanity. Swofford admits to a sense of disappointment and emptiness that comes in the wake of being cheated of any real combat experience by a war that, for many American Marines at least, has ended all too after enduring many months of grinding, anticlimactic suspense.

And yet there have been the numerous encounters with poignant, eerie tableaux of dead Iraqi soldiers who'd been killed so where they sat so as to appear to have been deliberately posed, like store-display mannequins, in their final moments of life. The novel was adapted into a 2005 feature film starring Jake Gyllenhaal, Jamie Foxx, Peter Sarsgaard; the screenplay was directed by Sam Mendes. Reviews were positive. Jarhead 2: Field of Fire is the sequel to the 2005 film, followed by Jarhead 3: The Siege