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Armoured personnel carrier

An armoured personnel carrier is a broad type of armoured, military vehicles designed to transport personnel and equipment in combat zones. They are sometimes referred to colloquially as "battle taxis" or "battle buses". Since World War I, APCs have become a common piece of military equipment around the world. According to the definition in the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, an APC is "an armoured combat vehicle, designed and equipped to transport a combat infantry squad and which, as a rule, is armed with an integral or organic weapon of less than 20 millimetres calibre." Compared to infantry fighting vehicles, which are used to carry infantry into battle, APCs have less armament and are not designed to provide direct fire support in battle. The genesis of the armoured personnel carrier was on the Western Front of World War I. In the stage of the war, Allied tanks could break through enemy lines, but the infantry following—who were needed to consolidate the gains—still faced small arms and artillery fire.

Without infantry support, the tanks were isolated and more destroyed. In response, the British experimented with carrying machine-gun crews in the Mark V* tank, but it was found that the conditions inside the tanks rendered the men unfit for combat. Britain therefore designed the first purpose-built armoured troop transport, the Mark IX, but the war ended before it could be put to use. During World War II, half-tracks like the American German Sd. Kfz. 251 played a role similar to post-war APCs. British Commonwealth forces relied on the full-tracked Universal Carrier. Over the course of the war, APCs evolved from simple armoured cars with transport capacity to purpose-built vehicles. Obsolete armoured vehicles were repurposed as APCs, such as the various "Kangaroos" converted from M7 Priest self-propelled guns and from Churchill, M3 Stuart and Ram tanks. During the Cold War, more specialized APCs were developed; the United States introduced a series of them, including successors to the wartime Landing Vehicle Tracked.

Western nations have since retired most M113s, replacing them with newer APCs, many of these wheeled. The Soviet Union produced the BTR-152, BTR-60, BTR-70, BTR-80 in large numbers. Czechoslovakia and Poland together developed the universal amphibious OT-64 SKOT. A cold war example of a "Kangaroo" is the armoured Israeli Achzarit, converted from captured T-55s tanks. By convention, they are not intended to take part in direct-fire battle, but are armed for self-defence and armoured to provide protection from shrapnel and small arms fire. An APC is either wheeled or tracked, or a combination of the two, as in a half-track. Wheeled vehicles are faster on road and less expensive, however have higher ground pressure which decreases mobility offroad and makes them more to become stuck in soft terrains such as mud, snow or sand. Tracked vehicles have lower ground pressure and more maneuverability off road. Due to the limited service life of their treads, the wear they cause on roads, tracked vehicles are transported over long distances by rail or trucks.

Many APCs are amphibious. To move in water they will have propellers or water jets, or be propelled by their tracks. Preparing the APC to operate amphibiously comprises checking the integrity of the hull and folding down a trim vane in front. Water traverse speed varies between vehicles and is much less than ground speed; the maximum swim speed of the M113 is 3.6 mph, about 10% its road speed, the AAVP-7 can swim at 8.2 mph. Armoured personnel carriers are designed to protect against small arms and artillery fire; some designs have more protection. Armour is composed of steel or aluminium, they will use bulletproof glass. Many APCs are equipped with CBRN protection, intended to provide protection from weapons of mass destruction like poison gas and radioactive/nuclear weapons. APCs will be lighter and less armoured than tanks or IFVs being open topped and featuring doors and windows, as seen in the French VAB. Armoured personnel carriers are designed for transport and are armed, they may be unarmed, or armed with some combination of light, heavy machine guns, or automatic grenade launchers.

In Western nations, APCs are armed with the 50 calibre M2 Browning machine gun, 7.62mm FN MAG, or 40mm Mk 19 grenade launcher. In former Eastern bloc nations, the KPV, PKT and NSV machine guns are common options. In "open top" mounts the gunner sticks out of the vehicle and operates a gun on a pintle or ring mount. A ring mount allows the gun to traverse 360 degrees, a pintle mount, it can be preferable to an enclosed gunner because it allows a greater field of view and communication using shouts and hand signals. However, the gunner is poorly at risk of injury in the event of vehicle rollover. During the Vietnam War, M113 gunners suffered heavy casualties. Enclosed vehicles are equipped with turrets that allow the crew to operate the weapons system while protected by the vehicle's armour; the Soviet BTR-60 has an enclosed turret mounted with a KPV heavy machine gun with a PKT coaxial machine gun. The American AAVP machine gun in a enclosed turrets; the AAVP7 mounts a Mk 19 grenade launcher in a turret.

Turrets have optics which make them more accurate. More APCs have been equipped remote weapon systems; the baseline Stryker carries an M2 on a Protector remot

New Ross, Nova Scotia

New Ross is a community in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in the Chester Municipal District. Home of the Ross Farm Museum; the village is named after Henry Phipps, 1st Earl of Mulgrave, whose second title derives its name from New Ross, Ireland. New Ross was the end-point for construction of the Western segment of the Annapolis Road, intended to reach Halifax; however construction was never completed. After the War of 1812, the village of Sherbrooke and the Ross Farm was established by William Ross in 1816. William Ross was from Cork, Ireland. During the Napoleonic Wars, he became part of the British Army 16th Regiment of Foot and stationed in Fort Amsterdam, Surinam, his wife Mary accompanied him. They had their second child. During their return to Britain, they survived their ship being wrecked on the Tuskar Rock off the coast of Wexford, Ireland. William and Mary moved to Sunderland, where their son Edward Ross was born, the author of the diaries on which the museum is based. During the War of 1812, as a soldier in the 16th Regiment, William Ross and his family moved to British North America and were stationed at Fort Coteau-du-Lac, Quebec.

The Battle of the Chateauguay happened. His role in the battle is unknown. Lieutenant William Ross chose to transfer to the Nova Scotia Fencible Infantry while in Quebec. After the war, upon their return to Nova Scotia, the Ross family again survived the sinking of their ship off the coast of Green Island; the Fencibles were disbanded on 25 July 1816. Two weeks on 7 August 1816, William Ross led 172 former soldiers who were given land grants along the newly burned road between Chester and Kentville, Nova Scotia. Six years on 2 May 1822, William Ross died at the age of 39. Four months his wife Mary gave birth to their fourth child. William’s son Edward Ross kept a diary for most of his life; the Ross Farm Museum is based on the diaries Edward wrote when he was a young man age 22-28. During this time on the farm he sold produce from the local community in his store and made a trip by boat from Chester to Halifax every spring, he was a justice of the peace. At age 28, Edward left the community and married Marie three years at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia.

At age 52, Edward spent time in jail for not being able to pay his debts. Five years he went to Boston in search of work. While there, he heard, they returned to Nova Scotia until Marie died. Edward lived for twelve more years, his final three years were spent on Ross Farm, where he died in 1894 at the age of 81. Texts Deborah Trask; the Edward Ross Diaries. Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society, Vol.9, 2006. Pp. 33-53Endnotes New Ross & District Community Website

USS Wyman (DE-38)

USS Wyman was an Evarts-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy during World War II. She was promptly sent off into the Pacific Ocean to protect convoys and other ships from Japanese submarines and fighter aircraft, she performed dangerous work, including participating in the sinking of two Japanese submarines, sailed home proudly with six battle stars. She was laid down as BDE-38 on 7 September 1942 at Bremerton, Washington, by the Puget Sound Navy Yard for the Royal Navy. However, the ship's transfer to the United Kingdom was canceled; the destroyer escort was designated DE-38 on 16 June. Robert W. Copeland, USNR, in command. Following shakedown, Wyman departed Puget Sound on 7 November, bound for Hawaii, arrived at Pearl Harbor on the 14th. Assigned to duty with Submarines, Pacific Fleet, the destroyer escort operated out of Pearl Harbor on submarine exercises from 1 December 1943 through the spring of 1944. Detached from this duty on 22 June 1944, Wyman sailed for the Marshall Islands and began anti-submarine warfare operations in the American convoy routes between Eniwetok and Saipan.

Joining Task Group 12.2, based around Hoggatt Bay, Wyman departed Eniwetok on 5 July and headed for the ASW operating area. En route, she left her formation to investigate a submarine contact, developed and depth-charged by Lake. Wyman fired one barrage of depth charge bombs from her "hedgehog" but did not come up with evidence that she had either damaged or destroyed her enemy; the destroyer escort refueled from Guadalupe on the 11th. She remained in the area from 12 to 18 July before proceeding to investigate a surface radar contact at 0024 on the 19th; the destroyer escort closed the range until she lost radar contact at 0045 and switched to her sonar. Wyman picked up a strong metallic echo and, at 0051, fired a full pattern of "hedgehog" projectiles, with negative results, she reloaded, opened the range, closed for a second attack, as Reynolds closed in the meantime. At 0125, Wyman launched a second full pattern from her hedgehog - dead on the target. A series of violent explosions rocked the destroyer escort, as the depth bombs blew the submarine apart.

Wyman circled to starboard and passed through her own firing point in order to regain contact but picked up only a "mush" echo — indicative that her contact had been destroyed. Remaining on the scene of the action, Wyman lowered a motor whaleboat to recover oil samples from the water and to fish out debris. In the large, oil slick, men in the boat picked up two five-gallon oil cans, one small gasoline can, a piece of teak wood; as it was gathering this materiel, Wyman's motor whaler was strafed by two planes from Hoggatt Bay, whose pilots had mistaken the boat for a surfaced submarine. There were no fatalities, the injured men were soon transferred to Hoggatt Bay for medical treatment. Oil from the sunken submarine — identified by a post-war examination of Japanese records as RO-48 — continued to bubble up in copious quantities into the next day. Satisfied that the kill was definite, Wyman arrived at Eniwetok on 22 July, her respite was short, for she again got underway on 26 July. Two days at 1733, lookouts in Hoggatt Bay and Wyman spotted the Japanese submarine I-55 running on the surface.

Wyman and Reynolds charged. Wyman picked up the fleeing I-boat by sonar at 1805. Eight minutes the destroyer escort fired a "hedgehog" pattern which struck its target with deadly accuracy. Wyman's sound operators heard the sounds of heavy explosions from beneath the sea as I-55 began to blow apart. While opening the range at 1819, a further set of explosions rocked the sea, sounding the death knell for the enemy I-boat. Reynolds added a "hedgehog" pattern, but her target had perished. Large quantities of debris and oil, visible evidence of Wyman's second "kill", soon came to the surface. With the dissolution of TG 12.2 on 9 August, Wyman joined TG 57.3 for escort duty in waters between the Marshalls and Marianas. On 31 August, the destroyer escort escorted fuel ships of Task Unit 30.8.10 to a rendezvous with TG 38.4 and back to link up with TG 38.2 and Task Force 34. After completing this mission on 20 October 1944, the day of the first landings in the Philippine Islands, Wyman resumed escort operations between the Marshalls and Marianas and participated in hunter-killer operations into early 1945, supporting the invasion of the strategic island of Iwo Jima.

She departed from Ulithi on 13 March 1945 and proceeded to the fueling area for TG 50.8 for duty as escort with the Logistics Support Group for the invasion of Okinawa. During this tour of duty, which lasted into the spring of 1945, she sank three floating Japanese mines by gunfire; the destroyer escort remained with the 5th Fleet until 10 June, continuing her unglamorous but vital role, screening the important convoys bringing men and munitions to the war zone for the drive against the Japanese homeland. After a stop at Guam, Wyman headed for the United States, proceeding via Pearl Harbor and Eniwetok, arrived at San Francisco, California, on 15 July; the end of the war changed the Navy's plans for the ship. On 17 August — while in the midst of her scheduled 42-day overhaul during which she was to receive her "


Aironi Rugby was an Italian professional rugby union team competing in the Pro12 and the Heineken Cup, representing the Italian regions of Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna. It lost its status as a regional side at the end of the 2011-12 season, as the Italian Rugby Federation revoked its licence for financial reasons, they were replaced by Zebre from the 2012-13 season. The team played in Viadana at Stadio Luigi Zaffanella, it was expected that Reggio Emilia's Stadio Giglio would be used for larger games but no games required its near 30,000 capacity. The team's primary kit was all black with a silver stripe, their alternative kit was white with a silver stripe. In the Heineken Cup the players wore an all green kit, their kit was supplied by Adidas. The formation of the team was made possible by the co-operation of eight existing rugby clubs Rugby Viadana 54%, Colorno 15%, Gran Parma Rugby 10%, Rugby Parma 10%, Noceto 5%, Reggio Emilia 2%, Modena 2% and Mantova 2%. Gran Parma, Rugby Viadana and Colorno have merged as a result of the formation of Aironi to form GranDucato Rugby Parma.

Rugby Parma and Noceto have merged to form Crociati Rugby Parma. These mergers were essential. After several failed attempts, there was doubt that a deal for Italian entry into the Celtic League would be completed in time for the 2010–11 season, with the Scots delaying support for entry until changes were made to the Celtic League management structure. In February 2010 it was announced that the planned expansion of the Celtic League was to be pust on hold; the reasons were the insistence by existing members that the Italian teams could be ejected after three years. The financial demands the league placed on the Italians could not be met; the existing teams said this was to cover the need to have larger squads to cover the extra fixtures and additional travel expenses. Agreement was reached in early March 2010 to allow Italian teams entry to the Celtic League in time for the 2010–11 season; the clubs would be guaranteed places annually into the Heineken Cup, awarded to the two top teams in the National Championship of Excellence.

Italy had failed to make an impact in the Six Nations Championship tournament since joining 10 years earlier. This was blamed on the fact their best players did not have a competitive enough domestic tournament or were forced to play abroad; the fact that the Six Nations decider in 2009 between Wales and Ireland featured 42 Celtic League players out of 44 in their squads supported this notion. Most Italian players played in France's Top 14. In order to ensure the new teams delivered players for the national side the Federazione Italiana Rugby put incentives in place for the new teams; the successful franchises would receive financial support from the FIR to recruit national team players at the time playing abroad and fresh home-grown talent. Signing one of Italy's top players, most of whom play abroad, would net clubs €50,000, while other lesser players plying their trade in the Italian Super 10 series, would scoop €30,000 and €20,000 bonuses, it was proposed that Aironi would join along with a new team Praetorians Roma, but Benetton Treviso were nominated instead of Roma.

Treviso and Duchi Nord-Ovest could not agree to form one club to represent the Veneto region and lost out in the first round of bidding despite the region being the traditional home of Italian rugby. However Roma failed to satisfy the evaluators of their financial muscle and Treviso were nominated in their stead; this was boosted by Treviso's defeat of USA Perpignan in the Heineken Cup. Roma were to be based at the Stadio Flaminio in Rome. Aironi had a difficult debut season, they struggled to compete in the Celtic League. Their coach, Franco Bernini, was sacked in November after a run of disappointing losses, they suffered a number of heavy defeats but when they did lose they did so by a single score. This is evidenced by the 8 Losing Bonus points received in 22 games, they registered their first win against French team Biarritz in December in the Heineken Cup. This was a massive shock, their first Celtic League win came at home against Connacht on 26 March, which they won 25–13. They finished bottom of the league in 12th.

Players in bold capped internationally. Players with the symbol * are qualified to play for Italy on residency or dual nationality so not counted as a Non-Italian player in squad. Notes: Players in Italic joined in the winter. Aironi again finished last; however they did record four victories, including a notable home win over defending champions Munster and eventual Heineken Cup Semi-finalists Edinburgh. In a tough Heineken Cup group they failed to record any win, or a losing bonus point. In March Aironi announced; the FIR decided to withdraw their licence for the death knell for Aironi. Viadana, the primary club behind Aironi applied to take the vacant place in the Pro12 but this was rejected by the FIR. In June 2012 it was announced that the new franchise would be known as Zebre, which would be based in Parma and be built around Italian players. Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. **World Cup Cover Alberto de Marchi to Benetton Treviso Giulio Toniolatti to Benetton Treviso Carlo Del Fava to Newcastle Lorenzo Romano to Saracens Fabio Staibano to Wasps George Biagi to Bristol Joshua Furno to Narbonne Nick Williams t

USS Admiral C. F. Hughes

USS Admiral C. F. Hughes was a Admiral W. S. Benson-class transport named in honor of Charles Frederick Hughes, an admiral in the United States Navy who served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1927 to 1930. Admiral C. F. Hughes was laid down on 29 November 1943 by the Bethlehem-Alameda Shipyard Inc. in Alameda, under contract with the United States Maritime Commission. She was launched on 27 August 1944 under the sponsorship of Mrs. Louise Nimitz, the wife of Captain Otto Nimitz and the sister-in-law of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. On 31 January 1945 she was delivered to the United States Navy and commissioned with Captain John Trebes, USCG, in command. Following brief sea trials, along the West Coast of the United States, Admiral C. F. Hughes embarked naval officers and Marines at San Diego for transportation to Hawaii, she arrived in Pearl Harbor on 18 March. There, she took on another group of passengers bound for the United States and got underway on 23 March; the transport arrived in San Francisco on 28 March, disembarked her passengers, set sail for San Diego on 9 April.

Admiral C. F. Hughes began taking on more travelers. On the 14th, the transport set a westward course; the ship entered Pearl Harbor on the 19th, some passengers left her while others came on board. Three days she put to sea on her way to the Mariana Islands. Admiral C. F. Hughes put in at Guam on 30 April, all her passengers disembarked. After taking another group on board, including 221 Japanese prisoners of war, she stood out of Apra Harbor on 3 May; the transport made a two-day stop at Pearl Harbor from 10 to 12 May to disembark the prisoners and continued her voyage back to the West Coast. She moored at San Francisco on 17 May. On 26 May 1945 the transport sailed for Europe to embarked troops from the European Theater of Operations for redeployment to the Pacific; the transport reached Manila on 20 July. Admiral C. F. Hughes embarked troops at Biak in the Schouten Islands, Hollandia, New Guinea, before leaving the latter port on 4 August to return to the United States, she delivered the returning servicemen at San Francisco on 17 August.

The ship put to sea on 31 August with replacements for western Pacific garrisons. Steaming via Ulithi, she arrived at Leyte on 17 September. Admiral C. F. Hughes visited Manila again before heading back to North America on the 24th, she paused at Victoria, British Columbia, Canada on 9 October to repatriate former prisoners of war from various Commonwealth Nations, arrived at Seattle, Washington that day. The transport made one more round-trip voyage to Yokohama before being decommissioned on 3 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list in June. After being decommissioned from the navy, Admiral C. F. Hughes was returned to the War Shipping Administration which, in turn, transferred her to the United States Army for operation with the Army Transport Service; the Army renamed the ship USAT General Edwin D. Patrick after Edwin D. Patrick, a general, killed in action while commanding the 6th Infantry Division in the Philippines in 1945. Under the army, she served in the Army Transport Service from 30 August 1946 until 1 March 1950, when the navy reacquired her.

Retaining her army name, she was assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service and was manned by a civil service crew. Operating out of San Francisco, USNS General Edwin D. Patrick spent two decades transporting troops, military dependents, cargo to American bases throughout the western Pacific, supported American forces in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Early in 1967, the transport was placed in a ready reserve status. On 30 September 1968, the ship was laid up at the Maritime Administration's National Defense Reserve Fleet facility at Suisun Bay, Calif. On 31 August 1969, title to the ship was transferred to the Maritime Administration and was, struck from the Naval Register 9 October 1969. After being sold to ESCO Marine on 18 March 2010, the General Edwin D. Patrick, ex-Admiral C. F. Hughes, departed the San Francisco Bay under tow to the breakers on 3 May 2010, her scrapping was declared complete on 25 January 2011. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

The entry can be found here. NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive USNS General Edwin D. Patrick ex USAT General Edwin D. Patrick USS Admiral C. F. Hughes General Edwin D. Patrick

Scott Thompson (footballer, born 1986)

Scott D. Thompson is a former Australian rules footballer who played for the North Melbourne Football Club in the Australian Football League, he was selected 37th overall in the 2007 AFL Draft by North Melbourne. As a teenager, Thompson starred in the Geelong Football League. Playing his preferred position of full back, Thompson played a key role in Geelong's VFL premiership side in 2007, his heroic actions stopping a key forward about 30 kg heavier than him in the 2006 grand final, has become legend at his local club, South Barwon. Thompson has said that playing on the big forwards of the GFL gave him a platform to build his whole AFL career on. Thompson made his debut for the Kangaroos in 2008. Thompson played every game in 2009, his best season to date, has claimed some big scalps, including Port Adelaide's Warren Tredrea, Magpie Jack Anthony, Essendon veteran Matthew Lloyd and Brisbane spearhead Daniel Bradshaw, whom he kept goalless in 103 minutes of playing time in Round 10. Thompson has been dubbed'Mr.

Annoying,' as several of his opponents have been sent to the tribunal for responding to his niggling tactics, including Cameron Mooney and Jack Anthony, who headbutted him in the groin. On 22 May 2010 he was the centre of attention when he pushed over Western Bulldogs player Barry Hall whilst tying his shoelace, triggering an ugly altercation between Hall and several other Kangaroos players. Hall reacted to the taunts by putting Thompson in a headlock and was subsequently reported for both wrestling and rough conduct. All Australian team selector, Gerard Healy commented that Thompson's incredible performance this year is unheralded to date, suggested that he was a definite contender for full back on the All Australian team. Thompson scored his first AFL goal in 2010 against West Coast and scored 2 the following year against Sydney. All 3 goals were from outside 50. Thompson was runner up for The Syd Barker Medal in 2009 and 2012 coming second to Captain Andrew Swallow on both occasions. In 2012 Thompson recorded a career high in disposals against The Giants.

In 2013 Thompson was announced in North Melbournes leadership group for the 2013 season and onwards with Andrew Swallow, Drew Petrie, Jack Ziebell, Daniel Wells, Brent Harvey and Taylor Hine. He won the 2013 Syd Barker Medal after an excellent and consistent year, tying with teammate Daniel Wells. Thompson had a great start to his 2014 season, including holding Lance Franklin goalless in the side's road win against Sydney in Round 4. However, Thompson finished up the season disappointingly but enhancing his offensive game was a huge positive for him. Thompson is still one of the first players selected each week in 2019, but has stated he will retire at the end of the season. Scott Thompson's profile on the official website of the North Melbourne Football Club Scott Thompson's playing statistics from AFL Tables