Blue Origin, LLC is an American funded aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight services company headquartered in Kent, Washington. Founded in 2000 by Jeff Bezos, the company is developing technologies to enable private human access to space with the goal to lower costs and increase reliability. Blue Origin is employing an incremental approach from suborbital to orbital flight, with each developmental step building on its prior work; the company motto is Gradatim Ferociter, Latin for "Step by Step, Ferociously". Blue Origin is developing a variety of technologies, with a focus on rocket-powered vertical takeoff and vertical landing vehicles for access to suborbital and orbital space; the company's name refers to Earth, as the point of origin. Focused on suborbital spaceflight, the company has designed and flown multiple testbeds of its New Shepard spacecraft at its facilities in Culberson County, Texas. Developmental test flights of the New Shepard, named after the first American in space Alan Shepard, began in April 2015, flight testing continued into 2018, with its first passenger-carrying spaceflight planned for 2019.
On nearly every one of the test flights since 2015, the uncrewed vehicle has reached a test altitude of more than 100 km and achieved a top speed of more than Mach 3, reaching space above the Kármán line, with both the space capsule and its rocket booster soft landing, making reuse possible. By 2016, the second New Shepard booster test article had made four flights, each time exceeding 100 km in altitude, before returning for successful soft landings. Blue Origin has become a part of a "dramatic metamorphosis" of the space industry in recent years, having moved into the orbital spaceflight technology business in 2014 as a rocket engine supplier for others via a contractual agreement to build a new large rocket engine, the BE-4, for major US launch system operator United Launch Alliance. ULA is considering the BE-3, Blue Origin's smaller rocket engine used on New Shepard, for use in a new second stage—the Advanced Cryogenic Evolved Stage —which will become the primary upper stage for ULA's Vulcan orbital launch vehicle in the 2020s.
By 2015, Blue Origin had announced plans to manufacture and fly its own orbital launch vehicle from the Florida Space Coast, known as the New Glenn. BE-4 had been expected to complete engine qualification testing by late 2018, but the test program continued into 2019. Blue Origin founder Jeff Bezos had been interested in space from an early age. A profile published in 2013 described a 1982 Miami Herald interview Bezos gave after he was named valedictorian of his high school class; the 18-year-old Bezos said he wanted "to build space hotels, amusement parks and colonies for 2 million or 3 million people who would be in orbit.'The whole idea is to preserve the earth' he told the newspaper... The goal was to be able to evacuate humans; the planet would become a park."In 1999, after watching the rocketry biopic film October Sky, Bezos discussed with science-fiction author Neal Stephenson the idea of forming a space company. Blue Origin was founded in 2000 in Kent and began developing both rocket propulsion systems and launch vehicles.
Since the founding, the company was secretive about its plans and emerged from its "self-imposed silence" only after 2015. While the company was formally incorporated in 2000, its existence became public only in 2003, when Bezos began buying land in Texas, interested parties followed up on the purchases; this was a topic of some interest in local politics, Bezos' rapid aggregation of lots under a variety of whimsically named shell companies was called a "land grab". From 2003 to 2017, Blue Origin was led by Rob Meyerson. Now Senior Vice President, Meyerson leads the Advanced Development Program business. In July 2013, the company employed 250 people. By May 2015, they had grown to 400 employees, with 350 of those working on engineering and business operations in the Kent location and 50 in Texas supporting the engine-test and suborbital test-flight facility. By April 2017, the company had more than 1000 employees. In August 2018, the company was more than 1500 employees, more than double the number in early 2016, is "expected to double again by the time New Glenn is flying."As of 2016, Blue Origin was spending US$1 billion a year, funded by Jeff Bezos' sales of Amazon stock.
In both 2017, again in 2018, Bezos made public statements that he intends to fund Blue Origin with US$1 billion per year from sales of his equity in Amazon. As early as 2005, Bezos had discussed plans to create a vertical-takeoff and landing spaceship called New Shepard. Plans for New Shepard were kept quiet, but Blue Origin's website indicated Bezos' desire to, "lower the cost of spaceflight so that... we humans can better continue exploring the solar system." By 2008, a publicized timetable for New Shepard indicated that Blue Origin intended to fly unmanned in 2011, manned in 2012. In a 2011 interview, Bezos indicated that he founded Blue Origin to send customers into space by focusing on two objectives: to decrease the cost and to increase the safety of human spaceflight. By July 2014, Bezos had invested over US$500 million of his own money into Blue Origin; the first developmental test flight of the New Shepard occurred on 29 April 2015. The uncrewed vehicle flew to its planned test altitude of more than 93.5 km and achieved a top speed of Mach 3.
In July 2015, NanoRacks, a provider of services such as payload design and development, safety approvals, integration, announced a partnership with Blue Origin to provide standar
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459, it became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical, communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris". Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were damaged or destroyed by war and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an cultural boom. In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census.
Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents. Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Madrid and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern and Central Europe; the city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest", has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor; the Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends.
In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy", it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means "city of joy". Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie, bucuros, or a se bucura, while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest. In English, the city's name was rendered as Bukarest. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester". Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler; the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698. Destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, it was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. An Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure.
On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings. In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, limited electrification were introduced; the Dâmbovița River was massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built; the extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in
Soko G-4 Super Galeb
The Soko G-4 Super Galeb referred to as N-62, is a Yugoslav single-engine, advanced jet trainer and light ground-attack aircraft. The G-4 was designed by the Aeronautical Technical Institute at Žarkovo and manufactured by the SOKO aircraft factory in Mostar as a replacement for the Soko G-2 Galeb in service with the Yugoslav Air Force. Production started in 1984 and lasted until the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991. A total of 85 aircraft were built. During the Yugoslav Wars, RV i PVO G-4s carried out ground-attack sorties, with four being lost to enemy air defences. In 1992 the remaining aircraft were relocated to Serbia and Montenegro where they entered service with the Air Force of the new FR Yugoslavia. A single G-4 was left over to the Republika Srpska Air Force; the G-4 Super Galeb was developed as a replacement for the G-2 Galeb, the most used jet trainer aircraft of the Yugoslav Air Force up until 1990. The first of two prototypes was completed by early 1978. Following completion of the initial testing phase, the first flight was achieved on 17 July 1978 and the first of six pre-production aircraft on 17 December 1980.
These and the first prototype were designated G-4 PPP, had fixed tailplanes with inset elevators and no anhedral. Production examples were designated G-4 and featured an all-moving anhedral tailplane and comprehensive avionics improvements; the G-4 first has been ordered in large numbers for the Yugoslav Air Force. The G-4 features a low wing monoplane design with tapered wings; the aircraft is 4.3 m high, with a wingspan of 9.88 m. It weighs 3,250 kg when empty and can carry 1,882 kg of fuel; the aircraft is fitted with a short nose cone, rounded fuselage, conventional empennage, semicircular air intakes, vertical tailfins, ailerons, horizontal stabilisers and fuel tanks at the square tips. The G-4 its performance is improved by the introduction of a more powerful version of the Rolls-Royce Viper 632-46 turbojet; the cockpit is fitted with two ejection seats with the rear seat elevated to render all round clear visibility. The G-4 saw some combat during the Yugoslav Wars. In total, three G-4s were shot down, all pilots ejecting safely.
During the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, seven G-4s of the Leteće zvezde aerobatics team were destroyed at Golubovci Air Base. G-4: Advanced jet trainer and light ground-attack aircraft. G-4Š: Unarmed jet trainer. G-4T: Target puller. G-4M: Upgraded avionics and hardpoints, missile rail added to wingtips. Avionics include a Zrak ENP-MG4 HUD incorporating a Rudi Cajavec ENS-MG4 electronic sight, a gyro platform, multi function displays, an optional chaff/flare dispensers; the inner hardpoints are rated at 500 kg, while the outer ones are rated at 350 kg, giving a maximum disposable load of 1,800 kg. Normal takeoff weight is 4,971 kg as a trainer, with a maximum takeoff weight of 6,400 kg in the attacker configuration, the maximum speed in "clean" configuration is 865 km/h at 10,000 m and 900 km/h at 4,000 m, with a ferry range of 2,900 km with drop tanks. G-4MD: Further development of G-4M upgrade including: LCD flight screens, HOTAS, HUD, integrated mission computers, distance measuring equipment, GPS-based navigation systems, identification friend or foe, navcomm units, mission records, VHF omni-range and instrument landing systems.
Integration of guided weapons and targeting systems is scheduled as part of the upgrade. Myanmar: Air Force operates 4 G-4 aircraft. Serbia: Serbian Air Force operates 20 G-4 aircraft Bosnia and Herzegovina: Air Force inherited 1 G-4 aircraft from Republika Srpska. Montenegro: Air Force Inherited 17 aircraft. 4 of these have subsequently been put up for sale. 6 aircraft were transferred to Serbia whilst 7 were sold to a private operator. Yugoslavia: Air Force operated 77 G-4 aircraft. On 24 September 2008, while practicing for an upcoming airshow a Serbian Air Force G-4 crashed at Batajnica Air Base near Belgrade, killing the pilot. On 07.04.2017 one G-4 Serbian Air Force crashed at 10.30 hours local time in the vicinity of the village of Slatina, some 60 km south-west of capital Belgrade, in western Serbia. Having failed to eject, killed in this accident were Lt. Col Nenad Ćulibrk from the Air Force and Air Defense Command and Cap. Dejan Pandurović from Batajnica-based 252nd Training squadron of the 204th Air Force Brigade.
On 11.04.2018 one G-4 of the Serbian Air Force crashed at 9.30 hours local time near the Kovačica village. One pilot died. Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993-94General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 12.25 m Wingspan: 9.88 m Height: 4.30 m Wing area: 19.5 m2 Aspect ratio: 5.01 Empty weight: 3,250 kg Gross weight: 4,760 kg Max takeoff weight: 6,330 kg Fuel capacity: 1,882 kg Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Viper 632-46, 17.8 kN thrustPerformance Maximum speed: 920 km/h clean @ 6,000 m Cruise speed: 550 km/h @ 6,000m Stall speed: 180 km/h dirty Never exceed speed: 921 km/h 0.9M @ 11,000m Range: 1,900 km Internal fuel Combat range: 1,300 km with cannon pack and four BL755 cluster bombs Ferry range: 2,500 km (1,553
The Piaggio PD.808 was an Italian business jet built by Piaggio. It was designed as a joint venture between Piaggio and Douglas Aircraft Company of Long Beach, United States. Named the PD.808 Vespa Jet the business jet was designed in a joint venture between Piaggio and the Douglas Aircraft Company. The basic design work was carried out by Douglas and the prototype was built at the Piaggio factory at Finale Ligure; the PD.808 was a low-wing cantilever cabin-monoplane with tip-tanks and powered by two rear-mounted Bristol Siddeley Viper 525 turbojets. It has retractable tricycle landing gear and was designed with a cabin for a pilot and six-passengers; the first Viper 525-powered prototype first flew on 29 August 1965, this was followed by a second Viper 525 powered prototype and two civil demonstrators. The company tried to interest commercial operators the only interest was from the Italian Air Force as a liaison and radar calibration aircraft with an order for 25; the Italian Air Force aircraft were powered by Viper 526 turbojets.
PD-808VIP: VIP transport. PD-808TA: navigation trainer. PD-808RM: radio calibration, four-built PD-808GE: aircraft modified for Electronic warfare, PD-808GE1 entered service in 1972, the PD-808GE2 in 1977. PD-808TF: Proposed turbofan-powered version. Not built. ItalyItalian Air Force operated 22 Piaggio PD.808 from 1970 until 2003 On 18 June 1968 one of the demonstration aircraft I-PIAI crashed in bad-weather when it flew into the side of Mount Jaizkibel, near San Sebastian, all six on-board including the Italian-business Lino Zanussi and the Piaggio chief test pilot Davide Albertazzi were killed. ItalyMM62015 – PD-808GE on static display in Lucca, Tuscany, it was operated by the Italian Air Force. Data from, Jane's Aircraft Recognition GuideGeneral characteristics Crew: 1/2 Capacity: 6-10 pax Length: 12.85 m Wingspan: 13.2 m over tip tanks Height: 4.8 m Wing area: 20.9 m2 Aspect ratio: 6.25 Airfoil: root:DES 0010-1·1-40/11°.
Soko G-2 Galeb
The Soko G-2 Galeb is a Yugoslav single engine, two-seater jet trainer and light ground-attack aircraft. The G-2 was developed during the 1950s by the Aeronautical Technical Institute at Žarkovo as a replacement for the Lockheed T-33 in service with the Yugoslav Air Force. Production started in 1965 at the Soko aircraft factory in Mostar, ended in 1985 with 248 aircraft delivered; the G-2 had the distinction of being the first mass-produced jet aircraft in socialist Yugoslavia. It served as a basis for the single-seat ground-attack J-21 Jastreb; the RV i PVO took delivery of 128 aircraft that were used by the Air Force Academy for training new pilots. The second largest operator of the Galeb was Libya, which acquired over 100 aircraft during the 1970s. A small number were acquired by Zaire and Indonesia. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, the Galebs were used for ground attack sorties throughout Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. By 1992, RV i PVO G-2s relocated to Serbia and Montenegro where they operated with the Air Force of the new FR Yugoslavia.
The aircraft remained in service until 1999 when the majority of them were destroyed on ground during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. The Libyan Air Force's G-2s were used during the Libyan Civil War by Gaddafi forces, with an unknown number surviving the war and being reported in service as late as 2013. A single aircraft remains in service with the Technical Test Center of the Serbian Armed Forces. A number of aircraft are still flown by civilians as warbirds, including the private aerobatic team "Stars" from Novi Sad. In 1957, Yugoslavia's VTI commenced design work on the aircraft, which would receive the name Galeb; the principal purpose for the development of the Galeb was to produce a domestic replacement for the American-built Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star, which at the time was the most used jet trainer aircraft in use by the Yugoslav Air Force. Primary manufacturing of the Galeb was performed by Yugoslav aircraft manufacturer SOKO at their facility in Mostar and Herzegovina, established earlier that decade in 1951.
The Galeb was developed as a collaborative effort between Yugoslavia and the United Kingdom, contributed to the export value of the latter. A significant proportion of components and ancillary equipment, such as the powerplant, ejector seats, navigational fittings amongst others, that were installed upon the aircraft had been sourced from or were directly produced by a range of British aerospace manufacturers. According to aviation publication Flight International, the heavy proportion of British equipment employed upon the Galeb was a decisive factor in the appearance of the aircraft at the 1968 Farnborough Airshow. Sponsorship for the aircraft's development was provided by the British engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce Limited, whose Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojet engine was selected to power the type; the selection of the Viper engine to power the type had been motivated by a broad requirement for a simplistic powerplant that would be easy to service and be robust in spite of the rough handling performed by inexperienced pilots during flight training, as well as being easy to install within the airframe and possessing modest turbine inlet temperatures.
A total of two prototype aircraft were built to conduct the type's flight test program. On 3 July 1961, the maiden flight of the first of these prototypes, referred to as Galeb 1, was performed by test pilot captain Ljubomir Zekavica; the principal difference between the Galeb 1 prototype and the Galeb 2 was that Galeb 1 had three rubber tanks in the fuselage, while the Galeb 2 employed a total of two fuselage tanks holding 230 gallons and two wingtip tanks holding 51 gallons each. Following the completion of a full-size wooden mock-up, the second prototype Galeb 2 was constructed - establishing the G-2 type designation. During flight tests, a maximum speed of 812 km/h at 6,200 m was achieved in clean configuration, with no paint and a polished airframe. Top diving speed was Mach 0.81. According to Soko's chief test pilot, captain Dusan Krvavica, the Galeb is "unfatiguing and easy to fly"; the G-2 Galeb made its first appearance outside of Yugoslavia at the 1963 Paris Air Show. In 1964, production of the G-2 commenced, making it the first indigenously-developed jet aircraft to enter mass production in Yugoslavia.
After the Soko 522, it was the second aircraft built at SOKO. The first production series G-2A was entered in the aircraft register of the Yugoslav Air Force on 30 July 1965, the last one on 6 January 1981; the G-2A was known within the Yugoslav military under the N-60 designation. Production of updated aircraft for export to Libya was extended until mid-1983. Soko produced a total of 248 Galeb aircraft; the G-2 Galeb is an versatile trainer aircraft, suited for carrying out a varied range of training missions to minimize number of aircraft needed to meet an operator's overall training requirements. The aircraft is flown by a crew of two a candidate pilot and an instructor, which are seated in a tandem cockpit layout, the candidate being placed in the
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the accelerated mass will cause a force of equal magnitude but opposite direction on that system; the force applied on a surface in a direction perpendicular or normal to the surface is called thrust. Force, thus thrust, is measured using the International System of Units in newtons, represents the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 meter per second per second. In mechanical engineering, force orthogonal to the main load is referred to as thrust. A fixed-wing aircraft generates forward thrust when air is pushed in the direction opposite to flight; this can be done in several ways including by the spinning blades of a propeller, or a rotating fan pushing air out from the back of a jet engine, or by ejecting hot gases from a rocket engine. The forward thrust is proportional to the mass of the airstream multiplied by the difference in velocity of the airstream.
Reverse thrust can be generated to aid braking after landing by reversing the pitch of variable-pitch propeller blades, or using a thrust reverser on a jet engine. Rotary wing aircraft and thrust vectoring V/STOL aircraft use engine thrust to support the weight of the aircraft, vector sum of this thrust fore and aft to control forward speed. A motorboat generates thrust; the resulting thrust pushes the boat in the opposite direction to the sum of the momentum change in the water flowing through the propeller. A rocket is propelled forward by a thrust force equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction, to the time-rate of momentum change of the exhaust gas accelerated from the combustion chamber through the rocket engine nozzle; this is the exhaust velocity with respect to the rocket, times the time-rate at which the mass is expelled, or in mathematical terms: T = v d m d t Where T is the thrust generated, d m d t is the rate of change of mass with respect to time, v is the speed of the exhaust gases measured relative to the rocket.
For vertical launch of a rocket the initial thrust at liftoff must be more than the weight. Each of the three Space Shuttle Main Engines could produce a thrust of 1.8 MN, each of the Space Shuttle's two Solid Rocket Boosters 14.7 MN, together 29.4 MN. By contrast, the simplified Aid For EVA Rescue has 24 thrusters of 3.56 N each. In the air-breathing category, the AMT-USA AT-180 jet engine developed for radio-controlled aircraft produce 90 N of thrust; the GE90-115B engine fitted on the Boeing 777-300ER, recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records as the "World's Most Powerful Commercial Jet Engine," has a thrust of 569 kN. The power needed to generate thrust and the force of the thrust can be related in a non-linear way. In general, P 2 ∝ T 3; the proportionality constant varies, can be solved for a uniform flow: d m d t = ρ A v T = d m d t v, P = 1 2 d m d t v 2 T = ρ A v 2, P = 1 2 ρ A v 3 P 2 = T 3 4 ρ A Note that these calculations are only valid for when the incoming air is accelerated from a standstill – for example when hovering.
The inverse of the proportionality constant, the "efficiency" of an otherwise-perfect thruster, is proportional to the area of the cross section of the propelled volume of fluid and the density of the fluid. This helps to explain why moving through water is easier and why aircraft have much larger propellers than watercraft. A common question is how to contrast the thrust rating of a jet engine with the power rating of a piston engine; such comparison is difficult. A piston engine does not move the aircraft by itself, so piston engines are rated by how much power they deliver to the propeller. Except for changes in temperature and air pressure, this quantity depends on the throttle setting. A jet engine has no propeller, so the propulsive power of a jet engine is determined from its thrust as follows. Power is the force it takes to move something over some distance divided by the time it takes to move that distance: P = F d t In case of
The Fuji T-1 was Japan's first jet-powered trainer aircraft. The first flight was in January 1958. A total of 66 T-1 planes were built, it was retired in March 2006. The T-1 was the first indigenously designed Japanese jet aircraft to be developed since World War II; the T-1A was powered by the British-designed Bristol Siddeley Orpheus turbojet, while the T-1B used the Ishikawajima-Harima J3 turbojet. Fuji was the successor to the Nakajima Aircraft Company; the first aircraft of Fuji's own design was the T-1 jet trainer. Data from: Simpson 2001, p. 246 T1F1: Prototype. T-1A: Powered by a 17.79 kN Bristol Siddeley Orpheus Mk 805 turbojet engine. The original designation was T1F2. 46 built. T-1B: Powered by an 11.77 kN Ishikawajima-Harima J3-IHI-3 turbojet engine. 20 built. T-1C: Converted to 13.72 kN Ishikawajima-Harima J3-IHI-7 engines. JapanJapan Air Self Defense Force T-1B 25-5856 at Tokorozawa Aviation Museum, Saitama Prefecture T-1B 35-5870 at Saitama Subaru Sakitama Garden, Gyōda, Saitama Prefecture Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1965-66General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 12.12 m Wingspan: 10.50 m Height: 4.08 m Wing area: 22.22 m2 Aspect ratio: 4.96:1 Airfoil: K-561/K-569 Empty weight: 2,420 kg Gross weight: 4,150 kg clean Max takeoff weight: 5,000 kg Fuel capacity: 1,400 L Powerplant: 1 × Bristol Siddeley Orpheus Mk 805 turbojet, 18 kN thrustPerformance Maximum speed: 925 km/h at 6,100 m Cruise speed: 620 km/h at 9,150 m Range: 1,300 km Ferry range: 1,950 km Service ceiling: 14,400 m Rate of climb: 33 m/s Thrust/weight: 0.43Armament Guns: Provision for 1 × 12.7 mm Browning M53-2 machine gun in nose Hardpoints: 2 with provisions to carry combinations of: Missiles: 2 × AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles Bombs: 2 × 340 kg bombs Other: 2 × 455 L drop tanks Aircraft of comparable role and era Aermacchi MB-326 Fokker S.14 Machtrainer TF-86 Sabre Lockheed T-33 Citations Bibliography Media related to Fuji T-1 at Wikimedia Commons