Gloster Aircraft Company
The Gloster Aircraft Company was a British aircraft manufacturer from 1917 to 1963. Founded as the Gloucestershire Aircraft Company Limited during the First World War, with the aircraft construction activities of H H Martyn & Co Ltd of Cheltenham, England it produced fighters during the war, it was renamed as foreigners found'Gloucestershire' difficult to pronounce. It became part of the Hawker Siddeley group and the Gloster name disappeared in 1963. Gloster designed and built several fighters that equipped the British Royal Air Force during the interwar years including the Gladiator, the RAF's last biplane fighter; the company built most of the wartime production of Hawker Hurricanes and Hawker Typhoons for their parent company Hawker Siddeley while its design office was working on the first British jet aircraft, the E.28/39 experimental aircraft. This was followed by the Meteor, the RAF's first jet-powered fighter and the only Allied jet fighter to be put into service during the Second World War.
In 1917, during the midst of the First World War, the Gloster Aircraft Company Limited was formed under the name The Gloucestershire Aircraft Company Limited. At the time of its creation, its owners were Hugh Burroughes and H H Martyn & Co Limited, who held a 50 per cent share between them, aircraft manufacturer Airco held the other 50 per cent. On the company's board were A W Martyn and George Holt Thomas of Airco; the firm acquired the aircraft component construction activities that were being carried out by H H Martyn & Co Limited for the war effort in order to perform subcontracted work from Airco. H H Martyn were architectural engineers and had produced items such as propellers before moving to whole fuselages for Airco; the firm rented facilities at Sunningend in Gloucestershire to serve as their works. By the spring of 1918, the company was producing 45 new Bristol Fighter aircraft per week; as the orders for aircraft increased, other companies in the Gloucester and Cheltenham district were contracted with work.
Where any flying was involved, the aircraft would be transported to a newly formed Air Board aircraft acceptance park at Brockworth, seven miles away by motor transport. Although Brockworth Aerodrome was used by the company, it lacked any hangars until 1921, after which it would rent a portion of one hangar from the Air Board. Gloucester would relocate its operational base to the Brockworth site. Following the Armistice of 11 November 1918 and the end of the First World War, the company suffered financial losses from the collapse of Airco, only receiving partial compensation for the cancellation of outstanding production orders. In 1920, following the closure of rival British aircraft manufacturer Nieuport & General, the services of its former chief designer, Henry Folland, were hired by the company. In December 1926, it was decided that the name of the company should be switched to a simplified form—the Gloster Aircraft Company; this was reported because customers outside of the United Kingdom found it easier to pronounce and to spell.
Locals and employees would referred to the company as GAC. With the move to metal construction, the Sunningend factory was soon deemed to be no longer suitable. In 1934, Gloster was acquired by Hawker Aircraft. Regardless of this change in ownership, the company continued to produce aircraft under its own brand name. In that same year, Gloster produced one of the Gladiator biplane; the 1935 merger of Hawker Aircraft and the interests of J. D. Siddeley saw Gloster become a part of Hawker Siddeley Aircraft, Ltd. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the firm lacked any modern designs of its own in production, but had significant expertise and production facilities available. Thus, Gloster undertook manufacture for Hawker-designed aircraft to equip the RAF on behalf of its parent company. During 1939, the company constructed 1,000 Hawker Hurricanes within the first 12 months of the conflict. After ending production of the Hurricane, it was decided to manufacture the newer Hawker Typhoon in its place.
Gloster proceeded to construct 3,300 in total the entirety of the type. Frank Whittle had first met Gloster's designer and test pilots in April 1939 and an official approach from the Air Ministry followed; as no existing aircraft was suitable for adaptation to take the new jet engine, Gloster did not have much workload in its design department, Gloster received a contract in early 1940 - to design and build Britain's first jet aircraft. Two airframes were built in secrecy. Due to the risk of bombing, one of the aircraft was built offsite from Brockworth at Regent Motors Cheltenham. On 15 May 1941, the first official test flight of the Gloster E.28/39 W 4041/G with a turbo-jet engine, invented by Sir Frank Whittle took off from RAF Cranwell. Although the E.28.39 could in theory be used as a fighter, a specific fighter design was required and Gloster began work on a twin engine jet design. Once the E.28/39 had flown, the Air Staff told Gloster to stop work on their F.18/40 nightfighter (other ai
The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during the Second World War. The Meteor's development was reliant on its ground-breaking turbojet engines, pioneered by Sir Frank Whittle and his company, Power Jets Ltd. Development of the aircraft began in 1940, although work on the engines had been under way since 1936; the Meteor first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with No. 616 Squadron RAF. The Meteor was not a sophisticated aircraft in its aerodynamics, but proved to be a successful combat fighter. Gloster's 1946 civil Meteor F.4 demonstrator G-AIDC was the first civilian-registered jet aircraft in the world. Several major variants of the Meteor incorporated technological advances during the 1940s and 1950s. Thousands of Meteors were built to fly with the RAF and other air forces and remained in use for several decades; the Meteor saw limited action in the Second World War. Meteors of the Royal Australian Air Force fought in the Korean War.
Several other operators such as Argentina and Israel flew Meteors in regional conflicts. Specialised variants of the Meteor were developed for use in photographic aerial reconnaissance and as night fighters; the Meteor was used for research and development purposes and to break several aviation records. On 7 November 1945, the first official airspeed record by a jet aircraft was set by a Meteor F.3 at 606 miles per hour. In 1946, this record was broken. Other performance-related records were broken in categories including flight time endurance, rate of climb, speed. On 20 September 1945, a modified Meteor I, powered by two Rolls-Royce Trent turbine engines driving propellers, became the first turboprop aircraft to fly. On 10 February 1954, a specially adapted Meteor F.8, the "Meteor Prone Pilot", which placed the pilot into a prone position to counteract inertial forces, took its first flight. In the 1950s, the Meteor became obsolete as more nations introduced jet fighters, many of these newcomers having adopted a swept wing instead of the Meteor's conventional straight wing.
As of 2018, two Meteors, G-JSMA and G-JWMA, remain in active service with the Martin-Baker company as ejection seat testbeds. One further aircraft in the UK remains airworthy; the development of the turbojet-powered Gloster Meteor was a collaboration between the Gloster Aircraft Company and Sir Frank Whittle's firm, Power Jets Ltd. Whittle formed Power Jets Ltd in March 1936 to develop his ideas of jet propulsion, Whittle himself serving as the company's chief engineer. For several years, attracting financial backers and aviation firms prepared to take on Whittle's radical ideas was difficult. Securing funding was a persistently worrying issue throughout the early development of the engine; the first Whittle prototype jet engine, the Power Jets WU, began running trials in early 1937. On 28 April 1939, Whittle made a visit to the premises of the Gloster Aircraft Company, where he met several key figures, such as George Carter, Gloster's chief designer. Carter took a keen interest in Whittle's project when he saw the operational Power Jets W.1 engine.
Independently, Whittle had been producing several proposals for a high-altitude jet-powered bomber. Power Jets and Gloster formed a mutual understanding around mid-1939. In spite of ongoing infighting between Power Jets and several of its stakeholders, the Air Ministry contracted Gloster in late 1939 to manufacture a prototype aircraft powered by one of Whittle's new turbojet engines; the single-engined proof-of-concept Gloster E28/39, the first British jet-powered aircraft, conducted its maiden flight on 15 May 1941, flown by Gloster's chief test pilot, Flight Lieutenant Philip "Gerry" Sayer. The success of the E.28/39 proved the viability of jet propulsion, Gloster pressed ahead with designs for a production fighter aircraft. Due to the limited thrust available from early jet engines, it was decided that subsequent production aircraft would be powered by a pair of turbojet engines. In 1940, for a "military load" of 1,500 lb, the Royal Aircraft Establishment had advised that work on an aircraft of 8,500 lb all-up weight, with a total static thrust of 3,200 lbf should be started, with an 11,000 lb design for the expected, more powerful, W.2 and axial engine designs.
George Carter's calculations based on the RAE work and his own investigations was that a 8,700-to-9,000-pound aircraft with two or four 20 mm cannons and six 0.303 machine guns would have a top speed of 400–431 miles per hour at sea level and 450–470 miles per hour at 30,000 feet. In January 1941 Gloster were told by Lord Beaverbrook that the twin jet fighter was of "unique importance", that the company was to stop work on a night-fighter development of their F.9/37 to Specification F.18/40. In August 1940, Carter presented Gloster's initial proposals for a twin-engined jet fighter with a tricycle undercarriage. On 7 February 1941, Gloster received an order for twelv
Armstrong Whitworth A.W.16
The Armstrong Whitworth A. W.16 was a British single-engine biplane fighter aircraft designed and built by Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft. A number were sold to the Chinese Kwangsi Air Force; the A. W.16 was developed by Armstrong Whitworth to meet the requirements of Specification F9/26. With the first prototype flying in 1930, it was too late for consideration against this specification, was submitted against specification Specification N21/26 for a naval fighter for the Fleet Air Arm, it was a single bay biplane with wings of unequal span braced with N-type interwing struts, bore a close family resemblance to the A. W. XIV Starling Mk I, though with a less Siskin-like, humped fuselage; the undercarriage was fixed and spatted. The Armstrong Siddeley Panther radial engine, earlier known as the Jaguar Major was enclosed by a Townend ring. Problems with the Panther engine delayed the aircraft, the competing Hawker Nimrod was purchased before the AW.16 could be delivered for evaluation. When it was evaluated, it showed inferior performance to the Nimrod, had poor handling on an exposed carrier deck.
Armstrong Whitworth continued to try to sell the aircraft, produced a second prototype fitted with a more reliable Panther IIA engine for submission against Specification F7/30 for an order from the Royal Air Force. However, by this time the A. W.16 was out of date, was discarded from consideration, won by the Gloster Gladiator. A number of production aircraft were made, with 17 ordered by the Kwangsi Air Force in China The first prototype A. W.16 was in 1933 experimentally fitted with the 15-cylinder 3-row radial Armstrong Siddeley Hyena, but this engine suffered from cooling problems and was abandoned. The second prototype was rebuilt into the Armstrong Whitworth Scimitar fighter; the 16 A. W.16 fighters for the Kwangsi air force were produced late in 1931, were delivered via Hong Kong. While serving in the air force of the local Warlords, the A. W.16s were incorporated in the main Chinese Nationalist Air Force in 1937. ChinaKwangsi Air Force ChinaChinese Nationalist Air Force Data from The Complete Book of Fighters General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 25 ft 0 in Wingspan: 33 ft 0 in Height: 11 ft 6 in Wing area: 261 sq ft Airfoil: Clark YH Empty weight: 2,795 lb Gross weight: 3,520 lb Powerplant: 1 × Armstrong Siddeley Panther IIA 14 cylinder radial engine, 525 hp Performance Maximum speed: 200 mph at 15,000 ft Range: 270 mi Endurance: 2 hours Service ceiling: 26,100 ft Time to altitude: 6 min to 10,000 ft Armament Guns: 2 × forward firing.303 in Vickers machine guns in sides of fuselage with 500 rpg Green, William.
The Complete Book of Fighters. New York: Smithmark. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8. Mason, Francis K.. The British Fighter since 1912. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-082-7. Tapper, Oliver. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft since 1913. London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-826-7. Armstrong Whitworth A. W. XVI – British Aircraft Directory
Armstrong Whitworth Whitley
The Armstrong Whitworth A. W.38 Whitley was one of three British twin-engined, front line medium bomber types that were in service with the Royal Air Force at the outbreak of the Second World War. Alongside the Vickers Wellington and the Handley Page Hampden, the Whitley was developed during the mid-1930s according to Air Ministry Specification B.3/34, which it was subsequently selected to meet. In 1937, the Whitley formally entered into RAF squadron service. Following the outbreak of war in September 1939, the Whitley participated in the first RAF bombing raid upon German territory and remained an integral part of the early British bomber offensive. By 1943, it was being superseded as a bomber by the larger four-engined "heavies" such as the Avro Lancaster, its front line service included maritime reconnaissance with Coastal Command and the second line roles of glider-tug and transport aircraft. The type was procured by British Overseas Airways Corporation as a civilian freighter aircraft; the aircraft was named after Whitley, a suburb of Coventry, home of one of Armstrong Whitworth's plants.
In July 1934, the Air Ministry issued Specification B.3/34, seeking a heavy night bomber/troop transport to replace the Handley Page Heyford biplane bomber. John Lloyd, the Chief Designer of Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, chose to respond to the specification with a design designated as the AW.38, given the name Whitley after the location of Armstrong Whitworth's main factory. The design of the AW.38 was in fact a development of the Armstrong Whitworth AW.23 bomber-transport design that had lost to the Bristol Bombay for the earlier Specification C.26/31. Lloyd selected the Armstrong Siddeley Tiger IX radial engine to power the Whitley, capable of generating 795 horsepower. One of the more innovative features of the Whitley's design was the adoption of a three-bladed two-position variable-pitch propeller built by de Havilland; as Lloyd was unfamiliar with the use of flaps on a large heavy monoplane, they were omitted from the design. To compensate, the mid-set wings were set at a high angle of incidence to confer good take-off and landing performance.
Although flaps were included late in the design stage, the wing remained unaltered. The Whitley holds the distinction of having been the first RAF aircraft with a semi-monocoque fuselage, built using a slab-sided structure to ease production; this replaced the traditional tubular construction method employed by Armstrong Whitworth, instead constructing the airframe from light-alloy rolled sections and corrugated sheets. According to aviation author Philip Moyes, the decision to adopt the semi-monocoque fuselage was a significant advance in design. On June 1935, owing to the urgent need to replace biplane heavy bombers in service with the RAF, a verbal agreement was formed to produce an initial 80 aircraft, 40 being of an early Whitley Mk I standard and the other 40 being more advanced Whitley Mk IIs. Production was at three factories in Coventry. During 1935 and 1936, various contracts were placed for the type. On 17 March 1936, the first prototype Whitley Mk I, K4586, conducted its maiden flight from Baginton Aerodrome, piloted by Armstrong Whitworth Chief Test Pilot Alan Campbell-Orde.
K4586 was powered by a pair of 795 hp Tiger IX engines. The second prototype, K4587, was furnished with a pair of more powerful medium-supercharged Tiger XI engines; the prototypes differed little from the initial production standard aircraft. After the first 34 aircraft had been completed, the engines were replaced with the more reliable two-speed-supercharged Tiger VIIIs. K7243, the 27th production Whitley, is believed to have served as a prototype following modifications; the resulting aircraft was designated as the Whitley Mk II. A total of 46 production aircraft were completed to the Whitley Mk II standard. One Whitley Mk II, K7243, was used as a test bed for the 1,200 hp 21-cylinder radial Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound engine. Another Whitley Mk I, K7208, was modified to operate with a higher gross weight. K7211, the 29th production Whitley, served as the prototype for a further advanced variant of the aircraft, the Whitley Mk III; the Whitley Mk III featured numerous improvements, such as the replacement of the manually operated nose turret with a powered Nash & Thompson turret and a powered retractable twin-gun ventral "dustbin" turret.
The ventral turret was hydraulically-powered but proved to be hard to operate and added considerable drag, thus the Whitley Mk III was the only variant to feature this ventral turret arrangement. Other changes included increased dihedreal of the outer wing panels, superior navigational provisions, the installation of new bomb racks. A total of 80 Whitley Mk III aircraft were manufactured. While the Tiger VIII engine used in the Whitley Mks II and III was more reliable than those used in early aircraft, the Whitley was re-engined with Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in 1938, giving rise to the Whitley Mk IV. Three Whitley Mk I aircraft, K72
The Avro Lancaster is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber. It was designed and manufactured by Avro as a contemporary of the Handley Page Halifax, both bombers having been developed to the same specification, as well as the Short Stirling, all three aircraft being four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the Royal Air Force during the same wartime era; the Lancaster has its origins in the twin-engine Avro Manchester, developed during the late 1930s in response to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for "world-wide use". Developed as an evolution of the Manchester, the Lancaster was designed by Roy Chadwick and powered by four Rolls-Royce Merlins and in one version, Bristol Hercules engines, it first saw service with RAF Bomber Command in 1942 and as the strategic bombing offensive over Europe gathered momentum, it was the main aircraft for the night-time bombing campaigns that followed. As increasing numbers of the type were produced, it became the principal heavy bomber used by the RAF, the RCAF and squadrons from other Commonwealth and European countries serving within the RAF, overshadowing contemporaries such as the Halifax and Stirling.
A long, unobstructed bomb bay meant that the Lancaster could take the largest bombs used by the RAF, including the 4,000 lb, 8,000 lb and 12,000 lb blockbusters, loads supplemented with smaller bombs or incendiaries. The "Lanc", as it was known colloquially, became one of the most used of the Second World War night bombers, "delivering 608,612 long tons of bombs in 156,000 sorties"; the versatility of the Lancaster was such that it was chosen to equip 617 Squadron and was modified to carry the Upkeep "Bouncing bomb" designed by Barnes Wallis for Operation Chastise, the attack on German Ruhr valley dams. Although the Lancaster was a night bomber, it excelled in many other roles, including daylight precision bombing, for which some Lancasters were adapted to carry the 12,000 lb Tallboy and the 22,000 lb Grand Slam earthquake bombs; this was the largest payload of any bomber in the war. In 1943, a Lancaster was converted to become an engine test bed for the Metropolitan-Vickers F.2 turbojet. Lancasters were used to test other engines, including the Armstrong Siddeley Mamba and Rolls-Royce Dart turboprops and the Avro Canada Orenda and STAL Dovern turbojets.
Postwar, the Lancaster was supplanted as the main strategic bomber of the RAF by the Avro Lincoln, a larger version of the Lancaster. The Lancaster took on the role of long range anti-submarine patrol aircraft and air-sea rescue, it was used for photo-reconnaissance and aerial mapping, as a flying tanker for aerial refuelling and as the Avro Lancastrian, a long-range, high-speed, transatlantic passenger and postal delivery airliner. In March 1946, a Lancastrian of BSAA flew the first scheduled flight from the new London Heathrow Airport. In the 1930s, the Royal Air Force was interested in twin-engine bombers; these designs put limited demands on engine production and maintenance, both of which were stretched with the introduction of so many new types into service. Power limitations were so serious that the British invested in the development of huge engines in the 2,000 horsepower class in order to improve performance. During the late 1930s, none of these was ready for production. Both the United States and the Soviet Union were pursuing the development of bombers powered by arrangements of four smaller engines, the results of these projects proved to possess favourable characteristics such as excellent range and fair lifting capacity.
Accordingly, in 1936, the RAF decided to investigate the feasibility of the four-engined bomber. The origins of the Lancaster stem from a twin-engined bomber design, submitted in response to Specification P.13/36, formulated and released by the British Air Ministry during the mid 1930s. This specification had sought a new generation of twin-engined medium bombers suitable for "worldwide use". Further requirements of the specification included the use of a mid-mounted cantilever monoplane wing, all-metal construction. Various candidates were submitted for the specification by such manufacturers as Fairey, Boulton Paul, Handley Page and Shorts; the majority of these engines were under development at this point. In response, British aviation company Avro decided to submit their own design, designated the Avro 679, to meet Specification P.13/36. In February 1937, following consideration of the designs by the Air Ministry, Avro's design submission was selected along with Handley Page's bid being chosen as "second string".
Accordingly, during April 1937, a pair of prototypes of both designs were ordered. The resulting aircraft, named the Manchester, entered RAF service in November 1940. Although considered to be a capable aircraft in most areas, the Manchester proved to be underpowered and troubled by the unreliability of the Vulture engine; as a result, only 200 Manchesters were constructed and the
The Farnborough International Airshow is a trade exhibition for the aerospace and defence industries, where civilian and military aircraft are demonstrated to potential customers and investors. Since its first show in 1948, Farnborough has seen the debut of many famous planes, including the Vickers VC10, the Eurofighter, the Airbus A380, the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. At the 1958 show, the RAF's Black Arrows executed a 22-plane formation loop; the Farnborough International Airshow is the second-largest show of its kind after the Paris Air Show. It is a biennial week-long event to demonstrate civilian and military aircraft to potential customers and investors, to announce new developments and orders; the event is held in mid-July in even-numbered years at Farnborough Airport in Hampshire, United Kingdom. Flying occurs on all five days, there are static displays of aircraft outside and booths and stands in the indoor exhibition halls; the airshow alternates with the Paris Air Show, held in odd-numbered years and has a similar format, is held in the same years as the Berlin Air Show.
It is organised by a wholly owned subsidiary of ADS Group. In 2012, it attracted 109,000 trade visitors over the first five days, 100,000 public visitors during the weekend. Orders and commitments for 758 aircraft were announced, worth US$72 billion; the Society of British Aircraft Constructors held its first flying and static display at Hendon Aerodrome in June 1932. An invitation only flying display was held on the 27 June 1932 and some of the aircraft were on static display in the "new aircraft park" during the previous weekend when the Royal Air Force pageant was held. For the sixth annual display in 1936 the event moved to the nearby de Havilland airfield at Hatfield The last before WWII occurred the next year; the show recommenced in 1946 at Handley Page works at Radlett in north London until 1947. In 1948, it moved to the Royal Aircraft Establishment field at Hampshire; the inaugural show took place on the first week of September 1948. Among the aircraft on display was the large Armstrong Whitworth A.
W.52 jet-powered flying wing. The de Havilland Comet jet airliner was shown in 1949. In 1950 the huge Bristol Brabazon airliner made its debut, powered by coupled Bristol Centaurus piston engines before the Bristol Proteus turboprops for longer ranges like London-New York nonstop. A modified Vickers Viscount was shown with Rolls-Royce Tay turbojets in a configuration mimicked by the Boeing 737. In 1952, the futuristic Avro Vulcan delta bomber was displayed few days after its first flight along the giant Saunders-Roe Princess double-decker flying boat powered by ten Proteus turboprops, one month after its maiden flight, but a de Havilland Sea Vixen disintegrated and crashed into the spectator area, killing 29 and its two crew. In 1958, the Fairey Rotodyne was the star attraction, with its “tip-jet” powered rotors, transitioning from a helicopter vertical takeoff and hover to autogiro flight, exceeding helicopter speeds. In 1962, the last time it was held annually, the Hawker P.1127, the VTOL precursor to the Harrier jump jet, made its debut, like the corporate de Havilland DH.125 Jet Dragon, the de Havilland Trident and Vickers VC10 airliners.
From 1966, foreign aircraft were allowed if that they had British major components, like the Rolls-Royce-powered Aermacchi MB-326 trainer and Fokker F27 turboprop airliner, as the Red Arrows, the RAF aerobatic display team, debuted their Hawker Siddeley Gnats. In 1970, Concorde was shown; the double-delta Saab Viggen debuted in 1972 along the Lockheed TriStar trijet widebody powered by Rolls-Royce RB211s in national British carrier BEA colours. The Mach 3 Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, the show's largest-ever exhibit, the C-5 Galaxy military airlifter, were shown in 1974. In 1982, the civil aviation transatlantic rivalry was exemplified by the European Airbus A310 against the American Boeing 767 widebody twinjets, along with its narrowbody sibling, the Boeing 757 while the Rockwell B-1 large swing-wing bomber was the main military interest. In 1984, to demonstrate its short landing, a de Havilland Canada Buffalo made a steep descent but hit the runway and disintegrated without a tragic outcome. At the 1986 show were demonstrated the BAe EAP, the Eurofighter predecessor, Dassault Rafale rival fighters, as an A300 fly-by-wire testbed flying at high angles of attack shown the wind-shear stall protection capabilities equipping the A320.
In 1988, the GE36 propfan powered McDonnell Douglas MD-80 was demonstrated as a precursor for the MD-94X but propfan airliners remain elusive, while the Soviets brought the giant Antonov An-124 Ruslan airlifter and two MiG-29 fighters. The Eurofighter made its debut in 1996 in an air display showing its airborne capabilities; the biggest aircraft to appear at Farnborough, the A380 debuted with a flypast in 2006 while in the midst of its flight-test programme. In 2012, a Boeing 787 Dreamliner from Qatar Airways was in flying display, after a Boeing absence for 13 air shows; the Lockheed Martin F-35 Joint Strike Fighter made its show debut in 2016, two years than planned, with UK's first F-35B and two US Marine Corps examples. In 2018, the UK Ministry of Defence unveiled a full-scale Tempest model for its Future Combat Air strategy, as the Mitsubishi MRJ regional jet made its first flying display. On 6 September 1952, a DH.110 jet fighter disintegrated in flight and crashed into the crowd watching the airshow, killing 29 spectators, the pilot and navigator on the DH.110.
On 13 September 1964, a Bristol Bulldog G-ABBB, marked as K2227 and owned by the Shuttleworth Trust, crashed whilst performing a loop - the pilot w
John Siddeley, 1st Baron Kenilworth
John Davenport Siddeley, 1st Baron Kenilworth, was a pioneer of the motor industry in the United Kingdom manufacturing aero engines and air frames as well as motor vehicles. The eldest son of William Siddeley and his wife born Elizabeth Davenport, J D Siddeley was born in Longsight, Manchester in 1866 and first worked for his father as an apprentice hosier but took night classes in draughting. In 1892, the young bicycle racer and designer was hired as a draughtsman by the Humber Cycle Company; the managing director of Dunlop picked him out at Humber and hired Siddeley as Dunlop's Belfast sales manager. In 1900 as managing director of Dunlop's Midlands subsidiary Clipper Tyre Company he gained prominence in the motor industry by driving a 6 hp Daimler car through England's Thousand Miles Trial with marked success; this followed cycling from Land's End to John o' Groats to publicise the new pneumatic tyre. He married Sarah Mabel Goodier, daughter of James Goodier of Macclesfield, in 1893 and they lived in Belfast for a short time but by August 1894, they were living in Meriden, Coventry where eldest son, was born.
They were to have two daughters. Siddeley founded his Siddeley Autocar Company in 1902 to manufacture cars to Peugeot designs, he had Peugeot-based demonstration cars at the Crystal Palace in 1903. By 1905, the company had a dozen models for sale and some of them were built for him at Vickers' Crayford, Kent factory. During 1905 Wolseley—which dominated the UK car market—purchased the goodwill and patent rights of his Siddeley Autocar Company business and appointed Siddeley London sales manager of Herbert Austin's The Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company Limited owned by Vickers and Maxim. A few months Herbert Austin left Wolseley to found his own Austin Motor Company and Siddeley was appointed manager of Wolseley in his place and, without authority, added Siddeley to the badge on the Wolseley cars, he resigned from Wolseley in 1909 to go into partnership with H P P Deasy and manage the Deasy Motor Company of Coventry. By 1912, when Deasy resigned because of his ill-health, Siddeley had added his name to the Deasy product's radiator.
In November 1912 Deasy's business became—by popular vote of the shareholders—Siddeley-Deasy. During World War I it grew producing aircraft engines and airframes with the assistance of distinguished staff from the Royal Aircraft Factory at Farnborough as well as motor vehicles including ambulances using Rover chassis and Daimler and Aster engines and employed around 5,000 workers, he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1918 New Year Honours for his efforts during the First World War. In 1918 John Siddeley and his family moved to Kenilworth; the same building became St Joseph's School and is now Crackley Hall School. Siddeley arranged a takeover of Siddeley-Deasy's motorcar, aircraft engine and aircraft business by Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth and Co Ltd and its amalgamation with the Armstrong Whitworth motor department in 1919, they renamed their new entity Armstrong Siddeley Motors. It was to continue until 1960. Siddeley's new holding company established Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft in July 1920.
Next Siddeley took advantage of parent companies Armstrong's and Vickers' financial difficulties of the mid 1920s and by 1927 he had gained control of all three Siddeley businesses. He remained their chairman until 1935 when, at the age of 70, he arranged his last takeover with Hawker Aircraft who formed Hawker Siddeley though the Siddeley businesses kept their identities. From this arrangement he received "£1 million and numerous benefits". Siddeley was knighted in 1932. Sir John Siddeley was elected president of the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders for 1937-1938 - the highest honour the British Motor Industry could bestow; that same year he was raised to the peerage as Baron Kenilworth, of Kenilworth in the County of Warwick. He was elected president of the Society of British Aircraft Constructors for 1932-1933—now Society of British Aerospace Companies— and elected president of the Engineering and Allied Employers' National Federation for 1935-1936. On his retirement he gave to the nation the historic Kenilworth Castle.
To commemorate the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1937, Lord Kenilworth made a gift of £100,000 to Fairbridge Farm Schools, a charity to offer opportunities and education abroad to young people from broken homes. After his retirement he moved to Jersey where he died a few days after his wife in November 1953, aged 87, a voluntary tax exile and a rich man, he was succeeded in the barony by his son Cyril