Georg Lindemann was a German general during World War II. He commanded the 18th Army during the Soviet Kingisepp–Gdov Offensive. In 1936, Lindemann was promoted to Generalmajor and given command of the 36th Infantry Division which took part in the Invasion of France. Lindemann was given command of the L Army Corps. In June 1941, at the launch of Operation Barbarossa, Lindemann's Corps was a part of Army Group North. Lindemann commanded the corps during the advance towards Leningrad, his unit was shifted to the command of Army Group Centre during the Battle of Smolensk. Lindemann's corps was shifted back to Army Group North. On 16 January 1942, Lindemann took the command of a part of Army Group North. In the summer of 1942, he was promoted to Generaloberst. Lindemann commanded the 18th Army throughout the campaigns around Leningrad and during the January 1944 retreat from the Oranienbaum Bridgehead to Narva, he was promoted to command of Army Group North on 31 March 1944. On 4 July 1944, he was transferred to the Reserve Army.
On 1 February 1945, he was appointed to the command of all German troops in Denmark as the "Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces in Denmark". Germany surrendered unconditionally in northwest Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark on 5 May 1945. Lindemann was given the task of dismantling the German occupation of Denmark until 6 June 1945, when he was arrested at his headquarters in Silkeborg, he was held in American custody until 1948. Lindemann died in 1963 in West Germany. Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd Class & 1st Class Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves Knight's Cross on 5 August 1940 as Generalleutnant and commander of the 36. Infantry-Division Oak Leaves on 21 August 1943 as Generaloberst and commander of the 18. Armee
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation stemmed from Nazi Germany's ideological aims to conquer the western Soviet Union so that it could be repopulated by Germans, to use Slavs as a slave labour force for the Axis war effort, to murder the rest, to acquire the oil reserves of the Caucasus and the agricultural resources of Soviet territories. In the two years leading up to the invasion and the Soviet Union signed political and economic pacts for strategic purposes; the German High Command began planning an invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1940, which Adolf Hitler authorized on 18 December 1940. Over the course of the operation, about three million personnel of the Axis powers – the largest invasion force in the history of warfare – invaded the western Soviet Union along a 2,900-kilometer front. In addition to troops, the Wehrmacht deployed some 600,000 motor vehicles, between 600,000 and 700,000 horses for non-combat operations.
The offensive marked an escalation of World War II, both geographically and in the formation of the Allied coalition. Operationally, German forces achieved major victories and occupied some of the most important economic areas of the Soviet Union and inflicted, as well as sustained, heavy casualties. Despite these Axis successes, the German offensive stalled in the Battle of Moscow at the end of 1941, the subsequent Soviet winter counteroffensive pushed German troops back; the Red Army absorbed the Wehrmacht's strongest blows and forced the Germans into a war of attrition that they were unprepared for. The Wehrmacht never again mounted a simultaneous offensive along the entire Eastern front; the failure of the operation drove Hitler to demand further operations of limited scope inside the Soviet Union, such as Case Blue in 1942 and Operation Citadel in 1943 – all of which failed. The failure of Operation Barbarossa proved a turning point in the fortunes of the Third Reich. Most the operation opened up the Eastern Front, in which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history.
The Eastern Front became the site of some of the largest battles, most horrific atrocities, highest World War II casualties, all of which influenced the course of both World War II and the subsequent history of the 20th century. The German armies captured 5,000,000 Red Army troops, who were denied the protection guaranteed by the Hague Conventions and the 1929 Geneva Convention. A majority of Red Army POWs never returned alive; the Nazis deliberately starved to death, or otherwise killed, 3.3 million prisoners of war, as well as a huge number of civilians. Einsatzgruppen death-squads and gassing operations murdered over a million Soviet Jews as part of the Holocaust; as early as 1925, Adolf Hitler vaguely declared in his political manifesto and autobiography Mein Kampf that he would invade the Soviet Union, asserting that the German people needed to secure Lebensraum to ensure the survival of Germany for generations to come. On 10 February 1939, Hitler told his army commanders that the next war would be "purely a war of Weltanschauungen... a people's war, a racial war".
On 23 November, once World War II had started, Hitler declared that "racial war has broken out and this war shall determine who shall govern Europe, with it, the world". The racial policy of Nazi Germany portrayed the Soviet Union as populated by non-Aryan Untermenschen, ruled by Jewish Bolshevik conspirators. Hitler claimed in Mein Kampf that Germany's destiny was to "turn to the East" as it did "six hundred years ago". Accordingly, it was stated Nazi policy to kill, deport, or enslave the majority of Russian and other Slavic populations and repopulate the land with Germanic peoples, under the Generalplan Ost; the Germans' belief in their ethnic superiority is evident in official German records and discernible in pseudoscientific articles in German periodicals at the time, which covered topics such as "how to deal with alien populations". While older histories tended to emphasize the notion of a "Clean Wehrmacht", the historian Jürgen Förster notes that "In fact, the military commanders were caught up in the ideological character of the conflict, involved in its implementation as willing participants."
Before and during the invasion of the Soviet Union, German troops were indoctrinated with anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic, anti-Slavic ideology via movies, lectures and leaflets. Likening the Soviets to the forces of Genghis Khan, Hitler told Croatian military leader Slavko Kvaternik that the "Mongolian race" threatened Europe. Following the invasion, Wehrmacht officers told their soldiers to target people who were described as "Jewish Bolshevik subhumans", the "Mongol hordes", the "Asiatic flood", the "Red beast". Nazi propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish and Slavic Untermenschen. An'order from the Führer' stated that the Einsatzgruppen were to execute all Soviet functionaries who were "less valuable Asiatics and Jews". Six months into the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen had murdered in excess of 500,000 Soviet Jews, a figure greater than the number of Red Army soldiers killed in combat during that same time frame.
German army command
18th Army (Wehrmacht)
The 18th Army was a World War II field army in the German Wehrmacht. Formed in November 1939 in Military Region VI, the 18th Army was part of the offensive into the Netherlands and Belgium during Fall Gelb and moved into France in 1940; the 18th Army was moved East and participated in Operation Barbarossa in 1941. The Army was a part of the Army Group North until early 1945, when it was subordinated to Army Group Kurland. In October 1944, the army was encircled by the Red Army offensives and spent the remainder of the war in the Courland Pocket. 5 November 1939 – 16 January 1942 Generalfeldmarschall Georg von Küchler 16 January 1942 – 29 March 1944 Generaloberst Georg Lindemann 29 March 1944 – 2 September 1944 General der Artillerie Herbert Loch 5 September 1944 – 8 May 1945 General der Infanterie Ehrenfried-Oskar BoegeChiefs of the Generalstab 5 November 1939 – 10 December 1940 Generalmajor Erich Marcks 10 December 1940 – 19 January 1941 Generalmajor Wilhelm Hasse 19 January 1941 – 17 November 1942 Generalmajor Dr. Ing. h.c.
Kurt Waeger 24 November 1942 – 1 December 1943 Generalmajor Hans Speth 1 December 1943 – 25 January 1945 Generalmajor Friedrich Foertsch 25 January 1945 – 5 March 1945 Oberst i. G. Wilhelm Hetzel 5 March 1945 – 10 May 1945 Generalmajor Ernst Merk XXVI Army Corps 256th Infantry Division 254th Infantry Division SS "Der Führer" Regiment X Army Corps SS "Adolf Hitler" Regiment 227th Infantry Division 207th Infantry Division 1st Cavalry Division Direct control of Army Headquarters SS "Verfügungstruppe" Division 9th Panzer Division 208th Infantry Division 225th Infantry Division XXXVIII Army Corps 58th Infantry Division 291st Infantry Division XXVI Army Corps 1st Infantry Division 61st Infantry Division 217th Infantry Division I Army Corps 11th Infantry Division 21st Infantry Division L Army Corps LIV Army Corps XXVI Army Corps XXVIII Army Corps I Army Corps XXVIII Army Corps 12th Luftwaffe Division Kampfgruppe Hoefer 21st Infantry Division 30th Infantry Division XXXVIII Army Corps 121st Infantry Division 32nd Infantry Division 21st Luftwaffe Division 83rd Infantry Division L Army Corps 218th Infantry Division 19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS 126th Infantry Division 93rd Infantry Division 15th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Kampfgruppe Streckenbach Direct control of Army Headquarters Headquarters VI SS Corps 207th Security Division 300th Division zbV L Army Corps 11th Infantry Division 290th Infantry Division II Army Corps 563rd Volksgrenadier Division 126th Infantry Division 263rd Infantry Division 87th Infantry Division I Army Corps 225th Infantry Division 132nd Infantry Division X Army Corps 30th Infantry Division 121st Infantry Division Kampfgruppe Gise Direct control of Army Headquarters 52nd Security Division 14th Panzer Division Tessin, Georg.
Die Landstreitkräfte 15—30. Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen SS im Zweiten Weltkrieg 1939—1945. 4. Frankfurt/Main: E. S. Mittler. Pp. 80–85
Ferdinand Schörner was a general and Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. He was the last Commander-in-chief of the German Army. Schörner is represented in historical literature as a simple disciplinarian and a slavish devotee of Hitler's defensive orders. More recent research by American historian Howard Davis Grier and German historian Karl-Heinz Frieser depicts Schörner as a talented commander with "astonishing" organizational ability in managing an army group of 500,000 men during the fighting in late 1944 on the Eastern Front, he was harsh against superiors as well as subordinates and carried out operations on his own authority against Hitler's orders when he considered it necessary, such as the evacuation of the Sõrve Peninsula. Schörner became well known for his brutality. By the end of World War II he was Hitler's favorite commander. Following the war he was convicted of war crimes by courts in the Soviet Union and West Germany and was imprisoned in the USSR, East Germany and West Germany.
At his death in 1973 he was the last living German Field Marshal. Schörner was born on 12 June 1892 in Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire. A veteran of World War I, he was awarded the Pour le Mérite military order as a lieutenant when he took part in the Austro-Hungarian and German Battle of Caporetto, which shattered the Italian lines in autumn 1917. Schörner served as a staff instructor between the two wars. In 1923 he was adjutant to General Otto von Lossow, the commander of Military District VII in Munich and participated in the defeat of the Beer Hall Putsch. Schörner commanded the 98th Mountain Regiment in the invasion of Poland in 1939. During the 1941 Balkans campaign, he commanded the German 6th Mountain Division and earned the Knight's Cross for his role in breaching the Metaxas Line. With this division, Schörner took part in Operation Barbarossa in June 1941; the 6th Gebirgs Division was assigned to the Arctic sectors in the Eastern Front. In 1942 as a General der Gebirgstruppe he took command of the XIX Mountain Corps, part of the German Army in Finland.
With this command he participated in the failed attack on Murmansk and the stalemate war that followed. Schörner's task was to keep the Pechenga Nickel Works in German hands; when the Soviets opened an offensive against the Arctic sector, the division took part in the fighting. In January 1942, Schörner was promoted to the rank of Generalleutnant, commanding the Mountain Corps Norway, he commanded the XXXX Panzer Corps on the Eastern Front from November 1943 to January 1944. In March 1944 he was made commander of Army Group A, in May commander of Army Group South Ukraine. After stating that the Crimean port of Sevastopol could be held for a long time if Crimea fell, he changed his mind and against Hitler's wishes, evacuated the Black Sea port; this retreat occurred too late and the German–Romanian 17th Army, holding Crimea suffered severe losses, with many men killed or captured while waiting on the piers to be evacuated. During the late spring of 1944, Schörner oversaw the retreat from the Dniester River in Romania.
Schörner was promoted to the rank of Generaloberst in April 1944. In July he became commander of Army Group North, renamed Army Group Courland, where he stayed until January 1945 when he was made commander of Army Group Centre, defending Czechoslovakia and the upper reaches of the River Oder, he became a favorite of high-level Nazi leaders such as Joseph Goebbels, whose diary entries from March and April 1945 have many words of praise for Schörner and his methods. On 4 April 1945, Schörner was promoted to field marshal and was named as the new Commander-in-Chief of the German Army High Command in Hitler's last testament, he nominally served in this post until the surrender of the Third Reich on 8 May 1945 but continued to command his army group, since no staff was available to him. He did not have any discernible influence in the final days of the Reich. On 7 May, the day General Alfred Jodl, Chief-of-Staff of OKW was negotiating the surrender of all German forces at SHAEF, the last the OKW had heard from Schörner was on 2 May.
He had reported he intended to surrender his army group to the Americans. On 8 May, "OKW" Colonel Wilhelm Meyer-Detring was escorted through the American lines to contact Schörner; the colonel reported that Schörner had ordered his operational command to observe the surrender but he could not guarantee that he would be obeyed everywhere. Schörner ordered a continuation of fighting against Red Army and the Czech insurgents of the Prague uprising; that day, Schörner deserted and flew to Austria, where he was arrested by the Americans on 18 May. Elements of Army Group Centre continued to resist the overwhelming force of the Red Army liberating Czechoslovakia during the final Prague Offensive. Units of Army Group Centre, the last big German units to surrender, capitulated on 11 May 1945. Schörner was arrested in August 1951 by the Soviet authorities on charges of war crimes. In February 1952 the Military Board of the USSR Supreme Court sentenced him to 25 years of imprisonment. A decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in April 1952 reduced this sentence to 12 and a half years.
A decree of December 1954 allowed him to be handed over to authorities of the German Democratic Republic, which allowed him to leave for West Germany in 1958. There he was arrested and charged with executions of German Army soldiers accused of desertion, found guilty and sentenced to four and a half years' jail, which he served, he was released in 1963 and lived in obscurity in Munich until his death in 1973. In the late 1960s he gave a lengthy interview to Italian histor
The Demyansk Pocket was the name given to the pocket of German troops encircled by the Red Army around Demyansk, south of Leningrad, during World War II on the Eastern Front. The pocket existed from 8 February to 21 April 1942. A much smaller force was surrounded in the Kholm Pocket at the town of Kholm, about 100 km to the southwest. Both resulted from the German retreat following their defeat during the Battle of Moscow; the successful defence of Demyansk, achieved through the use of an airbridge, was a significant development in modern warfare. Its success was a major contributor to the decision by the Army High Command to try the same tactic during the Battle of Stalingrad where it failed to save the 6th Army under Paulus; the encirclement began as the Demyansk Offensive Operation, the first phase being carried out from 7 January-20 May 1942 on the initiative of General Lieutenant Pavel Kurochkin, commander of Northwestern Front. The intention was to sever the link between the German Demyansk positions, the Staraya Russa railway that formed the lines of communication of the German 16th Army.
However, owing to the difficult wooded and swampy terrain, heavy snow cover, the initial advance by the Front was modest against stubborn opposition. On 8 January, a new offensive called the Rzhev–Vyazma Strategic Offensive Operation started; this incorporated the previous Front's planning into the Toropets–Kholm Offensive Operation between 9 January and 6 February 1942 which formed the southern pincer of the attack that, beginning the second phase of the northern pincer Demyansk Offensive Operation between 7 January and 20 May, which encircled the German 16th Army's II Army Corps, parts of the X Army Corps during winter 1941/1942. German forces inside the pocket consisted of 12th, 30th, 32nd, 123rd and 290th infantry divisions, the SS Division Totenkopf, as well as Reich Labour Service, Organisation Todt, other auxiliary units, for a total of about 90,000 German troops and around 10,000 auxiliaries, their commander was commander of the II Army Corps. The intent of the Northwestern Front offensive was to encircle the entire northern flank of the 16th Army's forces, of which the 2nd Army Corps was only a small part, the Soviet command was desperate to keep the Front moving after this success.
The first thrust was made by the 11th Army, 1st Shock Army and the 1st and 2nd Guards Rifle Corps released for the operation from Stavka reserve. A second thrust was executed on 12 February by the 3rd and 4th Shock Armies of the Kalinin Front, with the additional plan of directly attacking the encircled German forces by inserting two airborne brigades to support the advance of the 34th Army; the front soon settled as the Soviet offensive petered out bad weather. After being assured that the pocket could be supplied with its daily requirement of 300 short tons of supplies by Luftflotte 1, Hitler ordered that the surrounded divisions hold their positions until relieved; the pocket contained two viable airfields at Demyansk and Peski capable of receiving transport aircraft. From the middle of February, the weather improved and while there was still considerable snow on the ground at this time, resupply operations were very successful due to inactivity of the VVS in the area. However, the operation did use up all of Luftflotte 1's transport capability, as well as elements of its bomber force.
Over the winter and spring, the Northwestern Front launched a number of attacks on the "Ramushevo corridor" that formed the tenuous link between Demyansk and Staraya Russa but was unable to reduce the pocket. On 21 March 1942, German forces under the command of General Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach attempted to manoevre through the "Ramushevo corridor". Soviet resistance on the Lovat River delayed II Corps' attack until April 14. Over the next several weeks, this corridor was widened. A battle group was able to break the siege on 22 April. Out of the 100,000 men in the pocket, there were 3,335 lost and over 10,000 wounded. Between the forming of the pocket in early February to the abandonment of Demyansk in May, the two pockets received 65,000 short tons of supplies, 31,000 replacement troops, 36,000 wounded were evacuated; the supplies were delivered through over 100 flights of whitewashed Junkers Ju 52 transport aircraft per day. However, the cost was significant; the Luftwaffe lost 265 aircraft, including 106 Junkers Ju 52, 17 Heinkel He 111 and two Junkers Ju 86 aircraft.
In addition, 387 airmen were lost. Richard Overy argues that the Demyansk airlift was a Pyrrhic victory, citing the loss of over 200 aircraft and their crew "when annual production of transports was running at only 500. Fighting in the area continued until 28 February 1943; the Soviet forces did not retake Demyansk until 1 March 1943, with the organized withdrawl of the German troops. The success of the Luftwaffe convinced Reich Marschall Hermann Göring and Hitler that they could conduct effective airlift operations on the Eastern front. Furthermore, it "determined Hitler in his belief that encircled troops should automatically hold on to their territory. After the German 6th Army was encircled in the Battle of Stalingrad, Göring convinced Hitler to resupply the besieged forces by airlift until a relief effort could reach them.
Georg von Küchler
Georg von Küchler was a German Field Marshal and war criminal during World War II. He commanded the 18th Army and Army Group North during the Soviet-German war of 1941–1945. After the end of the war, he was tried in the High Command Trial, as part of the Subsequent Nuremberg trials. On 27 October 1948 was sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the Soviet Union, he was released in 1953. Born on 30 May 1881 at Schloss Philippsruh, Küchler's family were Prussian Junker, he entered the Imperial Army in 1900 as an officer cadet in the artillery. He was posted to the 25th Field Artillery Regiment and the following year was commissioned as a Leutnant, he remained in his regiment until 1907. He received a promotion to Oberleutnant in 1910 and studied at the Prussian Military Academy for three years, he joined the Greater General Staff in Berlin after his graduation from the academy in 1913. When World War I commenced, Küchler was sent to the Western Front.
Now a Hauptmann, he was given command of an artillery battery. He participated in the battles at the Somme and Verdun and in the Champagne Province. Within months of arriving on the Western Front, he had been awarded both the first and second classes of the Iron Cross. After serving on the frontlines, Küchler performed staff duties at IV Corps and VIII Corps. By the end of 1916 he was the'Staff Operations' with the 206th Infantry Division, he returned to Germany in the war to take a similar post with 8th Reserve Division. By the end of the war he was serving of the staff of Rüdiger von der Goltz, commander of the Baltic Sea Division. After the armistice and still in the Baltics, he joined the Freikorps and fought the Red Army in Poland. After the war, Küchler was retained in the postwar Reichswehr, he served in the 1st Military District in Eastern Prussia before been given command of a battery in the 5th Artillery Regiment. Promoted to major in 1924, he was appointed Commandant of Münster for a time, before serving with the Defence Ministry as inspector of schools.
By 1931 he had reached the rank of Oberst and the following year was deputy commander of what was to become the 1st Infantry Division. By 1934 he was commander of the division having been promoted to Generalmajor that October, he received a further promotion the next year, to Generalleutnant and a new posting, Inspector of Army Schools. In 1938 Küchler supported Adolf Hitler in his removal of Werner von Blomberg and Werner von Fritsch from power. At this stage of his career, Küchler was a General of Artillery and commander of the 1st Military District; this was a challenging post as it was in East Prussia and surrounded by Poland. Much of his work was in improving the defences of the area but in March 1939, his troops marched into the Lithuanian city of Memel. On the outbreak of World War II, Küchler's district headquarters was designated as the Wehrmacht's 3rd Army, he now controlled seven infantry divisions, the Panzer Division Kempf plus four commands of brigade size. During the invasion of Poland, some of Küchler’s troops captured Danzig while the bulk of his forces advanced against the Polish Modlin Army.
Having taken 10,000 prisoners, Panzer Division Kempf was within 50 miles of Warsaw but it, along with the rest of the 3rd Army, was diverted to the east of Poland. Küchler's forces dealt with the Polish units in the area and linked up with Soviet troops. At the conclusion of the Polish campaign, Küchler, still based in Poland, was designated the commander of Army Frontier Command North. In November 1939, Küchler was appointed commander of the 18th Army being organised in northern Germany, it comprised five infantry divisions, as well as a motorized division and the 9th Panzer Division, intended for operations against Holland. In 1940 he was supportive of Nazi racial policy and ordered on 22 February a halt to any criticism of "ethnic struggle being carried out in the General Government, for instance, that of the Polish minorities, of the Jews and those regarding Church matters", his order explained that the "final ethnic solution" required harsh measures. Küchler was an active supporter of the planned war of annihilation against the Soviet Union.
After meeting Hitler in March 1941 to plan for Operation Barbarossa, Küchler told his divisional commanders on 25 April 1941:"We are separated from Russia and racially, by a deep abyss. Russia is, if only by the mass of her territory, an Asian state... The Führer does not wish to palm off responsibility for Germany's existence on to a generation. If Germany wishes to live in peace for generations, safe from a threatening danger in the East, this cannot be a case of pushing Russia back a little-or hundreds of kilometers-but the aim must be to annihilate European Russia, to dissolve the Russian state in Europe". Küchler went on to call. During Operation Barbarossa, the 18th Army forced its way to Ostrov and Pskov after the Soviet troops of the Northwestern Front retreated towards Leningrad. On 10 July 1941, both Ostrov and Pskov were captured and the 18th Army reached Narva and Kingisepp, from where advance toward Leningrad continued from the Luga River line; this had the effect of creating siege positions from the Gulf of Finland to Lake Ladoga, with the eventual aim of isolating Leningrad from all directions.
Küchler was directly involved in the murder of mentally disabled people in the occupied Soviet Union. In December 1941, with his express consent, units of the SD shot 240 mental patients. On
The Daugava or Western Dvina is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, flowing through Russia and Latvia and into the Gulf of Riga. The total length of the river is 1,020 km; the total catchment area of the river is 33,150 km2 of which are within Belarus. According to the Max Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary, the toponym Dvina cannot stem from a Uralic language, it comes from Indo-European word which used to mean river or stream; the river began experiencing environmental deterioration in the era of Soviet collective agriculture and a wave of hydroelectric power projects. Andreapol, Zapadnaya Dvina and Velizh. Ruba, Beshankovichy, Polotsk with Boris stones strewn in the vicinity, Dzisna and Druya. Krāslava, Daugavpils, Līvāni, Jēkabpils, Pļaviņas, Jaunjelgava, Lielvārde, Ogre, Ikšķile and Riga. Humans have settled at the mouth of the Daugava and around the other shores of the Gulf of Riga for millennia participating in a hunter-gatherer economy and utilizing the waters of the Daugava estuary as fishing and gathering areas for aquatic biota.
Beginning around the sixth century AD, Viking explorers crossed the Baltic Sea and entered the Daugava River, navigating upriver into the Baltic interior. In medieval times the Daugava was an important area of trading and navigation - part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks - for transport of furs from the north and of Byzantine silver from the south; the Riga area, inhabited by the Finnic-speaking Livs, became a key element of settlement and defence of the mouth of the Daugava at least as early as the Middle Ages, as evidenced by the now destroyed fort at Torņakalns on the west bank of the Daugava at present day Riga. Since the Late Middle Ages the western part of the Daugava basin has come under the rule of various peoples and states. Upstream of the Latvian town of Jekabpils the pH has a characteristic value of about 7.8. The high nitrate and phosphate load of the Daugava is instrumental to the buildup of extensive phytoplankton biomass in the Baltic Sea. In Belarus, water pollution of the Daugava is considered moderately severe, with the chief sources being treated wastewater, fish-farming and agricultural chemical runoff.
Richard C. Frucht. Latvia. Eastern Europe. ABC-CLIO. P. 115. Retrieved 2009-08-01. Francis W. Carter and David Turnock. 2002. Environmental problems of East Central Europe. 442 pages Google eBook Daugava River photos at flickr