A field army is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Likewise, air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces, a field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are named or numbered to distinguish them from army in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as First Army, whereas corps are usually distinguished by Roman numerals. A field army may be given a name in addition to or as an alternative to a numerical name, such as the British Army of the Rhine. The term is derived from the fact that they were commanded by Roman emperors, while the Roman comitatensis is sometimes translated as field army, it may be translated as the more generic field force or mobile force. In some armed forces, an army is or has been equivalent to a corps-level unit, prior to 1945, this was the case with a gun within the Imperial Japanese Army, for which the formation equivalent in size to a field army was an area army.
In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Forces, an army was subordinate in wartime to a front and it contained at least three to five divisions along with artillery, air defense and other supporting units. In peacetime, a Soviet army was subordinate to a military district. Modern field armies are large formations which vary significantly between armed forces in size and scope of responsibility. For instance, within NATO a field army is composed of a headquarters, a battle is influenced at the field army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. NATO armies are controlled by a general or lieutenant general, Military unit Military history List of numbered armies
Jesse L. Reno
Jesse Lee Reno was a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican–American War, the Utah War, the western frontier, and as a Union General during the American Civil War. Known as a soldier who fought alongside his men, he was killed while commanding a corps at Foxs Gap during the Battle of South Mountain. Reno County, Kansas, El Reno, Reno, Reno and Fort Reno in Washington, Reno was born in Wheeling, the third-oldest of eight children of Lewis Thomas and Rebecca Reno. His ancestors changed the spelling of their surname Renault to the more Anglicized Reno when they arrived in the United States from France in 1770 and his family moved to the Franklin, area in 1830, and Reno spent his childhood there. Reno was admitted to the United States Military Academy in 1842 and graduated eighth in his class of 59 cadets in 1846, Reno and Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson became close friends while at West Point. Other classmates and friends included George B, mcClellan, George Pickett, Darius N.
Couch, A. P. Hill, and George Stoneman. During the Mexican–American War in 1847, Reno commanded a battery under General Winfield Scott and fought in the Siege of Vera Cruz. During the occupation of Mexico City, Reno became a member of the Aztec Club of 1847. C. He was promoted to first lieutenant, in 1853, and sent to conduct a survey from the Big Sioux River to Mendota, Minnesota. Reno graduated from Lehigh University and invented the first working escalator, renos next assignment was as ordnance officer at the Frankford Arsenal, northeast of Philadelphia, where he spent the next few years. In 1857, Reno was assigned to go with Brig. Gen. Albert Sydney Johnston as chief of ordnance on an expedition to the Utah Territory. When he returned from Utah in 1859, Reno was promoted to captain for fourteen years of continuous service, captain Reno took command of the Mount Vernon Arsenal near Mount Vernon, Alabama, in 1859. At dawn on January 4,1861, Reno was forced to surrender the arsenal to troops from Alabama, Alabama seceded from the Union a week later.
Upon leaving Alabama with his force, Reno was temporarily assigned to command the Fort Leavenworth Arsenal until he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers in the fall of 1861. He transferred to Virginia, took command of the 2nd Brigade, Burnside Expeditionary Force, the 2nd Brigade fought in Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnsides North Carolina Expedition from February through July 1862. Reno became a commander in the IX Corps, which had become part of the Army of the Potomac. In the Northern Virginia Campaign, Reno actively opposed his friend and classmate Stonewall Jackson during the Second Battle of Bull Run, Reno was appointed a major general on August 20,1862. Burnside became commander of the Army of the Potomacs right wing for the start of the Maryland Campaign in September, Reno had a reputation as a soldiers soldier and often was right beside his troops without a sword or any sign of rank
Samuel D. Sturgis
Samuel Davis Sturgis was an American military officer who served in the Mexican-American War, as a Union general in the American Civil War, and in the Indian Wars. Sturgis was born in Shippensburg and his parents were Mary Brandenburg and James Sturgis. He entered United States Military Academy at the age of twenty and was graduated 32/59 in the class of 1846 as a brevet second lieutenant in the 2nd U. S. Dragoons. That class included among its graduates John Gibbon, George B, mcClellan, Jesse Reno, and George Stoneman, who would fight on the Union side and Ambrose Powell Hill, Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson, and George Pickett, who would fight on the Confederate side. During the Mexican-American War, he served with the 1st U. S. Dragoons and was captured and held for eight days as a prisoner of war while making a reconnaissance near Buena Vista, Mexico. After the war, he served in the West, was promoted to first lieutenant and captain, during this time, Sturgis was sent to West Ely, where he met Jerusha Wilcox.
In 1851 they married and had six children, when the Civil War broke out, Sturgis served in the 1st U. S. Cavalry. He was promoted to major and in August 1861, at the Battle of Wilsons Creek, in March 1862 he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers to rank from August 10,1861, the day of the battle. After a tour of duty in the Washington, D. C. defenses and his reaction was his now-famous remark, I dont care for John Pope one pinch of owl dung. Sturgis commanded the 2nd Division in the IX Corps at the battles of South Mountain, Antietam and he went west with IX Corps in 1863 and had a number of relatively unimportant commands in Tennessee and Mississippi. He served as Chief of Cavalry of the Department of the Ohio, in June 1864 he was routed by Nathan Bedford Forrest at the Battle of Brices Crossroads in Mississippi, an encounter that effectively ended his Civil War service. Sturgis was breveted brigadier general and major general, regular army, in March 1865 and he reverted to his regular rank of lieutenant colonel of the 6th U. S.
Cavalry. On May 6,1869, he became colonel and commander of the 7th U. S. Cavalry, Sturgis was on detached duty at St. Louis, Missouri when parts of the 7th Cavalry were destroyed at the Battle of Little Big Horn. Samuel Sturgis took command of the regiment and led the 7th Cavalry in the campaign against the Nez Percé in 1877. Sturgis and his soldiers headed off the Nez Perce and waited to attack them after when they emerged from their passage through the wilderness of Yellowstone Park, the Indians deceived Sturgis with a feint and eluded him, continuing their flight northward toward Canada. Sturgis soon caught up with the Nez Perce but at the Battle of Canyon Creek, Sturgis retired in 1886 and died at Saint Paul, Minnesota. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery and his son Samuel D. Sturgis, Jr. became a general in the United States Army, and was a division commander in the American Expeditionary Force during World War I. His grandson Samuel D. Sturgis, Jr. became a general in the United States Army, the city of Sturgis, South Dakota, is named for Samuel D.
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
Northern Virginia Campaign
Concerned that Popes army would combine forces with Maj. Gen. George B. McClellans Army of the Potomac and overwhelm him, Lee sent Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson north to intercept Popes advance toward Gordonsville, the two forces initially clashed at Cedar Mountain on August 9, a Confederate victory. Lee determined that McClellans army on the Virginia Peninsula was no longer a threat to Richmond and sent most of the rest of his army, Maj. Gen. James Longstreets command, following Jackson. Jackson conducted a wide-ranging maneuver around Popes right flank, seizing the large depot in Popes rear, at Manassas Junction. On August 30, Pope attacked again, but was surprised to be caught between attacks by Longstreet and Jackson, and was forced to withdraw with heavy losses, the campaign concluded with another flanking maneuver by Jackson, which Pope engaged at the Battle of Chantilly on September 1. Lees maneuvering of the Army of Northern Virginia against Pope is considered a military masterpiece, historian John J.
Hennessy wrote that Lee may have fought cleverer battles, but this was his greatest campaign. After the collapse of McClellans Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862, Pope had achieved some success in the Western Theater, and Lincoln sought a more aggressive general than McClellan. Some of his men were encouraged by Popes aggressive tone. Gen Jacob D. Coxs division from western Virginia, the new army was divided into three corps of 51,000 men, under Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel, replacing Frémont, who refused to serve under Pope and resigned his command, and McDowell. Sturgiss Washington troops constituted the Army reserve, Cavalry brigades under Col. John Beardsley and Brig. John P. Hatch and George D. Bayard were attached directly to the three corps, a lack of centralized control that had negative effects in the campaign. Parts of three corps of McClellans Army of the Potomac and Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnsides IX Corps, eventually joined Pope for combat operations, raising his strength to 77,000.
On the Confederate side, General Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia was organized into two wings or commands of about 55,000 men, the right wing was commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet, the left by Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson. The Cavalry Division under Maj. Gen. J. E. B, Stuart was attached to Jacksons wing. Whiting, Theophilus Holmes, Benjamin Huger, and John B and his former command was divided into two parts led by Brig. Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson got Hugers division, David R. Jones and Lafayette McLaws continued in command of their divisions, both of which had been part of Magruders Army of the Peninsula. Maj. Gen. D. H. Hills command was placed under Longstreet. Also joining was Brig. Gen. Nathan G. Shanks Evanss independent South Carolina brigade, McLaws and Hill were left in Richmond, and so Longstreet would take only five divisions north
The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 until the end of Reconstruction in 1877. During the war, Radical Republicans often opposed Lincoln in terms of selection of generals, Radicals pushed for the uncompensated abolition of slavery, while Lincoln wanted to pay slave owners who were loyal to the Union. After the war, the Radicals demanded civil rights for freedmen and they initiated the various Reconstruction Acts, and limited political and voting rights for ex-Confederate civil officials, military officers and soldiers. They bitterly fought President Andrew Johnson, they weakened his powers and attempted to remove him from office through impeachment, the term radical was in common use in the anti-slavery movement before the Civil War, referring not to abolitionists but to Northern politicians strongly opposed to Slave Power. There was movement in both directions, some of the pre-war radicals became more conservative during the war, while some prewar moderates became Radicals, some wartime radicals had been conservative Democrats before the war, often taking proslavery positions.
The Radicals were never organized, and there was movement in. Their most successful and systematic leader was Pennsylvania Congressman Thaddeus Stevens in the House of Representatives, the Democrats were strongly opposed to the Radicals, but they were generally a weak minority in politics until they took control of the House in the 1874 congressional elections. The moderate and conservative Republican factions usually opposed the radicals, Lincoln tried to build a multi-faction coalition, including radicals, conservatives and War Democrats, while he was often opposed by the Radicals, he never ostracized them. Andrew Johnson was thought to be a Radical when he became president in 1865, however, was so inept as a politician he was unable to form a cohesive support network. Finally in 1872, the Liberal Republicans, most of them ex-radicals, ran a presidential campaign and they argued that Grant and the Radicals were corrupt, and had imposed Reconstruction far too long on the South. They were overwhelmingly defeated and collapsed as a movement, on issues not concerned with the Slave Power, the destruction of the Confederacy, the eradication of slavery and the rights of the Freedmen, Radicals took positions all over the political map.
For example, Radicals who had once been Whigs generally supported high tariffs, some men were for hard money and no inflation, and others were for soft money and inflation. On foreign policy issues, the Radicals and moderates generally did not take distinctive positions, after the 1860 elections, moderate Republicans dominated the Congress. Radical Republicans were often critical of Lincoln, who believed was too slow in freeing slaves. Lincoln put all factions in his cabinet, including Radicals like Salmon P. Chase, Lincoln appointed many Radical Republicans, such as journalist James Shepherd Pike, to key diplomatic positions. Angry with Lincoln, in 1864 some Radicals briefly formed a party called the Radical Democracy Party with John C. Frémont as their candidate for president, until Frémont withdrew, an important Republican opponent of the Radical Republicans was Henry Jarvis Raymond. Raymond was both editor of the New York Times and a chairman of the Republican National Committee, in Congress the most influential Radical Republicans were U. S
Second Battle of Bull Run
The Second Battle of Bull Run or Battle of Second Manassas was fought August 28–30,1862 in Prince William County, Virginia, as part of the American Civil War. Withdrawing a few miles to the northwest, Jackson took up strong concealed defensive positions on Stony Ridge, on August 28,1862, Jackson attacked a Union column just east of Gainesville, at Brawners Farm, resulting in a stalemate but successfully getting Popes attention. On that same day, the wing of Lees army commanded by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet broke through light Union resistance in the Battle of Thoroughfare Gap, Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jacksons position along a railroad grade. The attacks were repulsed with casualties on both sides. At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap, on August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field. The Union left flank was crushed and the army was back to Bull Run.
Only an effective Union rear guard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas defeat, Popes retreat to Centreville was nonetheless precipitous. Success in this battle emboldened Lee to initiate the ensuing Maryland Campaign, after the collapse of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellans Peninsula Campaign in the Seven Days Battles of June 1862, Pope had achieved some success in the Western Theater, and Lincoln sought a more aggressive general than McClellan. Popes mission was to two basic objectives, protect Washington and the Shenandoah Valley, and draw Confederate forces away from McClellan by moving in the direction of Gordonsville. This allowed him to relocate Jackson to Gordonsville to block Pope, Lee had larger plans in mind. Since the Union Army was split between McClellan and Pope and they were separated, Lee saw an opportunity to destroy Pope before returning his attention to McClellan. He committed Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill to join Jackson with 12,000 men, on August 3, General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck directed McClellan to begin his final withdrawal from the Peninsula and to return to Northern Virginia to support Pope.
McClellan protested and did not begin his redeployment until August 14, on August 9, Nathaniel Bankss corps attacked Jackson at Cedar Mountain, gaining an early advantage, but a Confederate counterattack led by A. P. Hill drove Banks back across Cedar Creek. Jacksons advance was stopped, however, by the Union division of Brig. Gen. James B, by now Jackson had learned that Popes corps were all together, foiling his plan of defeating each in separate actions. He remained in position until August 12, withdrew to Gordonsville, on August 13, Lee sent Longstreet to reinforce Jackson. From August 22 to 25, the two fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River
James Longstreet was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. Longstreets talents as a made significant contributions to the Confederate victories at Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg. He performed strongly during the Seven Days Battles, the Battle of Antietam and his performance in semiautonomous command during the Knoxville Campaign resulted in a Confederate defeat. He enjoyed a successful career working for the U. S. government as a diplomat, civil servant. His reputation in the South further suffered when he led African-American militia against the anti-Reconstruction White League at the Battle of Liberty Place in 1874, authors of the Lost Cause movement focused on Longstreets actions at Gettysburg as a primary reason for the Confederacys loss of the war. His reputation in the South was damaged for over a century and has recently begun a slow reassessment. James Longstreet was born on January 8,1821 in Edgefield District, South Carolina, jamess ancestor Dirck Stoffels Langestraet immigrated to the Dutch colony of New Netherland in 1657, but the name became Anglicized over the generations.
Jamess father was impressed by his sons rocklike character on the plantation, giving him the nickname Peter. Longstreets father decided on a career for his son. At the age of nine, James was sent to live with his aunt and uncle in Augusta and his uncle, Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, was a newspaper editor, and a Methodist minister. James spent eight years on his uncles plantation, just outside the city while he attended the Academy of Richmond County, James was a poor student academically and a disciplinary problem at West Point, ranking 54th out of 56 cadets when he graduated in 1842. Longstreet was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 4th U. S. Infantry. Longstreet spent his first two years of service at Jefferson Barracks, where he was joined by his friend. Soon after, Longstreet met his future first wife Maria Louisa Garland and she was the daughter of Longstreets regimental commander, Lt. Col. John Garland. They married in March 1848, after the Mexican-American War, at about the same time as Longstreet began courting Garland, Grant became acquainted with and courted Longstreets fourth cousin, Julia Dent, and the couple eventually married.
Historians agree that Longstreet attended the Grant wedding on August 22,1848 in St. Louis, Grant biographer Jean Edward Smith asserted that Longstreet served as Grants best man at the wedding. Longstreet served with distinction in the Mexican-American War with the 8th U. S. Infantry, early in the war, he served as a lieutenant in Zachary Taylors army at the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846. He received brevet promotions to captain for Contreras and Churubusco and to major for Molino del Rey, Longstreet was a veteran member of the Aztec Club of 1847
Irvin McDowell was a career American army officer. He is best known for his defeat in the First Battle of Bull Run, in 1862, he was given command of the I Corps of the Army of the Potomac. McDowell was born in Columbus, son of Abram Irvin McDowell and he was a cousin-in-law of John Buford, and his brother, John Adair McDowell, served as the first colonel of the 6th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment during the Civil War. Irvin initially attended the College de Troyes in France before graduating from the United States Military Academy in 1838, his future adversary at First Bull Run. He was commissioned a lieutenant and posted to the 1st U. S. Artillery. McDowell served as an instructor at West Point, before becoming aide-de-camp to General John E. Wool during the Mexican-American War. He was brevetted captain at Buena Vista and served in the Adjutant Generals department after the war, while in that department he was promoted to major on May 31,1856. Between 1848 and 1861, McDowell generally served as an officer to higher-ranking military leaders.
He developed a friendship with General Winfield Scott while serving on his staff. He served under future Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston, McDowell was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army on May 14,1861, and given command of the Army of Northeastern Virginia, despite never having commanded troops in combat. The promotion was partly because of the influence of his mentor and his strategy during the First Battle of Bull Run was imaginative but ambitiously complex, and his troops were not experienced enough to carry it out effectively, resulting in an embarrassing rout. After the defeat at Bull Run, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan was placed in command of the new Union Army defending Washington, McDowell commanded a division in the new army, but McClellan soon reorganized his command and McDowell was given I Corps the following spring. Stonewall Jacksons Valley Campaign would eventually include an attack on Washington kept McDowells 40,000 soldiers behind, the three independent commands of Generals McDowell, John C.
Banks were combined into Maj. Gen. John Popes Army of Virginia, because of his actions at Cedar Mountain, McDowell was eventually brevetted major general in the regular army, however, he was blamed for the subsequent disaster at Second Bull Run. He escaped culpability by testifying against Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, despite his formal escape, McDowell spent the following two years in effective exile from the leadership of the Army. In July 1864, McDowell was given command of the Department of the Pacific, on November 25,1872, he was promoted to major-general. On December 16,1872, McDowell succeeded General George G. Meade as commander of the Military Division of the South, from July 1,1876 to his retirement on October 15,1882, he was commander of the Division of the Pacific. In this capacity he constructed a park in the reservation of the Presidio
John F. Reynolds
John Fulton Reynolds was a career United States Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. One of the Union Armys most respected senior commanders, he played a key role in committing the Army of the Potomac to the Battle of Gettysburg and was killed at the start of the battle. Reynolds was born in Lancaster, one of nine surviving children of John Reynolds, two of his brothers were James LeFevre Reynolds, Quartermaster General of Pennsylvania, and Rear Admiral Will Reynolds. Prior to his training, Reynolds studied in nearby Lititz. Next he attended a school in Long Green, Reynolds was nominated to the United States Military Academy in 1837 by Senator James Buchanan, a family friend, and graduated 26th of 50 cadets in the class of 1841. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U. S. Artillery. From 1842 to 1845 he was assigned to St. Augustine, during the war, he became friends with fellow officers Winfield Scott Hancock and Lewis A. Armistead. On his return from Mexico, Reynolds was assigned to Fort Preble, New Orleans and Fort Lafayette, New York.
He was next sent west to Fort Orford, Oregon, in 1855, and participated in the Rogue River Wars of 1856 and the Utah War with the Mormons in 1857-58. He was the Commandant of Cadets at West Point from September 1860 to June 1861, while serving as an instructor of artillery, cavalry. During his return from the West, Reynolds became engaged to Katherine May Hewitt, soon after the start of the Civil War, Reynolds was offered the position as aide-de-camp to Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, but declined. While in transit, his orders were changed to report to Cape Hatteras Inlet, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan intervened with the Secretary of War to get his orders changed once again, assigning him to the newly formed Army of the Potomac. His first assignment was with a board that examined the qualifications of volunteer officers, as McClellans army moved up the Virginia Peninsula in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, Reynolds occupied and became military governor of Fredericksburg, Virginia. His brigade was ordered to join the V Corps at Mechanicsville.
The Confederate attack continued on June 27 and Reynolds, exhausted from the Battle of Gaines Mill, thinking he was in a place of relative safety, he fell asleep and was not aware that his retreating troops left him behind. He was extremely embarrassed when brought before the Confederate general of the troops, D. H. Hill was an Army friend. Hill allegedly told him, Reynolds, do not feel so bad about your capture, Reynolds was transported to Richmond and held at Libby Prison, but was quickly exchanged on August 15. Upon his return, Reynolds was given command of the Pennsylvania Reserves Division, whose commander, the V Corps joined the Army of Virginia, under Maj. Gen. John Pope, at Manassas
I Corps (Union Army)
I Corps was the designation of three different corps-sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The first two were units of limited life, the third was one of the most distinguished and veteran corps in the entire Union Army. The term First Corps is used to describe the First Veteran Corps from 1864 to 1866, the I Corps was activated March 13,1862, when President Abraham Lincoln ordered the creation of a four-corps army, under the command of Major General George B. McClellan. The first commander of corps was Major General Irvin McDowell. One of its divisions, the Pennsylvania Reserves, was sent to join the main army in June. Temporarily attached to the V Corps, it saw action at Gaines Mill. Division commander Brig. Gen. George McCall and future I Corps commander Brig. Gen. John Reynolds were both captured and freed in an exchange that August. It rejoined the Army of the Potomac and crossed the Potomac River into Maryland to fight at South Mountain, John Reynolds was temporarily detached to train militia troops in his home state of Pennsylvania and did not participate in the Maryland Campaign.
At Antietam, the I Corps was among the first troops to fight and suffered losses in the battles around the cornfield. Hooker was wounded in the foot during the battle and command of the I Corps devolved on Meade, in October, Reynolds returned and was made commander of the corps. Having fought three battles in six weeks, the I Corps was severely depleted, an influx of new volunteer regiments arrived to replenish its ranks, and by November it was back up to full strength. At Fredericksburg and John Gibbons divisions fought Stonewall Jacksons corps south of the town while Doubledays division was held in reserve, the I Corps did not see any significant action in the Chancellorsville Campaign. In its last major battle, the Battle of Gettysburg, General Reynolds was killed just as the first troops arrived on the field, and command was inherited by Major General Abner Doubleday. Although putting up a fight, the I Corps was overwhelmed by the Confederate Third Corps. It was forced to retreat through the town of Gettysburg, taking up positions on Cemetery Hill after the 16th Maines brave stand of which only 39 soldiers returned.
The next day, the command was given to Major General John Newton and this was a controversial move that deeply offended the more senior Doubleday. Newton led it through the remainder of the battle, including the defense against Picketts Charge, and through the Mine Run Campaign that fall