Ciudad de Mendoza is the capital of the province of Mendoza in Argentina. It is located in the northern-central part of the province, in a region of foothills and high plains, on the eastern side of the Andes; as of the 2010 census, Mendoza had a population of 115,041 with a metropolitan population of 1,055,679, making Greater Mendoza the fourth largest census metropolitan area in the country. Ruta Nacional 7, the major road running between Buenos Aires and Santiago, runs through Mendoza; the city is a frequent stopover for climbers on their way to Aconcagua and for adventure travelers interested in mountaineering, horse riding and other sports. In the winter, skiers come to the city for easy access to the Andes. Two of the main industries of the Mendoza area are Argentine wine; the region around Greater Mendoza is the largest wine-producing area in Latin America. As such, Mendoza is one of the nine Great Wine Capitals, the city is an emerging enotourism destination and base for exploring the region's hundreds of wineries located along the Argentina Wine Route.
On March 2, 1561, Pedro del Castillo founded the city and named it Ciudad de Mendoza del Nuevo Valle de La Rioja after the governor of Chile, Don García Hurtado de Mendoza. Before the 1560s the area was populated by tribes known as the Puelches; the Huarpes devised a system of irrigation, developed by the Spanish. This allowed for an increase in population; the system is still evident today in the wide trenches, which run along all city streets, watering the 100,000 trees that line every street in Mendoza. It is estimated that fewer than 80 Spanish settlers lived in the area before 1600, but prosperity increased due to the use of indigenous and slave labor, the Jesuit presence in the region; when nearby rivers were tapped as a source of irrigation in 1788 agricultural production increased. The extra revenues generated from this, the ensuing additional trade with Buenos Aires, no doubt led to the creation of the state of Cuyo in 1813 with José de San Martín as governor, it was from Mendoza that San Martín and other Argentinian and Chilean patriots organized the army with which they won the independence of Chile and Peru.
Mendoza suffered a severe earthquake in 1861. The city was rebuilt, incorporating innovative urban designs that would better tolerate such seismic activity. Mendoza was rebuilt with large squares and wider streets and sidewalks than any other city in Argentina. Avenue Bartolomé Mitre and additional small squares are examples of that design. Tourism, wine production, more the exploitation of hard commodities such as oil and uranium ensure Mendoza's status as a key regional center. Important suburbs such as Godoy Cruz, Guaymallén, Las Heras, Luján de Cuyo and Maipú have in recent decades far outpaced the city proper in population. Comprising half the metro population of 212,000 in 1947, these suburbs grew to nearly ⅞ of the total metro area of over 1,000,000 by 2015, making Mendoza the most dispersed metro area in Argentina. Mendoza has several museums, including the Museo Cornelio Moyano, a natural history museum, the Museo del Área Fundacional on Pedro del Castillo Square; the Museo Nacional del Vino, focusing on the history of winemaking in the area, is 17 kilometres southeast of Mendoza in Maipú.
The Casa de Fader, a historic house museum, is an 1890 mansion once home to artist Fernando Fader in nearby Mayor Drummond, 14 kilometres south of Mendoza. The mansion is home to many of the artist's paintings; the Fiesta Nacional de la Vendimia occurs in early March each year. Part of the festivities include a beauty pageant, where 17 beauty queens from each department of Mendoza Province compete, one winner is selected by a panel of about 50 judges; the queen of Mendoza city's department acts as host for the other queens. In 2008, National Geographic listed Mendoza as one of the top 10 historic destinations in the world. Mendoza has a number of universities, including the major Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, as well as University of Mendoza, a branch of Universidad Congreso, Aconcagua University, UTN and Champagnat University. Mendoza is a popular place to learn Spanish, there are a number of Spanish language schools, including Intercultural, Green Fields and SIMA; the city is centered around Plaza Independencia with Avenida Sarmiento running through its center east-west, with the east side pedestrianized.
Other major streets, running perpendicular to Sarmiento, include Bartolomé Mitre, San Martín, 9 de Julio, those running parallel include Colón, Las Heras. Four smaller plazas, San Martín, Chile and España, are located 2 blocks off each corner of Independence Plaza. Unique to Mendoza are the exposed stone ditches small canals, which run alongside many of the roads supplying water to the thousands of trees; the Parque General San Martín was designed by Carlos Thays. Its grounds include the Mendoza Zoological Park and a football stadium, it is the home of the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. A view of the city is available from the top of Cerro de la Gloria. Mendoza is 380 km from Santiago, Chile. Gov. Francisco Gabrielli International Airport serves Mendoza, with flights to/from Buenos Aires taking less than 2 hours and less than 1 hour to/from Santi
Mariano de Osorio was a Spanish general and Governor of Chile, from 1814 to 1815. Osorio was born in Spain, he joined the Spanish army and as many of his contemporaries, his military career began during the Spanish Peninsular War in 1808 as an artillery general, as well as the professor for mathematics in the military school. In 1810, was appointed head of the military factory of Catalonia. In 1812, was destined to the Royal Army in Peru. In 1812 he resettled in Peru, where he married Joaquina de la Pezuela, daughter of Peruvian Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela. In the Disaster of Rancagua he was able to defeat the forces of Bernardo O'Higgins and Jose Miguel Carrera. In the same year he became the Governor of Chile. With Osorio's victory at Rancagua, the period known as "reconquest" of Chile had begun. Osorio sought to reinstate order and justice and with military measures he prevented the onslaught of the insurgents. In 1816 he returned to Lima and Francisco Marcó del Pont was made new Governor of Chile.
When the Spaniards lost the Battle of Chacabuco, he returned to Chile. There he succeeded in securing victory in the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada on March 18, 1818. At this battle O'Higgins's arm was injured; the Battle of Maipu, was a major defeat for the Spaniards, it signified the end of the Spanish authority in all of Chile, with the exception of the island of Chiloé and the city of Valdivia. Osorio proceeded to Cuba, where he died in 1819 of malaria
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
National Historical Museum (Argentina)
The Argentine National Historical Museum is located in Buenos Aires, is a museum dedicated to the history of Argentina, exhibiting objects relating to the May Revolution and the Argentine War of Independence. The institution was established as the Museo Histórico de la Capital by Mayor Francisco Seeber on May 24, 1889; the museum resulted from a proposal by historian Adolfo Carranza, designated director of the museum upon its inauguration on February 15, 1891. The museum was located on government property located at 3951 Santa Fe Avenue, it was relocated to its present location in the San Telmo ward after the land's purchase by the Municipality of Buenos Aires in 1897. The land occupied by the Botanical Garden was thus transferred to the municipal government, the museum to the national government; the mansion was built for the American businessman Charles Ridgley Horne in 1846. Allied to the paramount Governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas, Ridgley Horne was forced into exile after the strongman's 1852 overthrow, the land was sold to José Gregorio Lezama.
Following his 1894 death, his widow, Ángela Álzaga de Lezama sold the property to the city, which converted the mansion into the museum, most of the surrounding land into Lezama Park. The museum houses over 50,000 items. Portions of the collection were gathered from donations of relatives of important figures in the May Revolution and the wars of independence. Other objects were part of the collection of the Public Museum created in 1822 by Bernardino Rivadavia, its displays include regalia, belongings and documents belonging to José de San Martín, María de los Remedios de Escalada, Manuel Belgrano, William Carr Beresford, Juan Manuel de Rosas, Bartolomé Mitre and Eva Perón, other Argentine, as well as foreign, statesmen and military figures who played key roles in the nation's history up to 1950. Its collection of history paintings includes works by Esteban Echeverría, Cándido López, Prilidiano Pueyrredón, among others. Virtual visit Official website
Battle of Chacabuco
The Battle of Chacabuco, fought during the Chilean War of Independence, occurred on February 12, 1817. The Army of the Andes of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata led by General Captain José de San Martín defeated the Spanish force led by Rafael Maroto, it was a defeat for the Captaincy General of Chile, the royalist government established after the division of the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1814, having been instrumental in the establishment of a popularly elected congress in Argentina, José de San Martín began to consider the problem of driving the Spanish royalists from South America entirely, he realized that the first step would be to expel them from Chile, and, to this end, he set about recruiting and equipping an army. In just under two years, he had an army of 1,200 horses and 22 cannons. On January 17, 1817, he began the crossing of the Andes. Careful planning on his part had meant that the royalist forces in Chile were deployed to meet threats that did not exist, his crossing went unopposed.
Nonetheless, the Army of the Andes suffered heavy losses during the crossing, losing as much as one-third of its men and more than half of its horses. San Martin found himself allying with Chilean patriot Bernardo O'Higgins, who commanded his own army; the royalists rushed north in response to their approach, a force of about 1,500 under Brigadier Rafael Maroto blocked San Martin's advance at a valley called Chacabuco, near Santiago. In the face of the disintegration of the royalist forces, Maroto proposed abandoning the capital and retreating southward, where they could hold out and obtain resources for a new campaign; the military conference called by Royal Governor Field Marshal Casimiro Marcó del Pont on February 8 adopted Maroto's strategy, but the following morning, the Captain General changed his mind and ordered Maroto to prepare for battle in Chacabuco. The night before the clash, Antonio de Quintanilla, who would distinguish himself extraordinarily in the defense of Chiloé, confided to another Spanish official his opinion of the ill-chosen strategy: Given the position of the insurgents, the royalist forces ought to retreat a few leagues towards the hills of Colina.
"Maroto overheard this conversation from a nearby chamber and either couldn't or refused to hear me because of his pride and self-importance, called on an attendant with his notorious hoarse voice and proclaimed a general decree on pain of death, to whoever suggested a retreat." All Maroto and his troops had to do was delay San Martin, as he knew that further royalist reinforcements were on the way from Santiago. San Martin was well aware of this as well and opted to attack while he still had the numerical advantage. San Martín received numerous reports of the Spanish plans from a spy dressed as a roto, a poverty-stricken peasant of Chile; the roto told him that the Spanish general, Marcó, knew of fighting in the mountains and told his army to "run to the field", which refers to Chacabuco. He told San Martín the plan of General Rafael Maroto, the leader of the Talavera Regiment and a force of volunteers of up to 2,000 men, his plan was to launch an attack against San Martín. On February 11, three days before his planned date of attack, San Martín called a war council to decide on a plan.
Their main goal was to take the Chacabuco Ranch, the royalist headquarters, at the bottom of the hills. He decided to split his 2,000 troops into two parts, sending them down two roads on either side of the mountain; the right contingent was led by Miguel Estanislao Soler, the left by O’Higgins. The plan was for Soler to attack their flanks, while at the same time surrounding their rear guard in order to prevent their retreat. San Martín expected that both leaders would attack at the same time, so the royalists would have to fight a battle on two fronts. San Martín sent his troops down the mountain starting at midnight of the 11th to prepare for an attack at dawn. At dawn, his troops were much closer to the royalists than anticipated, but fought hard and heroically. Meanwhile, Soler's troops had to go down a tiny path that proved long and arduous and took longer than expected. General O’Higgins seeing his homeland and being overcome with passion, defied the plan of attack and charged, along with his 1,500.
What happened in this part of the battle is fiercely debated. O'Higgins claimed that the royalists started advancing towards his troops, he said that if he were to lead his men back up the narrow path and retreat, his men would have been decimated, one by one. San Martín saw O’Higgins premature advance and ordered Soler to charge the royalist flank, which took the pressure off O’Higgins and allowed his troops to hold their ground; the ensuing firefight lasted into the afternoon. The tide turned for the Army of the Andes. At this point, the royalists set up a defensive square around the Chacabuco Ranch. O’Higgins charged the center of the royalist position, while Soler got into position behind the royalists cutting off any chance of retreat. O’Higgins and his men overwhelmed the royalist troops; when they attempted to retreat, Soler's men pushed towards the ranch. Hand-to-hand combat ensued in and around the ranch until every royalist soldier was dead or taken captive. 500 royalist soldiers were killed and 600 taken prisoner.
The Army of the Andes only lost twelve men in battle, but an additional 120 lost their lives from wounds suffered during the battle. Maroto succeeded in escaping, thanks to the speed of his horse, but was injured; the remaining royalist troops retreated to Lima by ship. Interim governor Francisco Ruiz-Tagle presided at an assembly, whic
José de San Martín
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras, known as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina and Peru, was a Spanish-Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern and central parts of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru. Born in Yapeyú, Corrientes, in modern-day Argentina, he left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain. In 1808, after taking part in the Peninsular War against France, San Martín contacted South American supporters of independence from Spain. In 1812, he set sail for Buenos Aires and offered his services to the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, present-day Argentina. After the Battle of San Lorenzo and time commanding the Army of the North during 1814, he organized a plan to defeat the Spanish forces that menaced the United Provinces from the north, using an alternative path to the Viceroyalty of Peru; this objective first involved the establishment of a new army, the Army of the Andes, in Cuyo Province, Argentina.
From there, he led the Crossing of the Andes to Chile, triumphed at the Battle of Chacabuco and the Battle of Maipú, thus liberating Chile from royalist rule. He sailed to attack the Spanish stronghold of Lima, Peru. On 12 July 1821, after seizing partial control of Lima, San Martín was appointed Protector of Peru, Peruvian independence was declared on 28 July. On 22 July 1822, after a closed-door meeting with fellow libertador Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil, Bolívar took over the task of liberating Peru. San Martín unexpectedly left the country and resigned the command of his army, excluding himself from politics and the military, moved to France in 1824; the details of the 22 July meeting would be a subject of debate by historians. San Martín is regarded as a national hero of Argentina and Peru, one of the Liberators of Spanish South America; the Order of the Liberator General San Martín, created in his honor, is the highest decoration conferred by the Argentine government. José de San Martín was the fifth and last son of Juan de San Martín, an unsuccessful Spanish soldier, Gregoria Matorras del Ser.
He was born in an Indian reduction of Guaraní people. The exact year of his birth is disputed. Documents formulated during his life, such as passports, military career records and wedding documentation, gave him varying ages. Most of these documents point to his year of birth as either 1777 or 1778; the family moved to Buenos Aires in 1781, when San Martín was four years old. Juan requested to be transferred to Spain, leaving the Americas in 1783; the family settled in Madrid. Once in the city, San Martín enrolled in Málaga's school of temporalities, beginning his studies in 1785, it is unlikely that he finished the six-year-long elementary education, before he enrolled in the Regiment of Murcia in 1789, when he reached the required age of 11. He began his military career as a cadet in the Murcian Infantry Unit. San Martín took part in several Spanish campaigns in North Africa, fighting in Melilla and in Oran against the Moors in 1791, among others, his rank was raised to Sub-Lieutenant in 1793, at the age of 15.
He began a naval career during the War of the Second Coalition, when Spain was allied with France against Great Britain, during the time of the French Revolution. His ship "Santa Dorotea" was captured by British forces. Soon afterward, he continued to fight in southern Spain in Cadiz and Gibraltar with the rank of Second Captain of light infantry, he continued to fight Portugal on the side of Spain in the War of the Oranges in 1801. He was promoted to captain in 1804. During his stay in Cádiz he was influenced by the ideas of the Spanish Enlightenment. At the outbreak of the Peninsular War in 1808, San Martín was named adjutant of Francisco María Solano Ortiz de Rosas. Rosas, suspected of being an afrancesado, was killed by a popular uprising which overran the barracks and dragged his corpse in the streets. San Martín was appointed to the armies of Andalucía, led a battalion of volunteers. In June 1808 his unit became incorporated into a guerrilla force led by Juan de la Cruz Mourgeón, he was saved by Sergeant Juan de Dios.
On 19 July 1808, Spanish and French forces engaged in the battle of Bailén, a Spanish victory that allowed the Army of Andalusia to attack and seize Madrid. For his actions during this battle, San Martín was awarded a gold medal, his rank raised to lieutenant colonel. On 16 May 1811, he fought in the battle of Albuera under the command of general William Carr Beresford. By this time, the French armies held most of the Iberian Peninsula under their control, except for Cádiz. San Martín resigned from the Spanish army, for controversial reasons, moved to South America, where he joined the Spanish American wars of independence. Historians propose several explanations for this action: the common ones are that he missed his native country, that he was a British agent and the congruence of the goals of both wars; the first explanation suggests that when the wars of independence began San Martín thought that his duty was to return to his country and serve in the military conflict. The second explanation suggests that Britain, which would benefit from the independence of the South American countries, sent San Martín to achieve it.
The third suggests that both wars were caused by the conflicts b
The Spanish Empire known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies", it included territories in Europe and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Portuguese Empire, it was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets". Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines; the structure of empire was established under the Spanish Hapsburgs and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies.
The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political and social cohesion but not political unification. Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal, he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv its own laws and monetary system, united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal overthrew Hapsburg rule and reestablished independence under the House of Braganza.
Under Philip II, rather than the Hapsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease; the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis confirmed the inheritance of Philip II in Italy. Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the Aragonese presence in the 15th century. Following the peace reached in 1559, there would be no Neapolitan revolts against Spanish rule until 1647; the Duchy of Milan formally remained part of the Holy Roman Empire but the title of Duke of Milan was given to the King of Spain. The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but in the world; the Spanish Empire in the Americas was formed after conquering large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands.
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca Empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there; some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people in this period. However, other scholars believe the vast majority of indigenous deaths were due to the low immunological capacity of native populations to resist exogenous diseases. Many native tribes and their cultures were wiped out by the Spanish conquest and disease epidemics; the structure of governance of its overseas empire was reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs.
Although the crown attempted to keep its empire a closed economic system under Hapsburg rule, Spain was unable to supply the Indies with sufficient consumer goods to meet demand, so that foreign merchants from Genoa, England and The Netherlands dominated the trade, with silver from the mines of Peru and Mexico flowing to other parts of Europe. The merchant guild of Seville served as middlemen in the trade; the crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the closed system. Spain was unable to defend the territories it claimed in the Americas, with the Dutch, the English, the French taking Caribbean islands, using them to engage in contraband trade with the Spanish populace in the Indies. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain.
The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by