Western Theater of the American Civil War
The Western Theater served as an avenue of military operations by Union armies directly into the agricultural heartland of the South via the major rivers of the region. The Confederacy was forced to defend an area with limited resources. Union operations began with securing Kentucky in Union hands in September 1861, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Chattanooga served as the launching point for Maj. Gen. William T. The Western Theater was an area defined by geography and the sequence of campaigning. It originally represented the area east of the Mississippi River and west of the Appalachian Mountains, Operations west of the Mississippi River were in the Trans-Mississippi Theater. The West was by some measures the most important theater of the war, capture of the Mississippi River has been one of the key tenets of Union General-in-Chief Winfield Scotts Anaconda Plan. Union generals consistently outclassed most of their Confederate opponents, with the exception of cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest. Lacking the proximity to the capitals and population centers of the East, the astounding Confederate victories.
McClellan, and Stonewall Jackson, the Western theater received considerably less attention than the Eastern, the near-steady progress that Union forces made in defeating Confederate armies in the West and overtaking Confederate territory went nearly unnoticed. The campaign classification established by the United States National Park Service is more fine-grained than the one used in this article, some minor NPS campaigns have been omitted and some have been combined into larger categories. Only a few of the 117 battles the NPS classifies for this theater are described, boxed text in the right margin show the NPS campaigns associated with each section. The focus early in the war was on two states and Kentucky. The loss of either would have been a blow to the Union cause. Primarily because of the successes of Captain Nathaniel Lyon and his victory at Boonville in June, the state of Kentucky, with a pro-Confederate governor and a pro-Union legislature, had declared neutrality between the opposing sides.
This neutrality was first violated on September 3, when Confederate Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, two days Union Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, displaying the personal initiative that would characterize his career, seized Paducah. On the Confederate side, General Albert Sidney Johnston commanded all forces from Arkansas to the Cumberland Gap, Johnston gained political support from secessionists in central and western counties of Kentucky via a new Confederate capital at Bowling Green, set up by the Russellville Convention. The alternative government was recognized by the Confederate government, which admitted Kentucky into the Confederacy in December 1861, using the rail system resources of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, Polk was able to quickly fortify and equip the Confederate base at Columbus. By January 1862, this disunity of command was apparent because no strategy for operations in the Western theater could be agreed upon, James A. Garfield and Mill Springs under Brig. Gen. George H.
William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman and author. Sherman began his Civil War career serving in the First Battle of Bull Run and he served under General Ulysses S. In 1864, Sherman succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the Western Theater of the war and he proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of the city of Atlanta, a military success that contributed to the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. Shermans subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacys ability to continue fighting and he accepted the surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas and Florida in April 1865, after having been present at most major military engagements in the Western Theater. When Grant assumed the U. S. presidency in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as Commanding General of the Army, as such, he was responsible for the U. S. Armys engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years. Sherman advocated total war against hostile Indians to force them back onto their reservations and he steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil War.
British military historian B. H. Liddell Hart famously declared that Sherman was the first modern general, Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, near the banks of the Hocking River. His father Charles Robert Sherman, a lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court. He left his widow, Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children, Sherman was distantly related to American founding father Roger Sherman and grew to admire him. Shermans older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge, one of his younger brothers, John Sherman, served as a U. S. senator and Cabinet secretary. Another younger brother, Hoyt Sherman, was a successful banker, Sherman would marry his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewing, at age 30 and have eight children with her. Shermans unusual given name has attracted considerable attention. Sherman reported that his name came from his father having caught a fancy for the great chief of the Shawnees. Since an account in a 1932 biography about Sherman, it has often reported that, as an infant.
According to these accounts, Sherman only acquired the name William at age nine or ten and his foster mother, Maria Willis Boyle, was of Irish ancestry and a devout Roman Catholic. Sherman was raised in a Roman Catholic household, though he left the church. Sherman wrote in his Memoirs that his father named him William Tecumseh, Sherman was baptized by a Presbyterian minister as an infant, as an adult, Sherman signed all his correspondence – including to his wife – W. T. Sherman. His friends and family called him Cump
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
Battle of Missionary Ridge
The Battle of Missionary Ridge was fought November 25,1863, as part of the Chattanooga Campaign of the American Civil War. In the afternoon, Grant was concerned that Bragg was reinforcing his right flank at Shermans expense, the Union soldiers moved forward and quickly pushed the Confederates from the first line of rifle pits but were subjected to a punishing fire from the Confederate lines up the ridge. At this point, the Union soldiers continued the attack against the remaining lines and this second advance was taken up by the commanders on the spot, but by some of the soldiers who, on their own, sought shelter from the fire further up the slope. The Union advance was disorganized but effective, finally overwhelming and scattering what ought to have been, as General Grant himself believed, an impregnable Confederate line. After their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga, the 40,000 men of the Union Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga.
Confederate General Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee besieged the city, threatening to starve the Union forces into surrender, the only supply line that was not controlled by the Confederates was a roundabout, tortuous course nearly 60 miles long over Waldens Ridge from Bridgeport, Alabama. Heavy rains began to fall in late September, washing away long stretches of the mountain roads, on October 1, Maj. Gen. Toward the end of October, typical Federal soldiers rations were four cakes of hard bread and a quarter pound of pork every three days. In response, Bragg ordered Lt. Gen. James Longstreet to force the Federals out of Lookout Valley, the ensuing Battle of Wauhatchie was one of the wars few battles fought exclusively at night. The Confederate attack against a portion of Hookers force was repulsed, Sherman arrived with his 20,000 men of the Army of the Tennessee in mid-November. Grant and Thomas planned an attack on Braggs force, with an assault by Sherman against the northern end of Missionary Ridge.
Running behind schedule, Shermans force was ready to cross the Tennessee River early on November 24, Gen. Ambrose Burnside was being threatened by a Confederate force under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet. Thomas sent over 14,000 men toward a minor hill named Orchard Knob, Grant changed his orders and instructed Thomass men to dig in and hold the position. Surprised by Thomass move and realizing that his center and right might be more vulnerable than he had thought and he recalled all units he had recently ordered to Knoxville if they were within a days march. Maj. Gen. Patrick R. Cleburnes division returned after dark from Chickamauga Station and he assigned Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee to command his now critical right flank, turning over the left flank to Maj. Gen. Carter L. Stevenson. Braggs concern for his right proved justified and his decisions were fortuitous, in the center, Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge ordered his men to begin fortifying the crest of Missionary Ridge, unable to decide whether to defend the base or the crest of the Ridge, the divisions of Brig.
Bate and J. Patton Anderson were ordered to move half of their divisions to the crest, James L. McDonough wrote of the upper entrenchments, Placed along the physical crest rather than what is termed the military crest. These works severely handicapped the defenders, November 24 was dark, with low clouds and drizzling rain
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3,1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the war and is often described as the wars turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meades Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lees attempt to invade the North. After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved of command just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade. Elements of the two armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1,1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig.
Gen. John Buford, on the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. In the late afternoon of July 2, Lee launched an assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devils Den. On the Union right, Confederate demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culps Hill, all across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great loss to the Confederate army, Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 soldiers from both armies were casualties in the battle, the most costly in US history. Shortly after the Army of Northern Virginia won a victory over the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Such a move would upset U. S. plans for the campaigning season. The invasion would allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich Northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much-needed rest, in addition, Lees 72, 000-man army could threaten Philadelphia and Washington, and possibly strengthen the growing peace movement in the North.
Thus, on June 3, Lees army began to shift northward from Fredericksburg, the Cavalry Division remained under the command of Maj. Gen. J. E. B. The Union Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of seven corps, a cavalry corps. The first major action of the campaign took place on June 9 between cavalry forces at Brandy Station, near Culpeper, Virginia
Army of the Tennessee
The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. It should not be confused with the similarly named Army of Tennessee, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in the Unions District of West Tennessee. In April 1862, Grants troops survived a severe test in the bloody Battle of Shiloh. In October 1862, Grants command was reconfigured and elevated to status, as the Department of the Tennessee. Grant commanded these forces until after his critically important victory at Vicksburg in July 1863 and it should suffice to note that the nucleus around which was to gather the. Army of the Tennessee first took shape in 1861–1862, while Grant was headquartered at Cairo and those troops continued under Grant in his next command, the distinct District of West Tennessee, they were sometimes, and perhaps most appropriately, called the Army of West Tennessee. During the course of the war, elements of the Army of the Tennessee performed many tasks, and it is not feasible to chronicle every such development here, even at the corps level.
Rather, this article traces the main thrust of the armys development, at any given time, substantial numbers of troops were engaged in activities not discussed here. For example, in April 1863, less than half of Grants departmental strength was directly engaged in the Vicksburg Campaign, one of Grants wartime aides, John A. Rawlins, stated that rom this time. Commenced the growth and organization of the Army of the Tennessee, paducah promptly became a separate Union command under Brig. Gen. Charles F. Smith, who soon occupied Smithland, Kentucky, at the junction of the Cumberland River and the Ohio. Grants own first engagement came on November 7 at Belmont, Grants casualties in this first battle totaled about 500, Confederate casualties were similar. While Grant had suffered a repulse, he won favorable press coverage and this battle, reports Rawlins, confirmed General Grant in his views that he should give battle whenever he had what he thought a sufficient number of men. Also in November, John Fremont lost his command at St.
Louis, to be replaced by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, on December 20, Grants command was reconfigured to include C. F. Smiths and renamed the District of Cairo, from that perch, in February 1862, Grant led the Union campaign against Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, and Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River. His troops for this campaign eventually numbered approximately 27,000 men and Brig. Gen. Lewis Wallace. Grant initially moved up the Tennessee River to Fort Henry with only two divisions, McClernands and Smiths. On February 6, even before he could organize his force for attack, additional Union regiments arrived at Fort Donelson by water, these were formed into the new 3rd Division under Lew Wallace. The Battle of Fort Donelson began on February 13 and, after sharp fighting, another historian notes that Grants troops had performed prodigies of valor and endurance during the campaign and had learned from it that hard fighting would bring success
Its effect was to drive the Confederates out of Middle Tennessee and to threaten the strategic city of Chattanooga. The Confederate Army of Tennessee under General Braxton Bragg occupied a defensive position in the mountains. But through a series of well-rehearsed feints, Rosecrans captured the key passes, the Confederates were handicapped by dissension between generals, as well as a lack of supplies, and soon had to abandon their headquarters at Tullahoma. The campaign ended in the week as the two historic Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, and Rosecrans complained that his achievement was overshadowed. However, Confederate casualties had been few, and Braggs army was enough to defeat Rosecrans at the Battle of Chickamauga two months later. Small groups of pickets protected the passes through the Highland Rim and cavalry protected each flank, headquartered in Tullahoma, was concerned that Rosecrans would advance to seize the strategic city of Chattanooga, a vital rail junction and the gateway to northern Georgia.
Hoovers Gap was almost undefended, it was a pass between the 1100-foot ridges separating the Stones and Duck Rivers. The pass was so narrow that two wagons could barely pass side by side and was commanded by the surrounding ridges, strong entrenchments were constructed, but they were manned by only a single cavalry regiment. After the campaign, Bragg was criticized for the nature of his Tullahoma position. Hardee told him that it was subject to both frontal and flanking attacks. Lincoln wrote to Rosecrans, I would not push you to any rashness, Rosecrans offered the excuse that if he were to start to move against Bragg, Bragg would likely relocate his entire army to Mississippi and threaten Grants Vicksburg Campaign even more. Thus, by not attacking Bragg, he was helping Grant, frustration with Rosecranss excuses led Halleck to threaten to relieve him if he did not move, but in the end he merely protested against the expense to which put the government for telegrams. Braggs army suffered from the delays, the area his troops occupied, known as the Barrens, was a zone of poor farmland that made it difficult for him to obtain subsistence for his army while he waited for Rosecrans to attack him.
Braggs subordinate generals were nearly mutinous in expressing their dissatisfaction with Braggs command during his Kentucky campaign, Confederate President Jefferson Davis responded to the complaints by dispatching Gen. Joseph E. Johnston to investigate the condition of the army. Davis assumed that Johnston, Braggs superior, would find the situation wanting and take command of the army in the field, Johnston arrived on the scene and found the men of the Army of Tennessee in relatively good condition. He told Bragg that he had the best organized, equipped, Johnston explicitly refused any suggestion that he take command, concerned that people would think he had taken advantage of the situation for his own personal gain. When Davis ordered Johnston to send Bragg to Richmond, Johnston delayed because of Mrs. Elise Braggs illness, when her health improved, Johnston was unable to assume command because of lingering medical problems from his wound at the Battle of Seven Pines in 1862. During the winter and spring, both sides occupied themselves with their favorite—and generally profitless—practice of sending cavalry on raids, almost a third of Braggs army consisted of cavalry—16,000 effectives versus about 9,000 Union
The Atlanta Campaign was a series of battles fought in the Western Theater of the American Civil War throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta during the summer of 1864. Union Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman invaded Georgia from the vicinity of Chattanooga, beginning in May 1864, Johnstons Army of Tennessee withdrew toward Atlanta in the face of successive flanking maneuvers by Shermans group of armies. In July, the Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, replaced Johnston with the more aggressive John Bell Hood, Hoods army was eventually besieged in Atlanta and the city fell on September 2, setting the stage for Shermans March to the Sea and hastening the end of the war. The Atlanta Campaign followed the Union victory in the Battles for Chattanooga in November 1863, Chattanooga was known as the Gateway to the South, grants strategy was to apply pressure against the Confederacy in several coordinated offensives. While he, George G. Meade, Benjamin Butler, Franz Sigel, George Crook, at the start of the campaign, Shermans Military Division of the Mississippi consisted of three armies, Maj.
Gen. James B. McPhersons Army of the Tennessee, including the corps of Maj. Gen. John A. Logan, Maj. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, when McPherson was killed at the Battle of Atlanta, Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard replaced him. Maj. Gen. John M. Schofields Army of the Ohio, consisting of Schofields XXIII Corps and a cavalry division commanded by Maj. Gen. George Stoneman. Maj. Gen. George H. Thomass Army of the Cumberland, including the corps of Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard, Maj. Gen. John M. Palmer, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, and Brig. Gen. Washington L. Elliott. After Howard took army command, David S. Stanley took over IV Corps, however, by June, a steady stream of reinforcements brought Shermans strength to 112,000. Opposing Sherman, the Army of Tennessee was commanded first by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the four corps in the 50, 000-man army were commanded by, Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee. When Polk was killed on June 14, Loring briefly took over as commander of the corps but was replaced by Alexander P. Stewart on June 23. But in Georgia, he faced the more aggressive Sherman.
Johnstons army repeatedly took up strongly entrenched defensive positions in the campaign, Sherman prudently avoided suicidal frontal assaults against most of these positions, instead maneuvering in flanking marches around the defenses as he advanced from Chattanooga towards Atlanta. Whenever Sherman flanked the defensive lines, Johnston would retreat to another prepared position, both armies took advantage of the railroads as supply lines, with Johnston shortening his supply lines as he drew closer to Atlanta, and Sherman lengthening his own. Johnston had entrenched his army on the long, high mountain of Rocky Face Ridge, the two columns engaged the enemy at Buzzard Roost and at Dug Gap. In the meantime, the column, under McPherson, passed through Snake Creek Gap and on May 9 advanced to the outskirts of Resaca. Fearing defeat, McPherson pulled his column back to Snake Creek Gap, on May 10, Sherman decided to take most of his men and join McPherson to take Resaca. The next morning, as he discovered Shermans army withdrawing from their positions in front of Rocky Face Ridge, Union troops tested the Confederate lines around Resaca to pinpoint their whereabouts
Gordon Granger was a career U. S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Chickamauga, Granger was born in Joy, Wayne County, New York, in 1821 to Gaius Granger and Catherine Taylor. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1845 placed thirty-fifth in the class of forty-one and he was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant and assigned to the Second Infantry Regiment stationed in Detroit, Michigan. In 1846 he transferred to the newly constituted Regiment of Mounted Riflemen at Jefferson Barracks, during the Mexican-American War, Granger fought in Winfield Scotts army. He took part in the Siege of Veracruz, the Battle of Cerro Gordo, the Battle of Contreras, the Battle of Churubusco, Granger received two citations for gallantry and in May 1847 received his regular commission as a second lieutenant. After the war, he served on the frontier in Oregon in Texas. In 1853 he became a first lieutenant, when the Civil War started, Granger was on sick leave.
He was temporarily assigned to the staff of General George B. McClellan in Ohio, after recovering, he transferred back to the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen where he was promoted to captain in May 1861. Granger was cited for gallantry at Wilsons Creek, became a major and was made a commander of the St. Louis Arsenal. In November 1861, Granger assumed command of the 2nd Michigan Cavalry Regiment at Benton Barracks in St. Louis, one of the Union veterans wrote in a memoir that Grangers military genius soon asserted itself by many severe lessons to the volunteer officers and men of this regiment. Granger assumed command over the Third Cavalry Brigade consisting of the 2nd, after the 7th Illinois joined the brigade, it was reorganized into a cavalry division. On March 26,1862, Granger was promoted to general of volunteers and commanded the Cavalry Division, Army of the Mississippi during the Battle of New Madrid. He was promoted to general of volunteers on September 17,1862. He conducted cavalry operations in central Tennessee before his command was merged into the Army of the Cumberland, Granger is most famous for his actions commanding the Reserve Corps at the Battle of Chickamauga.
There on September 20,1863, the day of the battle, he reinforced, without orders. Steedman to send two brigades under his command to help Thomas and this action staved off the Confederate attackers until dark, permitting the Federal forces to retreat in good order and thus helping Thomas to earn the sobriquet Rock of Chickamauga. S. Under his command, the IV Corps force distinguished itself at the third Battle of Chattanooga. Two of the IV Corps divisions, those commanded by Thomas J. Wood, the Union forces broke through and forced the Confederates, under General Braxton Bragg, to retreat
William Starke Rosecrans was an American inventor, coal-oil company executive, politician, and U. S. Army officer. He gained fame for his role as a Union general during the American Civil War and he was the victor at prominent Western Theater battles, but his military career was effectively ended following his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863. Rosecrans graduated in 1842 from the West Point Military Academy where he served in engineering assignments as well as a professor before leaving the Army to pursue a career in civil engineering. At the start of the Civil War, leading troops from Ohio, in 1862 in the Western Theater, he won the battles of Iuka and Corinth while under the command of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. His brusque, outspoken manner and willingness to quarrel openly with superiors caused a rivalry with Grant that would adversely affect Rosecrans career. Besieged in Chattanooga, Rosecrans was relieved of command by Grant, following his humiliating defeat, Rosecrans was reassigned to command the Department of Missouri, where he opposed Prices Raid.
He was briefly considered as a vice presidential running mate for Abraham Lincoln in 1864, after the war, he served in diplomatic and appointed political positions and in 1880 was elected to Congress, representing California. William Starke Rosecrans was born on a farm near Little Taylor Run in Kingston Township, Delaware County, the second of five sons of Crandall Rosecrans and Jemima Hopkins. Crandall was a veteran of the War of 1812, in which he served as adjutant to General William Henry Harrison, One of Crandalls heroes, General John Stark, was the inspiration for Williams middle name. Rosecrans was descended from Harmon Henrik Rosenkrantz, who arrived in New Amsterdam in 1651 and his mother was the widow of Timothy Hopkins, a relative of Stephen Hopkins, the Colonial Governor of Rhode Island and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. William had little education in his early years, relying heavily on reading books. At the age of 13, he left home to work as a clerk in Utica. Unable to afford college, Rosecrans decided to try for an appointment to the United States Military Academy and he interviewed with Congressman Alexander Harper, who had been reserving his appointment for his own son, but Harper was so impressed by Rosecrans that he nominated him instead.
Despite his lack of education, Rosecrans excelled academically at West Point, particularly in mathematics, but in French, drawing. It was at the academy that he received his nickname, Rosy, or more often Old Rosy. He graduated from West Point in 1842, fifth in his class of 56 cadets, which included future generals such as James Longstreet, Abner Doubleday, D. H. Hill. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the prestigious Corps of Engineers. At his graduation, he met Anna Elizabeth Hegeman of New York City and they were married on August 24,1843
Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as he was president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, the new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the slaves, and he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress. The first American president to be impeached, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote, Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina. Apprenticed as a tailor, he worked in several towns before settling in Greeneville. He served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835, after brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the federal House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms. He became Governor of Tennessee for four years, and was elected by the legislature to the Senate in 1857, in his congressional service, he sought passage of the Homestead Bill, which was enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862.
As Southern slave states, including Tennessee, seceded to form the Confederate States of America and he was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his states secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as governor of Tennessee after most of it had been retaken. When Johnson was sworn in as president in March 1865, he gave a rambling speech. Six weeks later, the assassination of Lincoln made him president, Johnson implemented his own form of Presidential Reconstruction – a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to re-form their civil governments. Johnson vetoed their bills, and Congressional Republicans overrode him, setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency, Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. In 1866, Johnson went on a national tour promoting his executive policies. As the conflict between the branches of government grew, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, restricting Johnsons ability to fire Cabinet officials.
When he persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, he was impeached by the House of Representatives, and narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate and removal from office. Returning to Tennessee after his presidency, Johnson sought political vindication, Johnson is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. While some admire his strict constitutionalism, his opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans is widely criticized
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci