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Army of the Potomac

The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was created in July 1861 shortly after the First Battle of Bull Run and was disbanded in May 1865 following the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in April; the Army of the Potomac was created in 1861 but was only the size of a corps. Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, it was the army that fought the war's first major battle, the First Battle of Bull Run; the arrival in Washington, D. C. of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan changed the makeup of that army. McClellan's original assignment was to command the Division of the Potomac, which included the Department of Northeast Virginia under McDowell and the Department of Washington under Brig. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield. On July 26, 1861, the Department of the Shenandoah, commanded by Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, was merged with McClellan's departments and on that day, McClellan formed the Army of the Potomac, composed of all military forces in the former Departments of Northeastern Virginia, Washington and the Shenandoah.

The men under Banks's command became an infantry division in the Army of the Potomac. The army started with four corps, but these were divided during the Peninsula Campaign to produce two more. After the Second Battle of Bull Run, the Army of the Potomac absorbed the units that had served under Maj. Gen. John Pope, it is a popular, but mistaken, belief that John Pope commanded the Army of the Potomac in the summer of 1862 after McClellan's unsuccessful Peninsula Campaign. On the contrary, Pope's army consisted of different units, was named the Army of Virginia. During the time that the Army of Virginia existed, the Army of the Potomac was headquartered on the Virginia Peninsula, outside Washington, D. C. with McClellan still in command, although three corps of the Army of the Potomac were sent to northern Virginia and were under Pope's operational control during the Northern Virginia Campaign. The Army of the Potomac underwent many structural changes during its existence; the army was divided by Ambrose Burnside into three grand divisions of two corps each with a Reserve composed of two more.

Hooker abolished the grand divisions. Thereafter the individual corps, seven of which remained in Virginia, reported directly to army headquarters. Hooker created a Cavalry Corps by combining units that had served as smaller formations. In late 1863, two corps were sent West, and— in 1864— the remaining five corps were recombined into three. Burnside's IX Corps, which accompanied the army at the start of Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign, rejoined the army later. For more detail, see the section Corps below; the Army of the Potomac fought in most of the Eastern Theater campaigns in Virginia and Pennsylvania. After the end of the war, it was disbanded on June 28, 1865, shortly following its participation in the Grand Review of the Armies; the Army of the Potomac was the name given to General P. G. T. Beauregard's Confederate army during the early stages of the war. However, the name was changed to the Army of Northern Virginia, which became famous under General Robert E. Lee. In 1869 the Society of the Army of the Potomac was formed as a veterans association.

It had its last reunion in 1929. Because of its proximity to the large cities of the North, such as Washington, D. C. Philadelphia, New York City, the Army of the Potomac received more contemporary media coverage than the other Union field armies; such coverage produced fame for a number of this army's units. Individual brigades, such as the Irish Brigade, the Philadelphia Brigade, the First New Jersey Brigade, the Vermont Brigade, the Iron Brigade, all became well known to the general public, both during the Civil War and afterward; the army consisted of fourteen divisions commanded by Edwin Sumner, William B. Franklin, Louis Blenker, Nathaniel Banks, Frederick W. Lander, Silas Casey, Irvin McDowell, Fitz-John Porter, Samuel Heintzelman, Erasmus Keyes, William F. Smith, Charles P. Stone, George McCall; because this arrangement would be too hard to control in battle, President Lincoln issued an order on March 13, 1862, dividing the army into six corps headed by Sumner, Banks, McDowell and Keyes, the highest-ranking officers.

McClellan was not happy with this, as he had intended to wait until the army had been tested in battle before judging which generals were suitable for corps command. After the Battle of Williamsburg on May 5, McClellan requested and obtained permission to create two additions corps. Gen Fitz-John Porter, the VI Corps, headed by Brig. Gen William B. Franklin, both personal favorites of his. After the Battle of Kernstown in the Valley on March 23, the administration became paranoid about "Stonewall" Jackson's activities there and the potential danger they posed to Washington D. C. and to McClellan's displeasure, detached Blenker's division from the II Corps and sent it to West Virginia to serve under John C. Fremont's command. McDowell's corps was stationed in the Rappahannock area. In June 1862, George McCall's division from McDowell's corps was sent down to the Peninsula and temporarily attached to the V Corps. In the Seven Days Battles, the V Corps was engaged; the Pennsylvania Reserves, in particular, suffered heavy loss

MP 73

The MP 73 is a rubber tired variant of electric multiple units used on Paris's Métro system. The cars were delivered in 1974, when the RATP decided to convert Line 6 to rubber tyred pneumatic operation; the existing stock on Line 6 needed replacing at this time, the line was converted to rubber tyred operation due to the lengthy open air viaduct sections of track, which generated much noise and vibration with older steel-wheeled rolling stock. The body design was based on the successful MF 67 stock. A total of 252 cars were built, six of which have subsequently been scrapped, they were refurbished in 2000. Trains are formed into 5-car sets, they continue to serve on Line 6. One MP 73 runs on Line 11 in a four-car formation. A single MP 73 has intermittently operated on Line 11 since 1976. A six-car MP 73 operated on Line 4 on an intermittent basis until 1999, when it was moved back to Line 6. In some cases, trailers of an MP 73 would be paired with trailers of an MP 59, creating a hybrid formation.

This practice ended in 1999 when the MP 55 and many MP 59 stock were retired following the arrival of the MP 89. The future of the MP 73 is unknown, but there is much speculation that they will be replaced with the MP 89CC stock from Line 4, as the latter is being prepped for automation. Santiago Metro has a forked version named NS 74; the Mexico City Metro has another forked version named MP 82. TRUCK

Harvey Howard

Harvey Howard is an English former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1990s and 2000s. A Great Britain and England international representative prop, he played club football in England for Widnes, Bradford Bulls and Wigan, in Australia for the Eastern Suburbs Roosters, Western Suburbs Magpies and the Brisbane Broncos, with whom he won the 2000 grand final. Howard played in Australia, while going over to England regularly. Howard played left-second-row, i.e. number 11, in Widnes 24-0 victory over Leeds in the 1991–92 Regal Trophy Final during the 1991–92 season at Central Park, Wigan on Saturday 11 January 1992. He played right-prop, i.e. number 10, in Widnes' 14-20 defeat by Wigan in the 1993 Challenge Cup Final during the 1992–93 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 1 May 1993, played right-prop in Leeds' 16-26 defeat by Wigan in the 1994 Challenge Cup Final during the 1993–94 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 30 April 1994, played left-prop, i.e. number 8, in the 10-30 defeat by Wigan in the 1995 Challenge Cup Final during the 1994–95 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 29 April 1995.

While at Leeds, in 1995 he won his first international cap for England against Wales. During his time with the Western Suburbs Magpies on the playing roster, he gained several nicknames, including Harves and Harvester, but mainly as Night Train; this was because of a song at the time which he insisted the whole team listen to a song called "Night Train". In 1997, he played for the'Rest of the World' against Australia. While at Bradford Bulls in 1998 Howard won a cap for Great Britain against New Zealand as a substitute. After four seasons with Wests in the late 1990s, Howard could not win a place in the joint team, Wests Tigers. Wayne Bennett had no such concern, using Howard as a stop-gap Prop and bringing him off the bench in the Broncos' 2000 NRL Grand Final win over the Sydney Roosters. After that Howard represented England in the 2000 Rugby League World Cup mostly from the interchange bench, he played prop for the Wigan Warriors in the 2001 Super League Grand Final defeat by the Bradford Bulls.

Harvey returned to Australia on a permanent basis, now works full-time for the Western Suburbs Magpies DRLFC as Development officer, in charge of the junior grades of football, as well as the Junior Magpies development teams. Howard was appointed Hull Kingston Rovers' first team coach in late 2004. Howard was dismissed shortly before the Northern Rail Cup Final, which the Hull Kingston Roverswent on to win 18-16 over Castleford Tigers, with the Hull Kingston Rovers utilising the temporary player-coaching abilities of James Webster. Permanently taking over from Howard was the former Toulouse coach, Justin Morgan. Harvey Howard at the Brisbane Broncos official website. Statistics at rugbyleagueproject.org Profile at Leeds Rhinos official website