An inquisitor was an official in an Inquisition. An inquisitor is one who "searches out" or "inquires"; some of the more well-known inquisitors throughout history include: Peter of Verona, whose canonization was the fastest in history Pedro de Arbués Nicolau Aymerich author of Directorium Inquisitorum Stephen of Bourbon Arnaut Catalan Fabio Chigi Diego Deza Bernard Gui Hentenius Heinrich Institoris, author of Malleus Maleficarum Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros Konrad von Marburg Sebastien Michaelis Giovanni Pietro Carafa James Sprenger, purported co-author of Malleus Maleficarum Tomás de Torquemada Martín García Ceniceros Medieval Inquisition Spanish Inquisition Portuguese Inquisition Roman Inquisition Mexican Inquisition Inquisitorial system, a type of legal system
The Cistercians the Order of Cistercians, are a Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that branched off from the Benedictines and follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are known as Bernardines, after the influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux; the term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more the Rule of Saint Benedict; the best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy and Eastern Europe; the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict.
Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life as it had been in Saint Benedict's time. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life; the Cistercians made major contributions to culture and technology in medieval Europe: Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking a simpler lifestyle began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, became known as the Trappists; the Trappists were consolidated in 1892 into a new order called the Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance, abbreviated as OCSO.
The Cistercians who did not observe these reforms and remained within the Order of Cistercians and are sometimes called the Cistercians of the Common Observance when distinguishing them from the Trappists. In 1098, a Benedictine abbot, Robert of Molesme, left his monastery in Burgundy with around 20 supporters, who felt that the Cluniac communities had abandoned the rigours and simplicity of the Rule of St. Benedict; the monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James; the massive endowments and responsibilities of the Cluniac abbots had drawn them into the affairs of the secular world, their monks had abandoned manual labour to serfs to serve as scholars and "choir monks". On March 21, 1098, Robert's small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, given to them expressly for the purpose of founding their Novum Monasterium. Robert's followers included Alberic, a former hermit from the nearby forest of Colan, Stephen Harding, a member of an Anglo-Saxon noble family, ruined as a result of the Norman conquest of England.
During the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Robert's absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, Pope Urban II, a former Cluniac monk, ordered him to return; the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding. Robert had been the idealist of the order, Alberic was their builder. Upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and clothed the monks in white habits of undyed wool, he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo I of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church.
The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16, 1106, by the Bishop of Chalon sur Saône. On January 26, 1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase; the order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, he framed the original version of the Cistercian "Constitution" or regulations: the Carta Caritatis. Although this was revised on several occasions to meet contemporary needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, love and self-denial; the Cistercians regarded themselves as regular Benedictines, albeit the "perfect", reformed ones, but they soon came to distinguish themselves from the monks of unreformed Benedictin
Massacre at Béziers
The Massacre at Béziers refers to the slaughter of the inhabitants during the sack of Béziers, an event that took place on 22 July 1209, was the first major military action of the Albigensian Crusade. After Pope Innocent III had declared a crusade to eliminate Catharism in the Languedoc, a crusader army consisting of knights with their retinue, professional soldiers, mercenary bands, pilgrims and departed from Lyon in early July 1209. Béziers, a stronghold of Catharism, was the first major town the crusaders encountered on the way to Carcassonne, it was well fortified, amply supplied, in a position to withstand a long siege. Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse joined the crusaders at Valence; the attempt by Raymond Roger Trencavel, viscount of Béziers, to peacefully submit was rejected at Montpellier. The viscount departed from Montpellier in a hurry, ahead of the crusader army, to prepare his defenses. On the way to Carcassonne, he stopped at Béziers, promising reinforcements, taking along some Cathars and Jews.
Commanded by the Papal legate, the Abbot of Citeaux, Arnaud Amalric, the crusader army reached the outskirts of Béziers on 21 July 1209. As they started to pitch their camp, the Bishop of Béziers, Renaud de Montpeyroux, tried to avert bloodshed and to negotiate, he came back to Béziers with the message that the town would be spared provided it would hand over their heretics. The bishop had drawn up a list of 222 individuals Cathars, some Waldensians to be perfecti or leaders of their communities, but in a meeting at the Cathedral, it was determined that to hand over these people was not possible because they had too much support within the town. So the bishop asked the Cathars to leave the town to save themselves; this proposal was rejected, the bishop left the town with just a few Cathars. On 22 July the crusaders were busy getting settled and still days away from starting the siege proper. A group of soldiers made a sortie exiting the gate overlooking the river Orb; as they started to harass routiers and pilgrims of the crusader army, a brawl ensued and soon the attackers from the town found themselves outnumbered and retreated in disarray.
The routiers took advantage of the chaos, stormed the walls that were not properly manned, entered the gate, all without orders. The crusader knights, realizing that the defenses had been broken by the routiers, soon joined the battle, overwhelming the garrison, the city was doomed; the routiers rampaged through the streets and plundering, while those citizens who could run sought refuge in the churches – the cathedral the churches of St Mary Magdalene and of St Jude. Yet the churches did not provide safety against the raging mob of invaders; the doors of the churches were broken open, all inside were slaughtered. After the massacre it came to the distribution of the city's spoils; the crusader knights became enraged that the rabble of the army had taken the plunder. They chased them from the occupied houses and took their booty away. In turn, the angry and disappointed routiers responded by burning down the town. In the engulfing fire, the plunder was lost, the army left the city in a hurry. Amalric's own version of the siege, described in his letter to Pope Innocent in August 1209, states: Indeed, because there is no strength nor is there cunning against God, while discussions were still going on with the barons about the release of those in the city who were deemed to be Catholics, the servants and other persons of low rank and unarmed attacked the city without waiting for orders from their leaders.
To our amazement, crying "to arms, to arms!", within the space of two or three hours they crossed the ditches and the walls and Béziers was taken. Our men spared no one, irrespective of rank, sex or age, put to the sword 20,000 people. After this great slaughter the whole city was despoiled and burnt, as divine vengeance miraculously raged against it. About twenty years Caesarius of Heisterbach relates this story about the massacre, When they discovered, from the admissions of some of them, that there were Catholics mingled with the heretics they said to the abbot "Sir, what shall we do, for we cannot distinguish between the faithful and the heretics." The abbot, like the others, was afraid that many, in fear of death, would pretend to be Catholics, after their departure, would return to their heresy, is said to have replied "Caedite eos. Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius – Kill them all for the Lord knoweth them that are His" and so countless number in that town were slain. While there remains doubt that the abbot said these words – paraphrased as "Kill them all, God will know His own", "Kill them all, God will sort his own", or "Kill them all,/and let God sort them out" – there is little if any doubt that these words captured the spirit of the assault, that the crusaders intended to kill the inhabitants of a stronghold that offered resistance.
However that would involve killing the men, not women and children, not the clergy. The crusaders allowed the routiers to rampage and kill without restraint, but stepped in when it came to the loot, it is possible that Amalric's account of the death of 20,000 is exaggerated, just like Peter of Vaux de Cernay's report that 7,000 were slain in the Church of St Magdalene. The town's population at the time is estimated at 10,000–14,500, an unknown number may have escaped the massacre. Historian Laurence W. Marvin calls Amalric's exhortation "apocryphal" and "The speed and spontaneity of the attack indicates that the legate may not have known what was going on until it was over."
Ancient Diocese of Narbonne
The former Catholic diocese of Narbonne existed from early Christian times until the French Revolution. It was an archdiocese, with its see at Narbonne, from the year 445, its influence ran over much of south-western France and into Catalonia. During the French Revolution, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the diocese of Narbonne was combined with the dioceses of Carcassone, Saint-Papoul and Mirepoix into the new Diocese of the Aude, with its seat at Narbonne, it included 565 parishes. It was a part of the Métropole du Sud; the territory of the former diocese of Narbonne was merged under the Concordat of 1801 into the diocese of Carcassonne. After the Restoration of the Bourbons following Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, an attempt was made to re-establish the see was defeated in the French Parliament. After nearly a century, a new metropolitan see was created for the Languedoc region, with the elevation of the bishopric of Montpellier to the rank of Metropolitan Archbishop on 8 December 2002.
The diocese of Carcassonne was transferred from the metropolitanate of Toulouse to that of Montpellier, on 14 June 2006 the name of the diocese of Carcassonne was changed to the Diocese of Carcassonne and Narbonne. Toulouse no longer carries the title Toulouse-Narbonne. Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 582–584. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list pp. 356. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 199. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 253. Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Pp. 252. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio.
Retrieved 2016-07-06. Pp. 280. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 301. Sainte-Marthe, Denis de. Gallia Christiana: In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa, De provincia Narbonensi. Tomus sextus. Paris: Typographia Regia. Pp. 1–222, Instrumenta, 1–72. De Vic, Cl.. Histoire generale de Languedoc. Tome IV. Toulouse: Edouard Privat. Pp. 243–260.. Duchesne, Louis. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: I. Provinces du Sud-Est. Paris: Fontemoing. Second edition Mortet, Victor. Notes historiques et archéologiques sur la cathédrale: le cloitre et le palais archiépiscopal de Narbonne 13e-16e siècles. Toulouse: E. Privat
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Grandselve Abbey was a Cistercian monastery in south-west France, at Bouillac, Tarn-et-Garonne. It was one of the most important Cistercian abbeys in the south of France. Grandselve was founded as a hermitage under the Benedictine rule in 1114 by Gerald of Sales, who placed it under the supervision of Cadouin Abbey. In 1117 Bishop Amelius Raymond du Puy of Toulouse recognized it as a monastery, he authorized the monks to build a church, gave them the lands, required them to follow the rule as practiced at Cîteaux Abbey. Over time, the monks began to detach themselves from their connection to Cadouin, in 1135 Bishop Amelius, at the request of Pope Innocent II, reminded them of their required obedience. Grandselve joined the Cistercian movement as a daughter house of Clairvaux Abbey in 1145; the church was dedicated in 1253. The land was cultivated, mills were established on the rivers and vineyards were planted. By the fourteenth century, the abbey owned two wine cellars in Bordeaux, it became one of the most famous abbeys of the south.
Grandselve founded the College of St. Bernard in Toulouse to teach theology. William VI and William VII, counts of Montpellier, were buried at Grandselve, where William VII's son, Raimond de Montpellier was a monk. In 1231 Bishop of Toulouse Folquet de Marselha was buried, beside the tomb of William VII of Montpellier, at the abbey of Grandselves, near Toulouse, where his sons and Petrus had been abbots; the abbey properties suffered during the Hundred Years' War such that John II of France temporarily exempted the abbey from taxes. By the late fifteenth century, commendatory abbots further depleted the abbey's resources while neglecting maintenance and repair. By 1790 there were only fourteen religious left; the abbey was suppressed during the French Revolution. It was sold in 1791 to private owners. List of abbots
Caesarius of Heisterbach
Caesarius of Heisterbach, sometimes erroneously called, in English, Caesar of Heisterbach, was the prior of a Cistercian monastery, Heisterbach Abbey, located in the Siebengebirge, near the small town of Oberdollendorf, Germany. Caesarius of Heisterbach is remembered for a paradoxical maxim concerning the rise and decline of monasteries according to which discipline causes prosperity in a monastery, prosperity undermines discipline, he gave the name of Titivillus as the demon who caused typographical errors in the work of scribes. He is further known as having attributed to Arnaud Amalric, a leader in the Albigensian Crusade a famous declaration. Upon being asked how to distinguish Cathars from Catholics at the besieged town of Béziers, Arnaud replied "Caedite eos. Novit enim Dominus qui sunt eius", which translates as: "Slay them all, God will recognize his own." This statement is cited as "Kill them all and let God sort them out." Heisterbach Abbey was dissolved in 1803, the library and archives were given to the city of Düsseldorf.
The monastery and the church were sold and demolished in 1809, only the ruined apse with fragments of the choir remaining. In 1897 a monument was erected nearby in honour of Caesarius; as an author, Caesarius of Heisterbach is best known as the compiler of a book of hagiography, the Dialogus miraculorum, a collection of 746 miracle stories arranged according to twelve distinctions. The tales are told in the form of dialogues between a novice; the work was referred to by preachers seeking material for sermons in the Late Middle Ages. It was popular and was distributed, its popularity was rivaled only by the Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine. A vision reported in the book provided the source for the iconography of the Virgin of Mercy; the contemplative writings of Caesarius can be seen as opposing the mendicant orders of his lifetime. The first writings of Caesarius were sermons, but it was not long before his fellow monks approached him with requests for elaboration and explanation. His ninth book was written because his fellow monks asked him for a simple and understandable explanation of the Maria sequence "Ave preclara maris stella".
His other writings were responses to requests. Caesarius complained that his works were taken out of his hand and uncorrected, they were well-known and popular, some sixty known transcriptions of the Dialogus miraculorum preceded the publication of a critical edition. In his sermons Caesarius treats passages from the Bible examining psalms or parts of them, he relates the movements of heavenly bodies to the destinies of men. His homilies, on the other hand, deal with the evangelical texts of the Sundays and festivals throughout the entire Church year, are to be regarded as theological tracts and meditations rather than sermons and speeches, they are directed not to monks and novices of the Cistercian Order. The interpretations deal with the lives of monks; the writings of Caesrius are of considerable importance for the study of medieval homiletics. Catholic Encyclopedia: Caesarius of Heisterbach Medieval Sourcebook: Caesarius of Heisterbach, from Dialogus, book V: on medieval heresies Dialogus Miraculorum, volume 1, images from an 1851 edition