SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Arnhem Land

Arnhem Land is a historical region of the Northern Territory of Australia. It is located in the north-eastern corner of the territory and is around 500 km from the territory capital, Darwin. In 1623, Dutch East India Company captain Willem Joosten van Colster sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape Arnhem is named after his ship, the Arnhem, which itself was named after the city of Arnhem in the Netherlands; the area covers about 97,000 km2 and has an estimated population of 16,000, of whom 12,000 are indigenous. The region's service hub is Nhulunbuy, 600 km east of Darwin, set up in the early 1970s as a mining town. Other major population centres are Yirrkala, Gunbalanya and Maningrida. A substantial proportion of the population, Aboriginal, lives on small outstations; this outstation movement started in the early 1980s. Many Aboriginal groups moved to very small settlements on their traditional lands to escape the problems on the larger townships; these population groups have little Western influence culturally speaking, Arnhem Land is arguably one of the last areas in Australia that could be seen as a separate country.

Many of the region's leaders have called and continue to call for a treaty that would allow the Yolngu to operate under their own traditional laws. In 2013–14, the entire region contributed around $1.3 billion or 7% to the Northern Territory's gross state product through bauxite mining. In 2019, it was announced that NASA had chosen Arnhem Land as the location for a space launch facility. Arnhem Land has been occupied by indigenous people for tens of thousands of years and is the location of the oldest-known stone axe, which scholars believe to be 35,500 years old; the Gove Peninsula was involved in the defence of Australia during World War II. At least since the 18th century Muslim traders from Makassar of Sulawesi visited Arnhem Land each year to trade and process sea cucumbers or trepang; this marine animal is prized in Chinese cuisine, for folk medicine, as an aphrodisiac. This Macassan contact with Australia is the first recorded example of interaction between the inhabitants of the Australian continent and their Asian neighbours.

This contact had a major effect on local indigenous Australians. The Makassans exchanged goods such as cloth, knives and alcohol for the right to trepang coastal waters and employ local labour. Makassar pidgin became a lingua franca along the north coast among several indigenous Australian groups who were brought into greater contact with each other by the seafaring Makassan culture; these traders from the southwest corner of Sulawesi introduced the word balanda for white people, long before western explorers set foot on the coasts of northern Australia. In Arnhem Land, the word is still used today to refer to white Australians; the Dutch started settling in Sulawesi Island in the early 17th century. Archeological remains of Makassar contact, including trepang processing plants from the 18th and 19th centuries, are still found at Australian locations such as Port Essington and Groote Eylandt; the Makassans planted tamarind trees. After processing, the sea slugs were traded by the Makassans to Southern China.

In 2014, an 18th-century Chinese coin was found in the remote area of Wessel Islands off the coast on a beach on Elcho Island during a historical expedition. The coin was found near known Macassan trepanger fishing sites where several other Dutch coins have been discovered nearby, but never a Chinese coin; the coin was made in Beijing around 1735. The area is from Port Roper on the Gulf of Carpentaria around the coast to the East Alligator River, where it adjoins Kakadu National Park; the major centres are Jabiru on the Kakadu National Park border, Maningrida at the Liverpool River mouth, Nhulunbuy in the far north-east, on the Gove Peninsula. Gove is the site of large-scale bauxite mining with an associated alumina refinery, its administrative centre is the town of Nhulunbuy, the fourth-largest population centre in the Northern Territory. The climate of Arnhem Land is tropical monsoon with a dry season; the temperature has little seasonal variation. In 1931, an area of 96,000 square kilometres was proclaimed as an Aboriginal reserve, named Arnhem Land Aboriginal Reserve.

As of 2007 the Land Trust held about 100,000 square kilometres as Aboriginal freehold land. Northeast Arnhem Land is home to the indigenous Yolngu people, one of the largest indigenous groups in Australia, who have succeeded in maintaining a vigorous traditional indigenous culture; the Malays and Makassans are believed to have had contact with the coastal Aboriginal groups and traded with them prior to European settlement of Australia. The 2006 film Ten Canoes captures life in Arnhem Land through a story tapping into the Aboriginal mythic past; the film and the documentary about the making of the film, The Balanda and the Bark Canoes, give a remarkable testimony to the indigenous struggle to keep their culture alive – or rather revive it in the wake of considerable relative modernisation

Qalati Ghilji

Qalāti Ghiljī called Qalāti Zābul or Qalāti Khaljī, or Qalāt or Kalat, is a city in southern Afghanistan and the capital of Zabul Province. It is linked by Highway 1 with Kandahar to Ghazni and Kabul to the northeast; the population of the town are ethnic Pashtuns from the Ghilji tribe, after whom the city is named. The Khalji dynasty of India had origin from this city; the total population of Qalati Ghilji is 49,158. The city has 4 police districts with a total land area of 4,820 Hectares and 5,462 total number of dwellings. Qalati Ghilji is a Provincial Centre located in southern Afghanistan. Barren land is the dominant land use classification 59% of total land. While built-up land use only accounts for 19% of total land use, within that classification there is a large proportion of institutional land. Qalati Ghilji has two distinct industrial areas in Districts 2 and 3. In 2006, Zabul's first airport was built near Qalat. Qalat became home to the U. S.-led Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul, which began assisting in development projects and building governance throughout the province.

Qalati Ghilji has been known as Qalāt-i Khaljī, Qalāt-i Tokhī, or Qalāt or Kalāt. The history of the area is not well documented by western sources and is marred with periods of tribal conflict, leading the area to change hands many times over the course of many years. A political mission came through the city April 16, 1857 en route to Kandahar to broker a new treaty of friendship between the British government at Peshawar and the Amir of Kabul; the party was greeted by a group sent out by the heir-apparent to welcome them and check on the party's supplies. Two companies of infantry were formed. Afterwards, a shura was held. Sher Ali Khan captured the city on January 22, 1867. In the battle, he lost Mahomed Ali, killed in single combat by his uncle, his uncle was subsequently killed. Qalati Ghilji features a semi-arid climate under the Köppen climate classification; the average temperature in Qalat is 13.6 °C. July is the hottest month of the year with an average temperature of 27.5 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of -2.9 °C.

In an effort to bring economic development to the area, Zabul province's first air strip was built just outside the city in 2006. It is a dirt runway; the first flight brought in supplies for PRT Zabul and other organizations trying to rebuild the area. Three years a girls school was built to attempt to improve education in the area. An initial school supply and prayer mat donation was made, regular book drops and school supply donations were made until the PRT left in 2013. Clean water programs around the city improved the availability of clean water sources. In 2009, efforts were completed to improve the water system at the old Qalat City Hospital to bring clean drinking water to patients there. Not all the reconstruction efforts were successful, however. In 2006, construction began on a new economic district for the city. Meant to be an area of commerce and development, ten million dollars and three years most of the buildings are unoccupied, unusable either due to lack of the skills to maintain the buildings or due to a lack of need for the building.

Zabul province's governor refused citing the lack of security. Anne Smedinghoff, a 25 year-old U. S. diplomat, was killed by a suicide car inside the city in the spring of 2013. The local skyline is dominated by a fortress constructed by the forces of Alexander the Great. Ghar Bolan Baba, a 730m deep cave used for religious purposes. Provincial Reconstruction Team Zabul Zabul Province

Tasleem Ahmed Sabri

Sahibzada Tasleem Ahmed Sabri is a Pakistani television host of Islamic Television Channel ARY Qtv, a subsidiary of the ARY Digital Network, available in Pakistan, the Middle East, US, UK and Europe. In the early 1990s, he started as a compere in Naat and Seerat programs at public gatherings and on Pakistan Television Network, he joined the ARY Digital Network, a television and media group, on their ARY Qtv channel in 2004. Tasleem conducts interviews of famous Pakistani personalities from different fields of life including religion, business and social services. Two CDs Tasleemat and Tasleem-o-Raza were released in 2007 by him, his other TV programs are publicly available. He is hosting a live programme for last 5 years known as Night time, in which famous Islamic scholars are being invited to discuss certain Islamic issues in depth on regular basis. Muslims from all over the world take part in this programme by having a'live telephone question and answer session' to have a better understanding of Islam.

He has travelled to countries such as India, United Arab Emirates, UK and Saudi Arabia on invitation for such programs. Official YouTube channel http://www.arydigital.tv/ Naat video clips of Tasleem Ahmed Sabri on urduwire.com website http://www.aryqtv.tv/ http://www.tasleemsabri.com/