A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in
The Clayhanger Family
The Clayhanger Family is a series of novels by Arnold Bennett, published between 1910 and 1918. Though the series is referred to as a "trilogy", the first three novels were published in a single volume, as The Clayhanger Family, in 1925, there are four books. All four are set in the "Five Towns", Bennett's thinly disguised version of the six towns of the Potteries district that merged into the borough of Stoke-on-Trent. Buildings described in the novels are still identifiable in Burslem, the basis for the fictional town of "Bursley"; this coming-of-age story set in the Midlands of Victorian England follows Edwin Clayhanger as he leaves school, takes over the family business and falls in love. Bennett wrote it in 1910 at the Royal Albion Hotel, in Lausanne. Edwin Clayhanger's father, has risen from an poor background, which Bennett returns to, to become a prominent printer in Bursley. Edwin takes his family's affluence for granted, he allows his ambition to become an architect to be overruled by his father and instead becomes an office junior in his father's business.
He sees through the many hypocrisies of Victorian England, but he does not confront them or become his own man until after his father's final illness and death. He reopens his relationship with the impoverished but exotic Hilda Lessways; the second novel in the series parallels Edwin Clayhanger's story from the point of view of his eventual wife, Hilda, by telling the story of her coming of age, her working experiences as a shorthand clerk and as a keeper of lodging houses in London and Brighton, her relationship with George Cannon, which ends in her disastrous bigamous marriage and pregnancy, her reconciliation with Edwin Clayhanger. Bennett includes some scenes from the first book retold from Hilda's perspective; the third novel in the series chronicles the married life of Hilda. Edwin, released from the controlling influence of his father, finds himself free to run his business and his life, but his freedom is diminished by his wife's caprices. Hilda does not conform to the expected role of submissive wife, why Edwin married her,and has opinions on matters, such as Edwin's business, that in their day are regarded as for men only.
Edwin has his doubts about their marriage and is brought to impotent anger by his wife just as he had been by his father. The fourth novel in the series concerns the early life of Edwin Clayhanger's stepson, who insists on remaining George Cannon and refuses to take his stepfather's name. George thus represents what Edwin Clayhanger once wanted to be. Unike his mother and stepfather, George has not experienced poverty and has been spoiled by having too easy a life. Clayhanger Street in Burslem was named after the first novel in the series, it runs beside the Wedgwood Institute. Hilda Lessways, a television drama series, was transmitted in 1959; the first three novels were dramatised as a 26-part serial by ATV and broadcast on the British network ITV in 1976. The cast includes Janet Suzman as Hilda Lessways, Peter McEnery as Edwin Clayhanger, Harry Andrews as Darius Clayhanger and Denholm Elliott as Tertius Ingpen; the serial was released on DVD in the UK in July 2010. Text of Clayhanger available from the website of Literary Heritage of the West Midlands.
Clayhanger at Project Gutenberg Hilda Lessways at Project Gutenberg These Twain at Project Gutenberg The Roll-Call at Project Gutenberg The Clayhanger Family public domain audiobook at LibriVox Information on the Clayhanger TV series Images from the Clayhanger TV series
Newcastle-under-Lyme, is a market town in Staffordshire, England. It had a population of 128,264 in 2016, up from 123,800 in the 2011 Census; the "Newcastle" part of the name derives from being the location of a new castle in the 12th century. The "Lyme" section could refer to the Lyme Brook or the extensive Forest of Lyme that covered the area with lime trees in the Middle Ages. Newcastle is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, as it grew up around the 12th-century castle, but it must have become a place of importance, because a charter, known only through a reference in another charter to Preston, was given to the town by Henry II in 1173; the new castle was built to supersede an older fortress at Chesterton about 2 miles to the north, the ruins of which were visible up to the end of the 16th century. In 1235 Henry III constituted granting a guild merchant and other privileges. In 1251 he leased it under a fee farm grant to the burgesses. In 1265 Newcastle was granted by the Crown to Simon de Montfort, subsequently to Edmund Crouchback, through whom it passed to Henry IV.
In John Leland's time the castle had disappeared "save one great Toure". Newcastle did not feature much in the English Civil War, except for a Royalist plundering. However, it was the home town of Major General Thomas Harrison, a Cromwellian army officer and leader of the Fifth Monarchy Men; the governing charter in 1835, which created the Newcastle-under-Lyme Municipal Borough, absorbed the previous borough created through the charters of 1590 and 1664, under which the title of the corporation, was the "mayor and burgesses of Newcastle-under-Lyme". Newcastle sent two members to Parliament from 1355 to 1885; when Stoke-on-Trent was formed by the 1910 amalgamation of the "six towns", Newcastle remained separate. Despite its close proximity, it was not directly involved in the pottery industry, it opposed attempts to join the amalgamation in 1930, with a postcard poll showing residents opposing the Stoke-on-Trent Extension Bill by a majority of 97.4%. Although passed by the House of Commons, the Bill was rejected by the House of Lords.
Following the Local Government Act 1972, it became the principal settlement of the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme. Like neighbouring Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle's early economy was based around the hatting trade and cotton mills. Coal mining, brick manufacture, iron casting and engineering rose to prominence. Fine red earthenware and soft-paste porcelain tableware was produced in Newcastle at Samuel Bell's factory in Lower Street between 1724 and 1754, when production ceased. With the exception of a failed enterprise between 1790 and 1797, which switched to brewing, there was no further commercial production of pottery within the town of Newcastle. Production of earthenware tiles, continued at several locations within the borough. Manufacture of fine bone china was re-established in the borough in 1963 by Mayfair Pottery at Chesterton; the manufacture in the borough of clay tobacco-smoking pipes started about 1637 and grew until it was second only to hatting as an industry. Nationally, the town ranked with Chester and Hull as the four major pipe producers.
The industry continued until the mid-19th century, when decline set in so that by 1881 there was only one tobacco-pipe maker left. In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the town had a flourishing felt hat manufacturing industry, at its peak locally in the 1820s, when a third of the town's population were involved in over 20 factories, but by 1892 there was only one manufacturer still in production. In 1944, the Rolls-Royce Derwent engine for the Gloster Meteor fighter was made in the borough. Newcastle's 20th-century industries include: iron-working, construction materials, computers, electric motors and machinery. Near the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, the town received major redevelopment to incorporate a new street into the town centre, providing Newcastle with a new bus station and bringing in more companies. Various business centres in the town provide offices for companies that operate in the service sector. A number of pubs and bars provide Newcastle with a strong night life, with students' night being on Thursdays.
The town has been the birthplace of activists. Fanny Deakin was a campaigner for better nourishment for babies and young children and better maternity care for mothers; the former chairwoman of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Janet Bloomfield is a peace and disarmament campaigner. Vera Brittain writer, feminist was born in the town. There have been two notable Members of Parliament. Josiah Wedgwood IV was a Liberal and Labour Party MP, who served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in the cabinet of Ramsay MacDonald, in the first Labour government, he was an MP from 1909 to 1942. John Golding was elected a Labour MP for Newcastle-under-Lyme at a by-election in 1969, he served in the governments of Harold Wilson and Jim Callaghan, as PPS to Eric Varley as Minister of Technology, a Labour whip in opposition, Minister for Employment, stepping down in 1986. The current MP is Paul Farrelly; the town was once served by the North Staffordshire Railway, its station being on a branch line from Stoke-on-Trent via Newcastle and Keele, to Mar
Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device. Woolf was born into an affluent household in South Kensington, the seventh child in a blended family of eight, her mother, Julia Prinsep Jackson, celebrated as a Pre-Raphaelite artist's model, had three children from her first marriage, while Woolf's father, Leslie Stephen, a notable man of letters, had one previous daughter. The Stephens produced another four children, including the modernist painter Vanessa Bell. While the boys in the family received college educations, the girls were home-schooled in English classics and Victorian literature. An important influence in Virginia Woolf's early life was the summer home the family used in St Ives, where she first saw the Godrevy Lighthouse, to become iconic in her novel To the Lighthouse. Woolf's childhood came to an abrupt end in 1895 with the death of her mother and her first mental breakdown, followed two years by the death of her stepsister and surrogate mother, Stella Duckworth.
From 1897 to 1901, she attended the Ladies' Department of King's College London, where she studied classics and history and came into contact with early reformers of women's higher education and the women's rights movement. Other important influences were her Cambridge-educated brothers and unfettered access to her father's vast library. Encouraged by her father, Woolf began writing professionally in 1900, her father's death in 1905 caused another mental breakdown for Woolf. Following his death, the Stephen family moved from Kensington to the more bohemian Bloomsbury, where they adopted a free-spirited lifestyle, it was in Bloomsbury where, in conjunction with the brothers' intellectual friends, the Stephens formed the artistic and literary Bloomsbury Group. Following her 1912 marriage to Leonard Woolf, the couple founded the Hogarth Press in 1917, which published much of her work; the couple rented a home in Sussex and moved there permanently in 1940. Throughout her life, Woolf was troubled by bouts of mental illness.
She was institutionalized attempted suicide at least twice. Her illness is considered to have been bipolar disorder, for which there was no effective intervention during her lifetime. At age 59, Woolf committed suicide in 1941 by putting rocks in her coat pockets and drowning herself in the River Ouse. During the interwar period, Woolf was an important part of London's artistic society. In 1915 she published her first novel, The Voyage Out, through her half-brother's publishing house, Gerald Duckworth and Company, her best-known works include the novels Mrs Dalloway, To the Orlando. She is known for her essays, including A Room of One's Own, in which she wrote the much-quoted dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." Woolf became one of the central subjects of the 1970s movement of feminist criticism and her works have since garnered much attention and widespread commentary for "inspiring feminism." Her works have been translated into more than 50 languages.
A large body of literature is dedicated to her life and work, she has been the subject of plays and films. Woolf is commemorated today by statues, societies dedicated to her work and a building at the University of London. Virginia Woolf was born Adeline Virginia Stephen on 25 January 1882 at 22 Hyde Park Gate in South Kensington, London to Julia and Leslie Stephen, historian, essayist and mountaineer. Julia Jackson was born in 1846 in Calcutta, British India to Dr. John Jackson and Maria "Mia" Theodosia Pattle, from two Anglo-Indian families. John Jackson FRCS was the third son of George Jackson and Mary Howard of Bengal, a physician who spent 25 years with the Bengal Medical Service and East India Company and a professor at the fledgling Calcutta Medical College. While John Jackson was an invisible presence, the Pattle family were famous beauties, moved in the upper circles of Bengali society; the seven Pattle sisters married into important families. Julia Margaret Cameron was a celebrated photographer, while Virginia married Earl Somers, their daughter, Julia Jackson's cousin, was Lady Henry Somerset, the temperance leader.
Julia moved to England with her mother at the age of two and spent much of her early life with another of her mother's sister, Sarah Monckton Pattle. Sarah and her husband Henry Thoby Prinsep, conducted an artistic and literary salon at Little Holland House where she came into contact with a number of Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, for whom she modelled. Julia was the youngest of three sisters and Adeline Virginia Stephen was named after her mother's eldest sister Adeline Maria Jackson and her mother's aunt Virginia Pattle; because of the tragedy of her aunt Adeline's death the previous year, the family never used Virginia's first name. The Jacksons were a well educated and artistic proconsular middle-class family. In 1867, Julia Jackson married Herbert Duckworth, a barrister, but within three years was left a widow with three infant children, she was devastated and entered a prolonged period of mourning, abandoning her faith and turning to nursing and philanthropy. Julia and Herbert Duckworth had three children.
Ellery Queen is a crime fiction pseudonym created in 1929 by Frederic Dannay and Manfred Bennington Lee, used by other authors under Dannay and Lee's supervision. Dannay and Lee's main fictional character, whom they named Ellery Queen, is a mystery writer in New York City who helps his police inspector father solve baffling murders. Most of the more than thirty novels and several short story collections in which Ellery Queen appeared as a character were written by Dannay and Lee, were among the most popular American mysteries published between 1929 and 1971. From 1961, Dannay and Lee commissioned other authors to write crime thrillers under the Ellery Queen authorial name, but not featuring Ellery Queen as a character. Daniel Nathan, professionally known as Frederic Dannay, Emanuel Benjamin Lepofsky, professionally known as Manfred Bennington Lee, were American cousins from Brooklyn, New York. In addition to writing most of the novels and short stories featuring the brilliant amateur detective Ellery Queen and Lee edited more than thirty anthologies of crime fiction and true crime, which were published under the Ellery Queen pseudonym.
Dannay was the founder and longtime editor of Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, published continuously from 1941 to the present. Dannay and Lee wrote four mysteries under the pseudonym Barnaby Ross, a name that they allowed another author to use. Several juvenile novels were credited to Jr.. In a successful series of novels and short stories that covered 42 years, "Ellery Queen" served as a joint pseudonym for the cousins Dannay and Lee, as well as the name of the primary detective-hero they created. During the 1930s and much of the 1940s, that detective-hero was the best known American fictional detective. Movies, radio shows, television shows were based on Dannay and Lee's works. Frederic Dannay, without much involvement from Lee, was founding and directing editor of Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, a crime fiction magazine, they were prominent historians in the field, editing numerous collections and anthologies of short stories such as The Misadventures of Sherlock Holmes. Their 994-page anthology for the Modern Library, 101 Years' Entertainment: The Great Detective Stories, 1841–1941, was a landmark work that remained in print for many years.
Under their collective pseudonym, the cousins were given the Grand Master Award for achievements in the field of the mystery story by the Mystery Writers of America in 1961. The fictional Ellery Queen was the hero of more than 30 novels and several short story collections, written by Dannay and Lee and published under the Ellery Queen pseudonym. Dannay and Lee wrote four novels about a detective named Drury Lane using the pseudonym Barnaby Ross, they allowed the Ellery Queen name to be used as a house name for a number of novels written by other authors from outlines provided by Dannay, most of them published in the 1960s as paperback originals and not featuring Ellery Queen as a character. Dannay and Lee remained circumspect about their writing methods. Novelist and critic H. R. F. Keating wrote, "How did they do it? Did they sit together and hammer the stuff out word by word? Did one write the dialogue and the other the narration?... What happened was that Fred Dannay, in principle, produced the plots, the clues, what would have to be deduced from them as well as the outlines of the characters and Manfred Lee clothed it all in words.
But it is unlikely to have been as clear cut as that."According to critic Otto Penzler, "As an anthologist, Ellery Queen is without peer, his taste unequalled. As a bibliographer and a collector of the detective short story, Queen is, again, a historical personage. Indeed, Ellery Queen is, after Poe, the most important American in mystery fiction." British crime novelist Margery Allingham wrote that Ellery Queen had "done far more for the detective story than any other two men put together". Although Frederic Dannay outlived his cousin by eleven years, the Ellery Queen authorial name died with Manfred Lee; the last novel featuring the character Ellery Queen, A Fine and Private Place, was published in 1971, the year of Lee's death. However, Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, now published by Dell Magazines, continues as a crime fiction magazine as of 2018 publishing six "double issues" per year. Ellery Queen was created in 1928 when Dannay and Lee entered a writing contest sponsored by McClure's magazine for the best first mystery novel.
They decided to use as their collective pseudonym the same name. Inspired by the formula and style of the Philo Vance novels by S. S. Van Dine, their entry won the contest, but before it could be published, the magazine closed. Undeterred, the cousins took their novel to other publishers, The Roman Hat Mystery was published in 1929. According to H. R. F. Keating, "Later the cousins took a sharper view of the Philo Vance character, Manfred Lee calling him, with typical vehemence,'the biggest prig that came down the pike'."The Roman Hat Mystery established a reliable template: a geographic formula title. What became the best known part of the early Ellery Queen books was the "Challenge to the Reader." This was a single page near the end of the book declaring that the reader had seen all the same clues Ellery had, that only one solution was possible. According to novelist/
Montparnasse is an area of Paris, France, on the left bank of the river Seine, centered at the crossroads of the Boulevard du Montparnasse and the Rue de Rennes, between the Rue de Rennes and boulevard Raspail. Montparnasse has been part of Paris since 1669; the area gives its name to: Gare Montparnasse: trains to Brittany, TGV to Rennes, Bordeaux, Le Mans. The Pasteur Institute is located in the area. Beneath the ground are tunnels of the Catacombs of Paris. Students in the 17th century who came to recite poetry in the hilly neighbourhood nicknamed it after "Mount Parnassus", home to the nine Muses of arts and sciences in Greek mythology; the hill was levelled to construct the Boulevard Montparnasse in the 18th century. During the French Revolution many dance halls and cabarets opened their doors; the area is known for cafés and bars, such as the Breton restaurants specialising in crêpes located a few blocks from the Gare Montparnasse. In the 18th century, students recited poems at the foot of an artificial hillock of rock rubble from the catacombs, a near-by network of underground galleries.
They decided to baptize this mound "Mount Parnassus", named after the one celebrated by Greek poets. In early 20th century, many Bretons driven out of their region by poverty arrived by train at Montparnasse station, the heart of the district, settled near-by. Montparnasse became famous in the 1920s, referred to as les Années Folles, the 1930s as the heart of intellectual and artistic life in Paris. From 1910 to the start of World War II, Paris' artistic circles migrated to Montparnasse as alternative to the Montmartre district, the intellectual breeding ground for the previous generation of artists; the Paris of Zola, France, Fauré, a group that had assembled more on the basis of status affinity than actual artistic tastes, indulging in the refinements of Dandyism, was at the opposite end of the economic and political spectrum from the gritty, tough-talking, die-hard, emigrant artists that peopled Montparnasse. Penniless painters, writers and composers came from around the world to thrive in the creative atmosphere and for the cheap rent at artist communes such as La Ruche.
Living without running water, in damp, unheated "studios" free of rats, many sold their works for a few francs just to buy food. Jean Cocteau once said. First promoted by art dealers such as Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, today works by those artists sell for millions of euros. In post-World War I Paris, Montparnasse was a euphoric meeting ground for the artistic world. Fernand Léger wrote of that period: "man…relaxes and recaptures his taste for life, his frenzy to dance, to spend money…an explosion of life-force fills the world." They came to Montparnasse from all over the globe, from Europe, including Russia and Ukraine, from the United States, Mexico and South America, from as far away as Japan. Manuel Ortiz de Zárate, Camilo Mori and others made their way from Chile where the profound innovations in art spawned the formation of the Grupo Montparnasse in Santiago. A few of the other artists who gathered in Montparnasse were Jacob Macznik, Pablo Picasso, Guillaume Apollinaire, Ossip Zadkine, Julio Gonzalez, Moise Kisling, Jean Cocteau, Erik Satie, Marios Varvoglis, Marc Chagall, Nina Hamnett, Jean Rhys, Fernand Léger, Jacques Lipchitz, Max Jacob, Blaise Cendrars, Chaim Soutine, James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, Michel Kikoine, Pinchus Kremegne, Amedeo Modigliani, Ford Madox Ford, Toño Salazar, Ezra Pound, Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti, Henri Rousseau, Constantin Brâncuși, Paul Fort, Juan Gris, Diego Rivera, Federico Cantú, Angel Zarraga, Tsuguharu Foujita, Marie Vassilieff, Léon-Paul Fargue, Alberto Giacometti, René Iché, André Breton, Alfonso Reyes, Nils Dardel, Salvador Dalí, Henry Miller, Samuel Beckett, Emil Cioran, Reginald Gray, Endre Ady poet and journalist, Joan Miró, Hilaire Hiler and, in his declining years, Edgar Degas.
Montparnasse was a community where creativity was embraced with all its oddities, each new arrival welcomed unreservedly by its existing members. When Tsuguharu Foujita arrived from Japan in 1913 not knowing a soul, he met Soutine, Pascin and Léger the same night and within a week became friends with Juan Gris and Matisse. In 1914, when the English painter Nina Hamnett arrived in Montparnasse, on her first evening the smiling man at the next table at La Rotonde graciously introduced himself as "Modigliani and Jew", they became good friends, Hamnett recounting how she once borrowed a jersey and corduroy trousers from Modigliani went to La Rotonde and danced in the street all night. Between 1921 and 1924, the number of Americans in Paris swelled from 6,000 to 30,000. While most of the artistic community gathered here were struggling to eke out an existence, well-heeled American socialites such as Peggy Guggenheim, Edith Wharton from New York City, Harry Crosby from Boston and Beatrice Wood from San Francisco were caught in the fever of creativity.
Robert McAlmon, Maria and Eugene Jolas came to Paris and published their literary magazine Transition. Harry Crosby and his wife Caresse would establish the Black Sun Press in Paris in 1927, publishing works by such future luminaries as D. H. Lawrence, Archibald M
Stoke-on-Trent is a city and unitary authority area in Staffordshire, with an area of 36 square miles. Together with the neighbouring boroughs of Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire Moorlands, it is part of North Staffordshire. In 2016, the city had a population of 261,302. Stoke is polycentric, having been formed by the federation of six towns in 1910, it took its name from Stoke-upon-Trent where the main centre of government and the principal railway station in the district were located. Hanley is the primary commercial centre; the other four towns are Burslem, Tunstall and Fenton. Stoke-on-Trent is the home of the pottery industry in England and is known as the Potteries, with the local residents known as Potters. A industrial conurbation, it is now a centre for service industries and distribution centres; the name Stoke is taken from the town of Stoke-upon-Trent, the original ancient parish with other settlements being chapelries. Stoke derives from the Old English stoc, a word that at first meant little more than place, but which subsequently gained more specific – but divergent – connotations.
These variant meanings included dairy farm, secondary or dependent place or farm, summer pasture, crossing place, meeting place and place of worship. It is not known which of these was intended here, all are plausible; the most suggested interpretations derive from a crossing point on the Roman road that ran from present-day Derby to Chesterton or the early presence of a church, said to have been founded in 670 AD. Because Stoke was such a common name for a settlement, some kind of distinguishing affix was added in this case the name of the river; the motto of Stoke-on-Trent is Vis Unita Fortior which can be translated as: United Strength is Stronger, or Strength United is the More Powerful, or A United Force is Stronger. An early proposal for a federation took place in 1888, when an amendment was raised to the Local Government Bill which would have made the six towns into districts within a county of "Staffordshire Potteries", it was not until 1 April 1910. The county borough of Hanley, the municipal boroughs of Burslem and Stoke, together with the urban districts of Tunstall and Fenton now formed a single county borough of Stoke-on-Trent.
In 1919, the borough proposed to expand further and annex the neighbouring borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme and the Wolstanton United Urban District, both to the west of Stoke. This never took place, due to strong objections from Newcastle Corporation. A further attempt was made with the promotion of the Stoke-on-Trent Extension Bill. Wolstanton was instead added to Newcastle-under-Lyme in 1932. Although attempts to take Newcastle and Kidsgrove were never successful, the borough did expand in 1922, taking in Smallthorne Urban District and parts of other parishes from Stoke upon Trent Rural District; the borough was granted city status in 1925, with a Lord Mayor from 1928. When the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent applied for city status in 1925, citing its importance as the centre of the pottery industry, it was refused by the Home Office as it had fewer than 300,000 inhabitants; the decision was overturned, when a direct approach was made to King George V, who agreed that the borough ought to be a city.
The public announcement of the elevation to city status was made by the King during a visit to Stoke on 4 June 1925. The county borough was abolished in 1974, Stoke became a non-metropolitan district of Staffordshire, its status as a unitary authority was restored on 1 April 1997, although it remains part of the ceremonial county of Staffordshire. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region. Since the 17th century, the area has been exclusively known for its industrial-scale pottery manufacturing. Companies such as Royal Doulton, Dudson Ltd, Wedgwood and Baker & Co. were established and based there. The local abundance of coal and clay suitable for earthenware production led to the early development of the local pottery industry; the construction of the Trent and Mersey Canal enabled the import of china clay from Cornwall together with other materials and facilitated the production of creamware and bone china. Other production centres in Britain and worldwide had a considerable lead in the production of high quality wares.
Methodical and detailed research and experimentation, carried out over many years, nurtured the development of artistic talent throughout the local community and raised the profile of Staffordshire Potteries. This was spearheaded by one man, Josiah Wedgwood, who cut the first sod for the canal in 1766 and erected his Etruria Works that year. Wedgwood built upon the successes of earlier local potters such as his mentor Thomas Whieldon and along with scientists and engineers, raised the pottery business to a new level. Josiah Spode introduced bone china at Trent in 1796, Thomas Minton opened his manufactory. With the industry came a large number of notable 20th-century ceramic artists including Clarice Cliff, Susie Cooper, Charlotte Rhead, Frederick Hurten Rhead and Jabez Vodrey. North Staffordshire was a centre for coal mining; the first reports of coal mining in the area come from the 13th century. The Potteries Coalfield covers 100 square miles. Striking coal miners in the Hanley and Longton area ignited the nationwide 1842 General Strike and its associated Pottery Riots.
When coal mining was nationalised in 1947, about 20,000 men worke