The Autochrome Lumière is an early color photography process patented in 1903 by the Lumière brothers in France and first marketed in 1907. It was the principal color photography process in use before the advent of subtractive color film in the mid-1930s. Prior to the Lumiere brothers, Louis Ducos du Hauron utilized the separation technique to create colour images on paper with screen plates, producing natural colours through superimposition, which would become the foundation of all commercial colour photography. Descendents of photographer Antoine Lumiere, inventors Louis and Auguste Lumiere utilized Du Hauron's technique, improved upon by other inventors such as John Joly and James William McDonough, making it possible to print photographic images in colour; the most broadly used form of colour photography in the early twentieth century, autochrome was cherished for its aesthetic appeal and uniqueness, which have become its most recognizable characteristics. Autochrome is an additive color "mosaic screen plate" process.
The medium consists of a glass plate coated on one side with a random mosaic of microscopic grains of potato starch dyed red-orange and blue-violet. Lampblack fills the spaces between grains, a black-and-white panchromatic silver halide emulsion is coated on top of the filter layer. Unlike ordinary black-and-white plates, the Autochrome was loaded into the camera with the bare glass side facing the lens so that the light passed through the mosaic filter layer before reaching the emulsion; the use of an additional special orange-yellow filter in the camera was required to block ultraviolet light and restrain the effects of violet and blue light, parts of the spectrum to which the emulsion was overly sensitive. Because of the light loss due to all the filtering, Autochrome plates required much longer exposures than black-and-white plates and films, which meant that a tripod or other stand had to be used and that it was not practical to photograph moving subjects; the plate was reversal-processed into a positive transparency — that is, the plate was first developed into a negative image but not "fixed" the silver forming the negative image was chemically removed the remaining silver halide was exposed to light and developed, producing a positive image.
The luminance filter and the mosaic chrominance filter remained aligned and were distributed together, so that light was filtered in situ. Each starch grain remained in alignment with the corresponding microscopic area of silver halide emulsion coated over it; when the finished image was viewed by transmitted light, each bit of the silver image acted as a micro-filter, allowing more or less light to pass through the corresponding colored starch grain, recreating the original proportions of the three colors. At normal viewing distances, the light coming through the individual grains blended together in the eye, reconstructing the color of the light photographed through the filter grains. To create the Autochrome color filter mosaic, a thin glass plate was first coated with a transparent adhesive layer; the dyed starch grains were graded to between 5 and 10 micrometers in size and the three colors were intermingled in proportions which made the mixture appear gray to the unaided eye. They were spread onto the adhesive, creating a layer with 4,000,000 grains per square inch but only one grain thick.
The exact means by which significant gaps and overlapping grains were avoided still remains unclear. It was found that the application of extreme pressure would produce a mosaic that more efficiently transmitted light to the emulsion, because the grains would be flattened making them more transparent, pressed into more intimate contact with each other, reducing wasted space between them; as it was impractical to apply such pressure to the entire plate all at once, a steamroller approach was used which flattened only one small area at a time. Lampblack was used to block up the slight spaces; the plate was coated with shellac to protect the moisture-vulnerable grains and dyes from the water-based gelatin emulsion, coated onto the plate after the shellac had dried. The resulting finished plate was cut up into smaller plates of the desired size, which were packaged in boxes of four; each plate was accompanied by a thin piece of cardboard colored black on the side facing the emulsion. This was to be retained when loading and exposing the plate and served both to protect the delicate emulsion and to inhibit halation.
The 1906 U. S. patent describes the process more generally: the grains can be orange and green, or red and blue, optionally with black powder filling the gaps. Experimentations within the early twentieth century provided solutions to many issues, including the addition of screen plates, a yellow filter designed to balance the blue, adjustments to the size of the silver halide crystals to allow for a broader spectrum of colour and control over the frequency of light; because the presence of the mosaic color screen made the finished Autochrome image dark overall, bright light and special viewing arrangements were needed for satisfactory results. Stereoscopic Autochromes were popular, the combined color and depth proving to be a bewitching experience to early 20th Century eyes. Of a small size, they were most viewed in a small hand-held box-type stereoscope. Larger, non-stereoscopic plates were most displayed in a diascope, a folding case with the Autochrome image and a ground gl
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Harry Leon Wilson
Harry Leon Wilson was an American novelist and dramatist best known for his novels Ruggles of Red Gap and Merton of the Movies. His novel Bunker Bean helped popularize the term flapper. Harry Leon Wilson was born in Oregon, the son of Samuel and Adeline. Samuel was a newspaper publisher, Harry learned to set type at an early age, he began work as a stenographer after leaving home at sixteen. He worked his way west through Topeka, Denver, to California, he was a contributor to the histories of Hubert Howe Bancroft, became the private secretary to Virgil Bogue. In December 1886, Wilson's story The Elusive Dollar Bill was accepted by Puck magazine, he continued to contribute to Puck and became assistant editor in 1892. Henry Cuyler Bunner died in 1896 and Wilson replaced him as editor; the publication of The Spenders allowed Wilson to quit Puck in 1902 and devote himself full-time to writing. I had to live ten years in New York, it was a simple town, with few street lights north of Forty-second street.
Now the place is pretty terrible to me the ugliest city in the world. I decided. So I tried with The Spenders and when I got a substantial advance from publishers, I quit my job and beat it for the high hills of Colorado. —Harry Leon Wilson Wilson returned to New York where he met Booth Tarkington in 1904, Tarkington and Wilson traveled together to Europe in 1905. The two completed the play The Man from Home in 1906 in Paris; the play was a resounding success and was followed by more collaborations with Tarkington, but none repeated the success of the first. Wilson was elected to the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1908. Wilson returned from Europe and settled permanently into the Bohemian colony at Carmel-by-the-Sea, which included among its artists and literati Jack London, Mary Hunter Austin, George Sterling, Upton Sinclair, Xavier Martinez, Ambrose Bierce, Alice MacGowan, Sinclair Lewis, Francis McComas, Arnold Genthe, it was during this period that Wilson wrote the books for which he is most well known, Bunker Bean and Ruggles of Red Gap.
After a brief stint in Hollywood, he composed Merton of the Movies in 1922. In 1912 Wilson married Helen MacGowan Cooke, the daughter of Grace MacGowan and the niece of Alice MacGowan. Two years when someone attempted to murder Alice by poison and steal her diamonds and cash, her nephew Wilson and writer Jimmy Hopper became amateur detectives, but the perpetrator was never discovered; the most embarrassing event in Wilson’s life occurred in March 1922 when he fought and lost a publicized “duel of fists” with the noted landscape painter Theodore Morrow Criley. Carmel was collectively humiliated when the sordid details of their long-standing feud made banner headlines in the San Francisco press and was given prominent coverage across the country on the International News Wire, including stories in the Los Angeles Times and New York Times, it was revealed that their argument had its origins with “a light romantic” love scene between Criley and Wilson’s wife in the 1921 production of Pomander Walk at Carmel’s Forest Theatre.
The resentful Wilson sent Criley a series of accusatory letters, including a twenty-four page invective, demanded satisfaction in this “affair of honor.” After three months of physical training and instruction in boxing in Honolulu Wilson returned and the two men met on “a high cliff overlooking the sea” where Criley thrashed the writer in ten minutes. A severe auto accident in 1932 affected his health during his remaining years, he died of a brain hemorrhage on June 28, 1939 in Carmel. Wilson was married three times, his first wife was Wilbertine Nesselrode Teters Worden, whom he married in 1898. The marriage ended in divorce in 1900. In 1902, he married Rose Cecil O'Neill Latham. O'Neill and Wilson worked together at Puck, she was the illustrator for four of his books. Wilson's black and white pit bull dog named Sprangle was the inspiration for Rose O'Neill's biscuit porcelain Kewpie dog figure, known to the world as "Kewpiedoodle dog" and sold worldwide by importer George Borgfeldt. Wilson married Helen MacGowan Cooke in 1912.
They had two children: Jr. and Helen Charis Wilson. Cooke and Wilson divorced in 1927. Booth Tarkington Zigzag Tales from the East to the West The Spenders: A Tale of the Third Generation illustrated by Rose Cecil O'Neill; the Lions of the Lord, a Tale of the Old West illustrated by Rose Cecil O'Neill The Seeker illustrated by Rose Cecil O'Neill The Boss of Little Arcady illustrated by Rose Cecil O'Neill Ewing's Lady The Man from Home co-written with Booth Tarkington. Cameo Kirby co-written with Booth Tarkington. Foreign Exchange co-written with Booth Tarkington Springtime co-written with Booth Tarkington. If I Had Money co-written with Booth Tarkington Your Humble Servant co-written with Booth Tarkington Bunker Bean illustrated by Frederic R. Gruger. Ruggles of Red Gap illustrated by Frederic R. Gruger; the Man from Home: A Novel based on the play Somewhere in Red Gap illustrated by John R. Neill Life play The Gibson Upright co-written with Booth Tar
Audrey Marie Munson was an American artist's model and film actress, today considered "America's First Supermodel." In her time, she was variously known as "Miss Manhattan", the "Panama–Pacific Girl", the "Exposition Girl" and "American Venus." She was the model or inspiration for more than twelve statues in New York City, many others elsewhere. Munson was the first American actress to appear nude in film, in Inspiration, the first of her four silent films. Long after she and everyone else of this generation shall have become dust, Audrey Munson, who posed for three-fifths of all the statuary of the Panama–Pacific exposition, will live in the bronzes and canvasses of the art centers of the world. Audrey Marie Munson was born in Rochester, New York, on June 8, 1891, to Edgar Munson and Katherine "Kittie" Mahaney, her father was from Mexico, New York, she lived there. Her parents divorced when she was eight, Audrey and her mother moved to Providence, Rhode Island. In 1909 the pair moved to New York City, where the 17-year-old Audrey sought a career as an actress and chorus girl.
Her first role on Broadway was as a "footman" in The Boy and The Girl at the Aerial Gardens of the New Amsterdam Theatre, which ran from May 31 – June 19, 1909. She appeared in The Girl and the Wizard, Girlies and La Belle Paree. While window-shopping on Fifth Avenue with her mother she was spotted by photographer Felix Benedict Herzog, who asked her to pose for him at his studio in the Lincoln Arcade Building on Broadway and 65th Street. Herzog introduced her to his friends in the art world, she posed for muralist William de Leftwich Dodge, who gave her a letter of introduction to Isidore Konti. Konti was her first sculptor, her first nude modeling. From this point Munson would pose for a few well-known visual artists, including painter Francis Coates Jones, illustrators Harrison Fisher, Archie Gunn, Charles Dana Gibson, photographers Herzog and Arnold Genthe, but she was predominantly a sculptors' model. Munson's first acknowledged credit is Konti's marble statuary called Three Graces unveiled in the new Grand Ballroom at the Hotel Astor in Times Square in September 1909.
She posed for all three graces. Soon after, for the next decade, Munson became the model of choice for the first tier of American sculptors, posing for a long list of freestanding statuary and allegorical architectural sculpture on state capitols and other major public buildings. According to The Sun in 1913, "Over a hundred artists agree that if the name of Miss Manhattan belongs to anyone in particular it is to this young woman." By 1915, she was so well established that she became Alexander Stirling Calder's model of choice, when he became Director of Sculpture for the Panama–Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco that year. Her figure was "ninety times repeated against the sky" on one building alone, atop the colonnades of the Court of the Universe modeled on St. Peter's Square in the Vatican. In fact Munson posed for three-fifths of the sculpture created for the event and earned fame as the "Panama–Pacific Girl". Munson's newfound celebrity helped launch her career in the nascent film industry and she starred in four silent films.
In the first, the story of a sculptor's model, she appeared nude, the first woman to do so in an American motion picture. The censors were reluctant to ban the film, fearing they would have to ban Renaissance art. Munson's films were a box office success; the studio hired a lookalike named Jane Thomas to do Munson's acting scenes, while Munson did the scenes where she posed nude. Her second film, made in Santa Barbara, California, is the only one of her films to survive, being rediscovered in 1993 in a "pornography" collection in France and acquired by the French national cinema archive, her third film, The Girl o' Dreams made in Santa Barbara, was completed by the fall of 1916 and copyrighted on December 31, 1918, but appears never to have been released. Munson returned to the East Coast by train via Syracuse in December 1916 and became involved with high society in New York and Newport, Rhode Island. There are accounts her mother insisted she marry "Comstock Lode" silver heir Hermann Oelrichs Jr. the richest bachelor in America, but there is no record of Audrey Munson's making this claim herself.
On January 27, 1919, she wrote a rambling letter to the US State Department denouncing Oelrichs as part of a pro-German network that had driven her out of the movie business. She said. In 1919 Audrey Munson was living with her mother in a boarding house at 164 West 65th Street, owned by Dr. Walter Wilkins. Wilkins fell in love with Munson, on February 27 murdered his wife, Julia, so he could be available for marriage. Munson and her mother left New York, the police sought them for questioning. After a nationwide hunt, they were located, they refused to return to New York, but were questioned by agents from the Burns Detective Agency in Toronto, Canada. The contents of the affidavits they supplied have never been revealed, but Audrey Munson denied she had any romantic relationship with Dr. Wilkins. Wilkins was tried, found guilty, sentenced to the electric chair, he hanged himself in his prison cell. As a direct consequence or not, the Wilkins killing marked the end of Munson's ten-year modeling career.
She continued to seek regular newspaper coverage. By 1920 Munson, unable to find work anywhere, was reported as living in Syracuse, New York, supported by her mother, who sold kitchen utensils door to door. In November 1920 she was said to
Sarah Bernhardt was a French stage actress who starred in some of the most popular French plays of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including La Dame Aux Camelias by Alexandre Dumas, Ruy Blas by Victor Hugo, Fédora and La Tosca by Victorien Sardou, L'Aiglon by Edmond Rostand. She played male roles, including Shakespeare's Hamlet. Rostand called her "the queen of the pose and the princess of the gesture", while Hugo praised her "golden voice", she made several theatrical tours around the world, was one of the first prominent actresses to make sound recordings and to act in motion pictures. Sarah Bernhardt was born Henriette-Rosine Bernard at 5 rue de L'École-de-Médicine in the Latin Quarter of Paris on 22 or 23 October 1844, she was the illegitimate daughter of Judith Bernard, a Dutch Jewish courtesan, a prostitute with a wealthy or upper-class clientele. The name of her father is not recorded. According to some sources, he was the son of a wealthy merchant from Le Havre. Bernhardt wrote that her father's family paid for her education, insisted she be baptized as a Catholic, left a large sum to be paid when she came of age.
Her mother traveled and saw little of her daughter. She placed the child with a nurse in Brittany in a cottage in the Paris suburb of Neuilly; when Sarah was seven, her mother sent her to a boarding school for young ladies in the Paris suburb of Auteuil, paid with funds from her father's family. There, she acted in her first theatrical performance in the play Clothilde, where she had the role of the Queen of the Fairies, performed her first of many dramatic death scenes. While Sarah was in the boarding school, her mother rose to the top ranks of Parisian courtesans, consorting with politicians, bankers and writers, her patrons and friends included Charles de Morny, Duke of Morny, the half-brother of Emperor Napoleon III and President of the French legislature. At the age of 10, with the sponsorship of Morny, Sarah was admitted to Grandchamp, an exclusive Augustine convent school near Versailles. At the convent, she performed the part of the Archangel Raphael in the story of Tobias and the Angel.
She did not always follow convent rules. In 1859, Sarah learned, her mother summoned a family council, including Morny. Morny proposed that Sarah should become an actress, an idea that horrified Sarah, as she had never been inside a theater. Morny arranged for her to attend her first theater performance at the Comedie Française in a party which included her mother and his friend Alexandre Dumas père; the play they attended was Brittanicus, by Jean Racine, followed by the classical comedy Amphitryon by Plautus. Sarah was so moved by the emotion of the play, she began to sob loudly, disturbing the rest of the audience. Morny and others in their party were angry at her and left, but Dumas comforted her, told Morny that he believed that she was destined for the stage. After the performance, Dumas called her "my little star". Morny used his influence with the composer Daniel Auber, the head of the Paris Conservatory, to arrange for her to audition, she began preparing, as she described it in her memoirs, "with that vivid exaggeration with which I embrace any new enterprise."
Dumas coached her. The jury was composed of five leading actors and actresses from the Comédie Française, she was supposed to recite verses from Racine, but no one had told her that she needed someone to give her cues as she recited. Bernhardt told the jury; the jurors were skeptical, but the fervor and pathos of her recitation won them over, she was invited to become a student. Bernhardt studied acting at the Conservatory from January 1860 until 1862 under two prominent actors of the Comédie Française, Joseph-Isidore Samson and Jean-Baptiste Provost, she wrote in her memoirs that Provost taught her diction and grand gestures, while Samson taught her the power of simplicity. For the stage, she changed her name from "Bernard" to "Bernhardt". While studying, she received her first marriage proposal, from a wealthy businessman who offered her 500 thousand francs, he wept. Bernhardt wrote that she was "confused and delighted—because he loved me the way people love in plays at the theater."Before the first examination for her tragedy class, she tried to straighten her abundance of frizzy hair, which made it more uncontrollable, came down with a bad cold, which made her voice so nasal that she hardly recognized it.
Furthermore, the parts assigned for her performance were classical and required stylized emotions, while she preferred romanticism and and expressing her emotions. The teachers ranked her 14th in second in comedy. Once again, Morny came to her rescue, he put in a good word for her with the National Minister of Camille Doucet. Doucet recommended her to Edouard Thierry, the chief administrator of the Théâtre Français, who offered Bernhardt a place as a pensionnaire at the theater, at a minimum salary. Bernhardt made her debut with the company on 31 August 1862 in the title role of Racine's Iphigénie, her premiere was not a success. She rushed her lines; some audience members made fun of her thin figure. When the performance ended, Provost was waiting in the wings, she asked his forgiveness, he told her, "I can forgive you, you'll forgive yourse
Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
Mary Hunter Austin
Mary Hunter Austin was an American writer. One of the early nature writers of the American Southwest, her classic The Land of Little Rain describes the fauna and people – as well as evoking the mysticism and spirituality – of the region between the High Sierra and the Mojave Desert of southern California. Mary Hunter Austin was born on September 9, 1868 in Carlinville, Illinois to Susannah and George Hunter, she graduated from Blackburn College in 1888. Her family moved to California in the same year and established a homestead in the San Joaquin Valley, she married Stafford Wallace Austin on May 18, 1891, in California. He was from a graduate of the University of California, Berkeley. For 17 years, Austin made a special study of Indian life in the Mojave Desert, her publications set forth the intimate knowledge she thus acquired, she was a prolific novelist, poet and playwright, as well as an early feminist and defender of Native American and Spanish-American rights. She is best known for her tribute to the deserts of The Land of Little Rain.
Her play, The Arrow Maker, dealing with Indian life, was produced at the New Theatre, in 1911, the same year she published a rhapsodic tribute to her acquaintance H. G. Wells as a producer of "informing, indispensable books" in the American Magazine. Austin and her husband were involved in the local California Water Wars, in which the water of Owens Valley was drained to supply Los Angeles; when their battle was lost, he moved to California. She moved to the art colony at Carmel-by-the-Sea, California about 1907. There Austin was part of the cultural circle that included: Jack London, Ambrose Bierce, Harry Leon Wilson, George Sterling, Nora May French, Arnold Genthe, James Hopper, Alice MacGowan, Gelett Burgess, Sinclair Lewis, Xavier Martinez, she was one of the founders of the local Forest Theater, where in 1913 she premiered and directed her three-act play Fire. Austin was involved in all aspects of Carmel's Bohemian society, which included contributing an essay to the village magazine in 1909, as well as unencumbered sexual and "homoerotic attachments."
In July 1914, she joined William Merritt Chase, the distinguished New York painter, teaching his last summer class in Carmel, at several society "teas" and in his studio, where he finished her portrait. The well-known artist Jennie V. Cannon reported that he began the painting as a class demonstration after Austin claimed that two of her portraits, which were executed by famous artists in the Latin Quarter of Paris, had been accepted to the Salon. Chase was not deterred by Austin's "pushiness and claims to extra-sensory perceptions," but was more interested in her appointment as director of East Coast publicity for San Francisco's Panama-Pacific International Exposition. On July 25, 1914, Chase attended her Indian melodrama in the Forest Theater, The Arrow Maker, confessed to Cannon that he found the play dreary. Dr. Daniel MacDougal, head of the local Carnegie Institute, paid for most of her production costs, because of his not-so-secret love affair with the writer; when one of Chase's students, Helena Wood Smith, was brutally murdered by her Japanese lover, Austin joined the mob who disparaged local authorities for their incompetence.
After 1914 her visits to Carmel were brief. After visiting Santa Fe in 1918, Austin helped establish The Santa Fe Little Theatre and directed the group's first production held February 14, 1919, at the art museum's St. Francis Auditorium. Austin was active in preserving the local culture of New Mexico, establishing the Spanish Colonial Arts Society in 1925 with artist Frank Applegate. In 1929, while living in New Mexico, Austin co-authored a book with photographer Ansel Adams. Published a year the book, Taos Pueblo, was printed in a limited edition of only 108 copies, it is now quite rare. Austin died August 1934, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Mount Mary Austin, in the Sierra Nevada, was named in her honor, it is located 8.5 miles west of her longtime home in California. A biography was published in 1939; the Austins' home in Independence, California and built by the couple, became a historical landmark. A teleplay of The Land of Little Rain was written by Doris Baizley and presented on American Playhouse in 1989.
A 1950 edition of The Land of Little Rain and a 1977 edition of Taos Pueblo each included photographs by Ansel Adams. Catharine Savage Brosman, Southwestern Women Writers and the Vision of Goodness: Mary Austin, Willa Cather, Laura Adams Armer, Peggy Pond Church and Alice Marriott, McFarland, 2016 ISBN 978-1-4766-6647-1 Alaimo, Stacy. "The undomesticated nature of feminism: Mary Austin and the progressive women conservationists." Studies In American Fiction 26, no. 1: 73-96. Morley Baer and Time Enough, The Land of Mary Austin, Northland Press, Arizona 1979, ISBN 0-87358-205-5 Hoffman, Abraham. "Mary Austin, Stafford Austin, the Owens Valley." Journal of the Southwest, 53: 305–22. Witschi, N. S.. Traces of Gold: California's Natural Resources and the Claim to Realism in Western American Literature. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-1117-3. Western American Literature Journal: Mary Austin Works by Mary Hunter Austin at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Mary Hunter Austin at Internet Archive Works by Mary Hunter Austin at LibriVox The Austins' house, now California Historical Landmark 229 Th