William F. Buckley Jr.
William Frank Buckley Jr. was an American conservative author and commentator. Former Senate Republican leader Bob Dole said Buckley lighted the fire, Buckley wrote God and Man at Yale and more than fifty other books on writing, history and sailing, including a series of novels featuring CIA agent Blackford Oakes. Buckley referred to himself as either a libertarian or conservative and he resided in New York City and Stamford, Connecticut. His mother, from New Orleans, was of Swiss-German, the sixth of ten children, Buckley moved as a boy with his family to Mexico, and to Sharon, before beginning his formal schooling in Paris, where he attended first grade. By age seven, he received his first formal training in English at a day school in London, his first and second languages were Spanish, as a boy, Buckley developed a love for music, horses and skiing. All of these interests would be reflected in his writings, just before World War II, at age 13, he attended high school at the Catholic preparatory school Beaumont College in England.
During the war, Buckleys family took in the future British historian Alistair Horne as a child war evacuee and he and Horne remained lifelong friends. Buckley and Horne both attended the Millbrook School, in Millbrook, New York, and graduated as members of the Class of 1943, at Millbrook, Buckley founded and edited the schools yearbook, The Tamarack, his first experience in publishing. When Buckley was a man, his father was an acquaintance of libertarian author Albert Jay Nock. William F. Buckley, Sr. encouraged his son to read Nocks works, as a youth, Buckley developed many musical talents. He played the very well, calling it the instrument I love beyond all others. He was an accomplished pianist and appeared once on Marian McPartlands National Public Radio show Piano Jazz, a great admirer of Johann Sebastian Bach, Buckley said that he wanted Bachs music played at his funeral. Buckley was homeschooled through the 8th grade using the Calvert School of Baltimores Homeschool Curriculum, Buckley attended the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 1943.
The following year upon his graduation from the U. S. Army Officer Candidate School, in his book, Miles Gone By, he briefly recounts being a member of Franklin Roosevelts honor guard upon the Presidents death. He served stateside throughout the war at Fort Benning, Fort Gordon, with the end of World War II in 1945, he enrolled in Yale University, where he became a member of the secret Skull and Bones society and was a masterful debater. He was an member of the Conservative Party of the Yale Political Union. Buckley studied political science and economics at Yale and he excelled on the Yale Debate Team, and under the tutelage of Yale professor Rollin G. Osterweis, Buckley honed his acerbic style. These two officers remained lifelong friends, in a November 1,2005, column for National Review, Buckley recounted that while he worked for the CIA, the only employee of the organization that he knew was Hunt, his immediate boss
Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to the Magna Carta and before, adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans. As the name suggests, the churches of the Anglican Communion are linked by bonds of tradition and they are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his person, is a unique focus of Anglican unity. He calls the once-a-decade Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession, and writings of the Church Fathers. Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Protestantism, the word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English Church.
Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans, as an adjective, Anglican is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion, the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is sometimes considered as a misuse. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century, although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century. Elsewhere, the term Anglican Church came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity, as such, it is often referred to as being a via media between these traditions. Anglicans understand the Old and New Testaments as containing all necessary for salvation and as being the rule.
Reason and Tradition are seen as means to interpret Scripture. Anglicans understand the Apostles Creed as the symbol and the Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. Anglicans celebrate the sacraments, with special emphasis being given to the Eucharist, called Holy Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries and it was called common prayer originally because it was intended for use in all Church of England churches which had previously followed differing local liturgies. The term was kept when the church became international because all Anglicans used to share in its use around the world, in 1549, the first Book of Common Prayer was compiled by Thomas Cranmer, who was Archbishop of Canterbury. The founding of Christianity in Britain is commonly attributed to Joseph of Arimathea, according to Anglican legend, Saint Alban, who was executed in 209 AD, is the first Christian martyr in the British Isles.
A new culture emerged around the Irish Sea among the Celtic peoples with Celtic Christianity at its core, what resulted was a form of Christianity distinct from Rome in many traditions and practices
The Olympic Games are considered the worlds foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in changes to the Olympic Games. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, as a result, the Olympics has shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship, World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916,1940, and 1944 Games.
Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games, the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals, silver, the Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame.
The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to themselves to the world. The Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, competition was among representatives of several city-states and kingdoms of Ancient Greece. These Games featured mainly athletic but combat such as wrestling. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished. This cessation of hostilities was known as the Olympic peace or truce and this idea is a modern myth because the Greeks never suspended their wars. The truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus
Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. Unlike the Summer Olympics, the Winter Olympics feature sports practised on snow, the first Winter Olympics, the 1924 Winter Olympics, was held in Chamonix, France. The original five sports were bobsleigh, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, the Games were held every four years from 1924 until 1936, after which they were interrupted by World War II. The Olympics resumed in 1948 and was held every four years. The Winter Games have evolved since its inception, others have been discontinued and reintroduced, or have been permanently discontinued. Still others, such as speed skiing and skijoring, were demonstration sports, the rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It created a stream, via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising. This allowed outside interests, such as companies and corporate sponsors. The IOC has had to address several criticisms, internal scandals, nations have used the Winter Games to showcase the claimed superiority of their political systems.
The Winter Olympics has been hosted on three continents by eleven different countries, the Games have been held in the United States four times, in France three times, and in Austria, Japan, Italy and Switzerland twice. Also, the Games have been held in Germany, the IOC has selected Pyeongchang, South Korea, to host the 2018 Winter Olympics and Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics. Twelve countries – Austria, Finland, Great Britain, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the United States – have sent athletes to every Winter Olympic Games. Six of those – Austria, Finland, Norway and the United States – have earned medals at every Winter Olympic Games, Norway leads in terms of number of gold medals and overall number of medals. Germany and Japan have been banned at times from competing in the Games, the Olympic Charter limits winter sports to those. Which are practised on snow or ice, since 1992 a number of new sports have been added to the Olympic programme, which include short track speed skating, snowboarding and moguls skiing.
The addition of events has broadened the appeal of the Winter Olympics beyond Europe. While European powers such as Norway and Germany still dominate the traditional Winter Olympic sports, countries such as South Korea, the results are more parity in the national medal tables, more interest in the Winter Olympics and higher global television ratings. Figure skating events were held at the 1908 and 1920 Summer Olympics. ^ Note 2, a mens ice hockey tournament was held at the 1920 Summer Olympics. ^ Note 3
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa
Henry Edward Manning
Henry Edward Manning was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic church, and the second Archbishop of Westminster from 1865 until his death in 1892. Manning was born on 15 July 1808 at his grandfathers home, Copped Hall, Hertfordshire. Mannings mother, daughter of Henry Leroy Hunter, of Beech Hill, Manning spent his boyhood mainly at Coombe Bank, Kent, where he had for companions Charles Wordsworth and Christopher Wordsworth, bishops of St Andrews and Lincoln respectively. He attended Harrow School during the headmastership of George Butler, this proved to be no impediment to his academic career. Manning matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford in 1827 and soon made his mark as a debater at the Oxford Union, returning to Oxford in 1832, he gained election as a fellow of Merton College and received ordination as a deacon in the Church of England. In January 1833 he became curate to John Sargent, Rector of Lavington-with-Graffham, in May 1833, following Sargents death, he succeeded him as rector due to the patronage of Sargents mother.
Manning married Caroline, John Sargents daughter, on 7 November 1833, in a ceremony performed by the brides brother-in-law, Mannings marriage did not last long, his young and beautiful wife came of a consumptive family and died childless on 24 July 1837. When Manning died many years later, for decades a celibate Roman Catholic cleric, in December of that year he paid his first visit to Rome and called on Nicholas Wiseman in company with Gladstone. Four volumes of Mannings sermons appeared between the years 1842 and 1850 and these had reached the 7th, 4th, 3rd and 2nd editions respectively in 1850, but were not afterwards reprinted. In 1844 his portrait was painted by George Richmond, and the year he published a volume of university sermons. This sermon had annoyed Newman and his more advanced disciples, the denial of the objective effect of the sacraments was to Manning and many others a grave heresy, contradicting the clear tradition of the Christian Church from the Fathers of the Church on.
The following year, on 6 April 1851, Manning was received into the Catholic Church and soon afterwards, given his great abilities and prior fame, he quickly rose to a position of influence, and in 1865 he was appointed Archbishop of Westminster. In 1875 Manning was created Cardinal-Priest of Ss Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, becoming His Eminence The Most Rev. Dr Henry Edward Cardinal Manning, Manning participated in the conclave that elected Pope Leo XIII in 1878. Manning approved the founding of the Catholic Association Pilgrimage, Manning was very influential in setting the direction of the modern Catholic Church. Manning used this goodwill to promote a modern Roman Catholic view of social justice and these views are reflected in the papal encyclical Rerum novarum issued by Leo XIII which marks the beginning of modern Roman Catholic social justice teaching. Manning was instrumental in settling the London Dock Strike of 1889 at the behest of Margaret Harkness, when Manning died his estate was probated at £3,527.
He received a burial at St Marys Roman Catholic Cemetery in Kensal Green. Some years later, in 1907, his remains were transferred to the newly completed Westminster Cathedral, rule of Faith Unity of the Church A charge delivered at the ordinary visitation of the archdeaconry of Chichester in July Sermons 4 vols
Ski jumping is an Olympic winter sport which was firstly contested in Norway in the late 19th century, and spread through Europe and North America in the early 20th century. The ski jumping venue consists of the ramp, take-off table. Each jump is evaluated according to the distance traveled and the style performed, the distance score is related to the construction point, which is a line drawn in the landing area and serves as a target for the competitors to reach. The score of each judge evaluating the style can reach a maximum of 20 points, the jumping techniques has evolved over the years, from jumps with the parallel skis with both arms pointing forwards, to the V-style, which is widely used today. Ski jumping has been included at the Winter Olympics since 1924, womens participation in the sport began in the 1990s, while the first womens event at the Olympics has been held in 2014. All major ski jumping competitions are organised by the International Ski Federation, stefan Kraft holds the official record for the longest ski jump with 253.5 metres, set in Vikersund in 2017.
Ski jumping can be performed in the summer on an in-run where the tracks are made from porcelain, the highest level summer competition is the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, contested since 1994. Like most of the Nordic skiing disciplines, the first ski jumping competitions were held in Norway in the 19th century, the recorded origins of the first ski jump traces back to 1808, when Olaf Rye reached 9,5 metres. Sondre Norheim, who is regarded as the father of the ski jumping, won the first-ever ski jumping competition with prizes. The first larger ski jumping competition was held on Husebyrennet hill in Oslo, the event was moved to Holmenkollen in 1892 due to the poor infrastructure and the weather conditions, and is today still one of the main ski jumping events in the season. In the late 19th century, Sondre Norheim and Nordic skiier Karl Hovelsen emigrated to the United States, in 1924, ski jumping was featured at the 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix, France. The sport has been featured at the every Olympics since then, in 1935, the origins of the ski flying began in Planica, where Josef Bradl became the first competitor in the history to jump over 100 metres.
At the same venue, the first official jump over 200 metres was achieved in 1994, in 1964 in Zakopane, the large hill event was introduced at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. In the same year, the normal hill event was included on the Olympic programme at the 1964 Winter Olympics, the team event was added later, at the 1988 Winter Olympics. In 1990, qualifiers for the event were introduced to limit the number of competitors. The slopes are composed of the ramp and the hill and are classified according to the distance that the competitors travel in the air. Each hill has a point, which serves as a target that the competitors must reach. The classification of the hills are as follows, The winner is decided with a system based on distance, inrun length, gate factor
Sir Leslie Stephen KCB was an English author, historian and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. Stephen was born at Kensington Gore in London, and son of Sir James Stephen and his father was Colonial Undersecretary of State and a noted abolitionist. He was the fourth of five children, his siblings including James Fitzjames Stephen and his family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his fathers house he saw a deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in less formal Sketches from Cambridge. These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette, to the proprietor of which, George Murray Smith, the family connections included that of William Makepeace Thackeray. His brother, Fitzjames had been a friend of Thackerays and assisted in the disposition of his estate when he died in 1863 and his sister Caroline met Thackerays daughters and Minny when they were mutual guests of Julia Margaret Cameron.
This led to an invitation to visit from Leslie Stephens mother, Lady Stephen and they met at George Murray Smiths house at Hampstead. Minny and Leslie became engaged on December 4,1866 and married on June 19,1867. After the wedding they travelled to the Swiss Alps and northern Italy, and on return to England lived at the Thackeray sisters home at 16 Onslow Gardens with Anny, in the spring of 1868 Minny miscarried but recovered sufficiently for the couple to tour the eastern United States. Minny miscarried again in 1869, but became pregnant again in 1870 and on December 7 gave birth to their daughter, Laura was premature, weighing three pounds. In March 1873 Thackeray and the Stephens moved to 8 Southwell Gardens, the couple travelled extensively, and by 1875 Minny was pregnant again, but this time was in poor health. On November 27 she developed convulsions, and died the day of eclampsia. After Minnys death, Leslie Stephen continued to live with Anny, Leslie Stephen and his daughter were cared for by his sister, the writer Caroline Emelia Stephen, although Leslie described her as Silly Milly and her books as little works.
Meanwhile, Anny was falling in love with her younger cousin Richmond Ritchie, Ritchie became a constant visitor and they became engaged in May 1877, and were married on August 2. At the same time Leslie Stephen was seeing more and more of Julia Duckworth and his second marriage was to Julia Prinsep Duckworth. Julia had been born in India and after returning to England she became a model for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, in 1867 she had married Herbert Duckworth by whom she had three children prior to his death in 1870. Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth were married on March 26,1878 and they had four children, Vanessa married Clive Bell Thoby Virginia married Leonard Woolf Adrian In May 1895, Julia died of influenza, leaving her husband with four young children aged 11 to 15
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region. Nearby is Germanys highest mountain, Zugspitze, at 2,962 m, the town was the site of the 1936 Winter Olympic Games. Garmisch and Partenkirchen were separate towns for centuries, and still maintain quite separate identities. Partenkirchen originated as the Roman town of Partanum on the route from Venice to Augsburg and is first mentioned in the year A. D.15. Its main street, follows the original Roman road, Garmisch is first mentioned some 800 years as Germaneskau, suggesting that at some point a Teutonic tribe took up settlement in the western end of the valley. During the late 13th century, the valley, as part of the County of Werdenfels, the area was governed by a prince-bishops representative known as a Pfleger from Werdenfels Castle situated on a crag north of Garmisch. The discovery of America at the turn of the 16th century led to a boom in shipping and a decline in overland trade.
The valley floor was swampy and difficult to farm, bears and lynxes were a constant threat to livestock. The population suffered from epidemics, including several serious outbreaks of bubonic plague. Adverse fortunes from disease and crop failure occasionally led to a witch hunt, most notable of these were the trials and executions of 1589–1596, in which 63 people — more than 10 percent of the population at the time — were burned at the stake or garroted. Werdenfels Castle, where the accused were held and executed and it was largely torn down in the 1750s and its stones used to build the baroque Neue Kirche on Marienplatz, which was completed in 1752. It replaced the nearby Gothic Alte Kirche, parts of which predated Christianity, used as a storehouse and haybarn for many years, it has since been re-consecrated. Some of its frescoes are still visible. Garmisch and Partenkirchen remained separate until their respective mayors were forced by Adolf Hitler to combine the two towns in 1935 in anticipation of the 1936 Winter Olympic games.
Today, the town is casually referred to as Garmisch, much to the dismay of Partenkirchens residents. Most visitors will notice the slightly more modern feel of Garmisch while the fresco-filled, cobblestoned streets of Partenkirchen offer a glimpse into times past. Early mornings and late afternoons in pleasant weather often find local traffic stopped while the cows are herded to
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts
Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, VD, PC was a British soldier who was one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century. He served in the Indian Rebellion, the Expedition to Abyssinia and he became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces before the post was abolished in 1904. Born at Cawnpore, India, on 30 September 1832, Roberts was the son of General Sir Abraham Roberts, at the time Sir Abraham was commanding the 1st Bengal European Regiment. Roberts was named Sleigh in honour of the commander, Major General William Sleigh. His mother was Edinburgh-born Isabella Bunbury, daughter of Major Abraham Bunbury from Kilfeacle in County Tipperary, Roberts was educated at Eton and Addiscombe Military Seminary before entering the East India Company Army as a second lieutenant with the Bengal Artillery on 12 December 1851. He became Aide-de-Camp to his father in 1852, transferred to the Bengal Horse Artillery in 1854 and was promoted to lieutenant on 31 May 1857 and he was awarded the Victoria Cross medal for actions on 2 January 1858 at Khudaganj.
The citation reads, Lieutenant Roberts gallantry has on occasion been most marked. On following the enemy on 2 January 1858, at Khodagunge. Lieutenant Roberts put spurs to his horse, and overtook them just as they were about to enter a village and he also, on the same day, cut down another Sepoy who was standing at bay, with musket and bayonet, keeping off a Sowar. Lieutenant Roberts rode to the assistance of the horseman, rushing at the Sepoy, with one blow of his sword cut him across the face and he was mentioned in despatches for his service at Lucknow in March 1858. In common with other officers he transferred from the East India Company Army to the Indian Army that year. Having been promoted to lieutenant colonel on 15 August 1868 and to the substantive rank of captain on 18 November 1868. He was promoted to the rank of major on 5 July 1872, appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath on 10 September 1872. That year he became Quartermaster-General of the Bengal Army, in September 1879 he was despatched, along with Maurice Abraham Cohen an expert in the Urdu language, to Kabul to seek retribution for the death of Sir Louis Cavagnari, the British envoy there.
He was given the rank of lieutenant-general on 11 November 1879. He was commander of the Kabul Field Force and brought at least 20 field guns with his army during the conquest and this was followed by his promotion to a supernumerary general on 28 November 1890 and to the substantive rank of general on 31 December 1891. On 23 February 1892 he was created Baron Roberts of Kandahar in Afghanistan and he was promoted field marshal on 25 May 1895 and received the Order of St Patrick during 1897. While in Ireland, Roberts completed a memoir of his years in India and his appointment was a response to a string of defeats in the early weeks of the war and was accompanied by the despatch of huge reinforcements
Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc was an Anglo-French writer and historian. He was one of the most prolific writers in England during the twentieth century. He was known as a writer, poet, satirist, man of letters and his Catholic faith had a strong impact on his works. He was President of the Oxford Union and MP for Salford from 1906 to 1910 and he was a noted disputant, with a number of long-running feuds, but widely regarded as a humane and sympathetic man. Belloc became a naturalised British subject in 1902, while retaining his French citizenship and his poetry encompassed comic verses for children and religious poetry. His widely sold Cautionary Tales for Children included Jim, who ran away from his nurse, and was eaten by a lion and Matilda and he collaborated with G. K. Chesterton on a number of works. Belloc was born in La Celle-Saint-Cloud, France to a French father and his sister Marie Adelaide Belloc Lowndes grew up to be a writer. His mother Bessie Rayner Parkes was a woman of many talents and she was a major force in efforts to gain greater equality for women, being a co-founder of the English Womans Journal and the Langham Place Group.
Belloc himself campaigned against womens suffrage, he was a member of the Womens National Anti-Suffrage League and her father was Joseph Parkes, a prosperous solicitor and a liberal with Radical sympathies. Her mother, Elizabeth Rayner Priestley, was born in the United States, in 1867, Bessie married attorney Louis Belloc, son of the French painter Jean-Hilaire Belloc. In 1872, five years after they wed, Louis died, the young widow brought her children back to England. Hilaire Belloc grew up in England, and indeed spent most of his life there, after being educated at John Henry Newmans Oratory School in Edgbaston, Belloc served his term of military service, as a French citizen, with an artillery regiment near Toul in 1891. Belloc proceeded to Balliol College, Oxford, as a history scholar and he went on to obtain first-class honours, and never lost his love for Balliol, as is illustrated by his verse, Balliol made me, Balliol fed me/ Whatever I had she gave me again. He was powerfully built, with stamina, and walked extensively in Britain.
In 1906, he purchased land and a house called Kings Land at Shipley, West Sussex and Belloc had five children before her 1914 death from influenza. After her death, Belloc wore mourning for the remainder of his life and his son Louis was killed in 1918 while serving in the Royal Flying Corps in northern France. Belloc placed a tablet at the nearby Cambrai Cathedral. It is in the side chapel as the noted icon Our Lady of Cambrai
Organized anti-communism developed in reaction to the rise of communism, especially after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia. It reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States, anti-communism has been an element of movements of many different positions, including capitalist, socialist and fascist viewpoints. They accuse communists of causing several famines, such as the Russian Famine of 1921, some anti-communists see both communism and fascism as totalitarianism, seeing similarity between the actions of communist and fascist governments. Opponents argue that communist parties that have come to power have tended to be intolerant of political opposition. Communist states have accused of creating a new ruling class, with powers. Examples of left-wing critics of Communist states and parties are Boris Souveraine, Bayard Rustin, Irving Howe, the American Federation of Labor has always been strongly anti-Communist. The more leftist CIO purged its Communists in 1947 and has been staunchly anti-Communist ever since, in Britain, the Labour Party strenuously resisted Communist efforts to infiltrate its ranks and take control of locals in the 1930s.
Although some anarchists describe themselves as communists, all anarchists criticize authoritarian Communist parties and states and they argue that Marxist concepts such as dictatorship of the proletariat and state ownership of the means of production are anathema to anarchism. Some anarchists criticize communism from an individualist point of view, the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin debated with Karl Marx in the First International, arguing that the Marxist state is another form of oppression. He loathed the idea of a vanguard party ruling the masses from above, anarchists initially participated in, and rejoiced over, the 1917 revolution as an example of workers taking power for themselves. However, after the October revolution, it became evident that the Bolsheviks, what is needed is local construction by local forces … Russia has already become a Soviet Republic only in name. Many anarchists fought against Russian and Greek Communists, many were killed by them, such as Lev Chernyi, Camillo Berneri, neither Marxs 10-point plan nor the rest of the manifesto say anything about who has the right to carry out the plan.
Milton Friedman argued that the absence of economic activity makes it too easy for repressive political leaders to grant themselves coercive powers. Friedmans view was shared by Friedrich Hayek and John Maynard Keynes. Objectivists who follow Ayn Rand are strongly anti-Communist and this is demonstrated, they believe, by the comparative prosperity of free market and socialist economies. Objectivist Ayn Rand writes that communist leaders typically claim to work for the common good, many ex-communists have turned into anti-communists. Mikhail Gorbachev turned from a Communist into a social democrat, milovan Đilas, was a former Yugoslav Communist official, who became a prominent dissident and critic of Communism. Leszek Kołakowski was a Polish Communist who became a famous anti-communist, the God That Failed is a 1949 book which collects together six essays with the testimonies of a number of famous ex-Communists, who were writers and journalists