Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg was an Austrian-born composer, music theorist, teacher and painter. He is considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century, he was associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, leader of the Second Viennese School. With the rise of the Nazi Party, Schoenberg's works were labeled degenerate music, because they were modernist and atonal, he emigrated to the United States in 1933, becoming an American citizen in 1941. Schoenberg's approach, bοth in terms of harmony and development, has been one of the most influential of 20th-century musical thought. Many European and American composers from at least three generations have consciously extended his thinking, whereas others have passionately reacted against it. Schoenberg was known early in his career for extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic styles of Brahms and Wagner, his name would come to personify innovations in atonality that would become the most polemical feature of 20th-century art music.
In the 1920s, Schoenberg developed the twelve-tone technique, an influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale. He coined the term developing variation and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motifs without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea. Schoenberg was an influential teacher of composition. Many of Schoenberg's practices, including the formalization of compositional method and his habit of inviting audiences to think analytically, are echoed in avant-garde musical thought throughout the 20th century, his polemical views of music history and aesthetics were crucial to many significant 20th-century musicologists and critics, including Theodor W. Adorno, Charles Rosen, Carl Dahlhaus, as well as the pianists Artur Schnabel, Rudolf Serkin, Eduard Steuermann, Glenn Gould. Schoenberg's archival legacy is collected at the Arnold Schönberg Center in Vienna. Arnold Schoenberg was born into a lower middle-class Jewish family in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna, at "Obere Donaustraße 5".
His father Samuel, a native of Pressburg, was a shoe-shopkeeper, his mother Pauline Schoenberg, a native of Prague, was a piano teacher. Arnold was self-taught, he took only counterpoint lessons with the composer Alexander Zemlinsky, to become his first brother-in-law. In his twenties, Schoenberg earned a living by orchestrating operettas, while composing his own works, such as the string sextet Verklärte Nacht, he made an orchestral version of this, which became one of his most popular pieces. Both Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler recognized Schoenberg's significance as a composer. Strauss turned to a more conservative idiom in his own work after 1909, at that point dismissed Schoenberg. Mahler adopted him as a protégé and continued to support him after Schoenberg's style reached a point Mahler could no longer understand. Mahler worried about. Schoenberg, who had despised and mocked Mahler's music, was converted by the "thunderbolt" of Mahler's Third Symphony, which he considered a work of genius.
Afterward he "spoke of Mahler as a saint". In 1898 Schoenberg converted to Christianity in the Lutheran church. According to MacDonald this was to strengthen his attachment to Western European cultural traditions, as a means of self-defence "in a time of resurgent anti-Semitism". In 1933, after long meditation, he returned to Judaism, because he realised that "his racial and religious heritage was inescapable", to take up an unmistakable position on the side opposing Nazism, he would self-identify as a member of the Jewish religion in life. In October 1901, Schoenberg married Mathilde Zemlinsky, the sister of the conductor and composer Alexander von Zemlinsky, with whom Schoenberg had been studying since about 1894. Schoenberg and Mathilde had two children and Georg. Gertrud would marry Schoenberg's pupil Felix Greissle in 1921. During the summer of 1908, Schoenberg's wife Mathilde left him for several months for a young Austrian painter, Richard Gerstl; this period marked a distinct change in Schoenberg's work.
It was during the absence of his wife that he composed "You lean against a silver-willow", the thirteenth song in the cycle Das Buch der Hängenden Gärten, Op. 15, based on the collection of the same name by the German mystical poet Stefan George. This was the first composition without any reference at all to a key. In this year, Schoenberg completed one of his most revolutionary compositions, the String Quartet No. 2. The first two movements, though chromatic in color, use traditional key signatures; the final two movements, again using poetry by George, incorporate a soprano vocal line, breaking with previous string-quartet practice, daringly weaken the links with trad
The 1998 Dura Lube 200 was the second round of the 1998 Indy Racing League. The race was held on March 22, 1998 at the 1.000 mi Phoenix International Raceway in Avondale, Arizona. Grid limited to 28 cars. Positions 1-26 determined by qualifying speed. Positions 27-28 reserved for provisionals; the difference between the fastest and slowest qualifier was the 2nd closest in Indycar history at Phoenix, combined with traction problems in turn 2 caused by a dip in the pavement, made for a rough race. Shockingly, neither the defending race champion, Jim Guthrie, nor his previous team Blueprint Racing qualified. Speeds were up from the previous year, six cars broke the new-car track record led by surprise pole winner Jeff Ward, who jumped out to the early lead and held it until he encountered gearbox problems, he lost fifth gear and was handicapped on restarts, although once up to speed he was still one of the fastest cars on the track. Eddie Cheever, from 20th starting position, moved into the top 10 by lap 11.
Buddy Lazier dropped out early when he lost an engine and crashed in turn 3. On lap 19, John Paul, Jr. started a long sequence of incidents in turn 2. After Ward's transmission malfunctioned, Tony Stewart took over the lead for 100 more laps. In between, Kenny Bräck, Billy Boat and Ward battled for position while Sharp moved up through the field. On lap 32, Sharp's teammate Mark Dismore wrecked in turn 2, lost some laps before returning to the race, something that would be significant for the outcome of the race. Rookie J. J. Yeley surprised qualifying 10th in his first IRL start, but he spun in turn 2 on lap 46. Davey Hamilton tried to squeeze by on the outside but slid into the wall and into Yeley. Another first-timer, Dave Steele, was involved in a frightening accident at the same spot on lap 59. Eliseo Salazar collected Steele and Robbie Buhl. Trying to avoid him, Arie Luyendyk touched wheels with Salazar. Luyendyk's car went up and over, slid through turn 2 upside down; the Dutch had significant damage to his helmet from the pavement but only had a hand burn caused by scraping the asphalt during the spin.
Cheever had moved into the lead prior to this yellow, but lost a lap when his crew got the left and right rear tires reversed on a pit stop, he never managed to make up the lap. Stéphan Grégoire moved into second place behind Stewart. Buzz Calkins was picking up his lap times, after a caution for Paul Durant's blown engine on lap 106, he made up a lap and joined the lead pack, but he got hit by debris when Paul, Jr. wrecked on lap 133 and had to put for a new nose, losing again a lap. At this point, Stewart still led, with Bräck being unable to catch the leader. Pit strategy came into play on lap 169 when Sam Schmidt spun in turn 2. All cars on the lead lap cars pitted with the exception of Sharp. After the green flag on lap 174, Sharp opened up a 3-second lead in traffic but had to slow to conserve fuel. On lap 186, Bräck got caught in a four wide pass in the back stretch dogleg and he touched wheels with Mike Groff. Both crashed hard and Groff had to be cut out of his car. Groff was taken to the hospital and released.
The resulting long caution allowed Sharp to conserve fuel. The green waved with 2 laps to go. Between the leaders was Dismore, many laps down but running fast. Dismore held up Stewart and Boat; the race would end in that order: despite the controversy that erupted following the race, Dismore claimed to not have received any "team orders", but he was fined $5,000 for "unsportsmanlike conduct". Sharp was fined $15,000 and docked 7 points for "failing to meet the fuel tank capacity requirement", as his car held more fuel than allowed. Grégoire's unsponsored car logged its second consecutive fourth-place finish, Ward finished fifth. Schmidt, with an underfunded team, managed his best finish in the IRL with a 7th place despite two spins. Scott Sharp got his second IRL victory. Lead changes: 6 among 5 drivers
Doris Yankelewitz Berger was a Costa Rican artist, political activist, member of the National Liberation Party. She served as the First Lady of Costa Rica from 1982 to 1986 during the presidency of her then-husband, President Luis Alberto Monge, she was the nation's first Jewish First Lady. Yankelewitz was born to Jewish parents on May 7, 1934, in Costa Rica, her mother, Rosita Berger Spiro, was British, while her father, Jorge Yankelewitz Rodstein, was from Argentina. She had two brothers and Daniel. Yankelewitz picked up her interest in the arts as a child, she learned oil painting, which would become her focus as an artist. She attended secondary school at the Methodist School of Costa Rica in San José. Yankelewitz received her Bachelor of Fine Arts from the University of Costa Rica in 1966. Yankelewitz met her future husband, Luis Alberto Monge, at a luncheon while she was studying at the University of Costa Rica. Monge was serving as Costa Rica's first Ambassador to Israel at the time of their first meeting.
They soon began dating. Monge and Yankelewitz married on November 25, 1965, at a ceremony held in San José, she was 31-years old. The couple had Lena. Yankelewitz became active in the women's wing of the National Liberation Party beginning in the 1970s, she went on to chair the national women's committee of the PLN for six years. Under Yankelewitz, the women's committee established local branches throughout Costa Rica. Luis Alberto Monge ran for President of Costa Rica in 1978, but lost the election to Rodrigo Carazo Odio. Yankelewitz was involved in the 1978 election and campaigned on behalf of her husband. Four years Monge again ran for President in the 1982 general election; this time, he was elected President by more than 25 points. Doris Yankelewitz Berger became First Lady of Costa Rica on May 8, 1982, the day her husband was sworn in as President of Costa Rica, she became the first Jew to serve as the country's First Lady in history. Yankelewitz planned to focus on tourism in Costa Rica during her tenure as First Lady.
However, she soon switched to other issues, including the arts, substance abuse, healthcare. In 1984, First Lady Yankelewitz founded the Costan Rican chapter of Hogares CREA to battle treat drug addiction among young people, she helped to open the Center for the Rehabilitation of Alcoholics, a clinic focusing on alcoholism. Additionally, she sponsored a number of healthcare and community organizations, including the Hospital San Juan de Dios in San José and the Red Cross. Owing to her background in the arts, Yankelewitz established two artistic institutions, the Casa de la Cultura de Puntarenas and the Artesanías de Sarchí; the Consejo Nacional de las Mujeres of Mexico honored Yankelewitz as a "Dama de América" in November 1982. In October 1984, Juan Carlos I of Spain awarded Yankelewitz the Order of Isabella the Catholic. Yankelewitz and Luis Alberto Monge separated at the end of his presidency in 1986, they divorced in June 1988, two years after leaving office. Doris Yankelewitz Berger, ill for several months, died on May 18, 2016, at the age of 82