Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman and former professional bodybuilder and politician. He served as the 38th Governor of California from 2003 to 2011; as of 2020, he is the most recent Republican governor of California. Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15, he won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, remaining a prominent presence in bodybuilding and writing many books and articles on the sport; the Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second most important professional bodybuilding event in recent years, is named after him. He is considered to be one of the greatest bodybuilders of all time, as well as the sport's most charismatic ambassador. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon, his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel. In 1984, he appeared in the title role of James Cameron's critically and commercially successful science fiction action film The Terminator.
He subsequently played a similar Terminator character in most of the franchise's installments, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Terminator Genisys, Terminator: Dark Fate. He has appeared in a number of other successful films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop, True Lies. Schwarzenegger married Maria Shriver, a niece of the 35th U. S. President John F. Kennedy and daughter of the 1972 Democratic vice presidential candidate and former Ambassador to France Sargent Shriver, in 1986, they separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with another woman in 1997. As a Republican, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis, he was sworn in on November 17. He was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor. In 2011, he returned to acting. Schwarzenegger was nicknamed "the Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career, "The Governator" during his political career, is known in Japan as "Shuwa-chan".
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born on July 30, 1947 in Thal, Styria to Aurelia and Gustav Schwarzenegger. His father was the local chief of police and had served in World War II as a Hauptfeldwebel after voluntarily joining the Nazi Party in 1938, he was discharged in 1943 following a bout of malaria. He married Schwarzenegger's mother on October 20, 1945. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, his parents were strict: "Back in Austria it was a different world... if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Catholic family. Gustav had a preference for his elder son, over Arnold, his favoritism was "strong and blatant", which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said that his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems." He kept in touch with her until her death. In life, he commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of Gustav being involved in atrocities, despite his membership in the Nazi Party and Sturmabteilung.
Gustav's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. At school, Schwarzenegger was academically average, but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored, exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; as a boy, he played several sports influenced by his father. He picked up his first barbell in 1960. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over soccer as a career, he said, "I started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims that "at 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 and at 17 started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed. My father had wanted me to be a police officer. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen.
When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz, he was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, so that he could trai
Robert Carter Pitman was a Superior Court judge in Massachusetts, a temperance advocate, a legislator in the Massachusetts General Court. Pitman was born in Rhode Island on March 16, 1825, the son of Benjamin and Mary Ann Pitman, he was educated at the public schools of Bedford, at the Friends Academy, at Wesleyan University, where he became a member of the Mystical Seven, graduating in 1845. He studied law and taught at Centenary College in Louisiana in 1846 or 1847. Pitman was admitted to the bar in New Bedford, Massachusetts in 1848, he practiced law until 1869, was at different times a partner with Thomas D. Eliot and Alanson Borden. In 1858, he was appointed a judge of the Police Court, he was a state representative in 1858 and a state senator in 1864-65 and 1868–69. In 1869, he was appointed an Associate Justice of the Superior Court of Massachusetts, remained on the bench until his death; that same year, he received a Doctor of Laws degree from Wesleyan University. Pitman became active in the temperance movement, in 1873 he became president of the National Temperance Convention, wrote and extensively on the societal effects of alcohol.
Pitman was the author of Alcohol and the State: A Discussion of the Problem of Law in 1877, a comprehensive 400 page tome. This book has had a new life by being reissued on a CDrom set, he was married in New Bedford on August 15, 1855 to Frances R. daughter of Rev. M. G. Thomas, died at Newton on March 5, 1891
An axicon is a specialized type of lens which has a conical surface. An axicon transforms a laser beam into a ring shaped distribution, they can be made of any optical material. The combination with other axicons or lenses allows a wide variety of beam patterns to be generated, it can be used to turn a Gaussian beam into a non-diffractive Bessel-like beam. Axicons were first proposed in 1954 by John McLeod. Axicons are used for generating plasma in wakefield accelerators, they are used in eye surgery in cases. The Axicon is characterized by the ratio of the diameter of the ring to the distance from the lens tip to image plane d/l. Single axicons are used to generate an annular light distribution, laterally constant along the optical axis over a certain range; this special feature results from the generation of Bessel-like beams with properties determined by the Axicon angle α. There are two areas of interest for a variety of applications: a long range with an constant intensity distribution and a ring-shaped distant field intensity distribution.
The distance depends on the diameter of the incident beam. The diameter of the annular distant field intensity distribution is proportional to the length l; the width of the ring is about half the diameter of the incident beam. One application of axicons is in telescopes, where the usual spherical objective is replaced by an axicon; such a telescope can be in focus for targets at distances from less than a meter to infinity, without making any adjustments. It can be used to view two or more small sources placed along the line of sight. Axicons can be used in laser eye surgery, their ability to focus a laser beam into a ring is useful in surgery for smoothing and ablating corneal tissue. Using a combination of positive and negative axicons, the diameter of the ring of light can be adjusted to obtain the best performance. Axicons are used in optical trapping; the ring of light creates attractive and repulsive forces which can trap and hold microparticles and cells in the center of the ring. Solar concentrators Laser resonators Breakdown in light filaments Gradient index, grating axicons Illumination The reflective axicon or "reflaxicon" was described in 1973 by W. R. Edmonds.
The reflaxicon uses a pair of coaxial, conical reflecting surfaces to duplicate the functionality of the transmissive axicon. The use of reflection rather than transmission improves the damage threshold, chromatic aberration, group velocity dispersion compared to conventional axicons. In research at Physikalisch-Chemisches-Institut, Germany, axicon lenses have been used in laser diagnostics of mechanical properties of thin films and solids by surface-wave spectroscopy. In these experiments, laser radiation is focused on the surfaces in a concentric ring; the laser pulse generates concentric surface acoustic waves, with amplitude that reaches a maximum in the center of the ring. This approach makes it possible to study mechanical properties of materials under extreme conditions. Axicons have been used by the research team at Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic to focus a parallel beam into a beam with long focus depth and a confined lateral spot, to develop a novel optical coherence tomography system.
Inphase Technologies researchers use axicons in holographic data storage. Their goal is to determine the effects of axicons on the Fourier distribution of random binary data spectrum of a spatial light modulator. Prof. Wendell T. Hill, III's research group at the University of Maryland is focused on creating elements of atom optics, such as beam splitters and beam switches, out of hollow laser beams; these beams, made using axicons, provide an ideal optical trap to channel cold atoms. An article published by the research team at St. Andrews University in the UK in the Sept. 12 issue of Nature describes axicon use in optical tweezers, which are used for manipulating microscopic particles such as cells and colloids. The tweezers use lasers with a Bessel beam profile produced by illuminating an axicon with a Gaussian beam, which can trap several particles along the beam's axis