A billionaire, in countries that use the short scale number naming system, is a person with a net worth of at least one billion units of a given currency major currencies such as the United States dollar, the euro or the pound sterling. Additionally, a centibillionaire is used to reference a billionaire worth one hundred billion dollars; the American business magazine Forbes produces a global list of known U. S. dollar updates an Internet version of this list in real time. The American oil magnate John D. Rockefeller became the world's first confirmed U. S. dollar billionaire in 1916, still holds the title of history's wealthiest individual. As of 2018, there are over 2,200 U. S. dollar billionaires worldwide, with a combined wealth of over US$9.1 trillion, up from US$7.67 trillion in 2017. According to a 2017 Oxfam report, the top eight richest billionaires own as much combined wealth as "half the human race". According to the Forbes report released in March 2017, there are 2,043 U. S. dollar billionaires worldwide, from 66 countries, with a combined net worth of $7.67 trillion, more than the combined GDP of 152 countries.
The majority of billionaires are male. In 2015, there were ten LGBT billionaires; the United States has the largest number of billionaires of any country, with 536 as of 2015, while China and Russia are home to 213, 90 and 88 billionaires respectively. As of 2015, only 46 billionaires were under the age of 40, while the list of American-only billionaires, as of 2010, had an average age of 66. In 2019 there is now a record 607 billionaires in the U. S; that includes 14 of the world’s 20 richest. Jeff Bezos is again number 1 in the world, followed by Bill Gates at number 2. According to a 2016 Oxfam report, the wealth of the poorest 95% dropped by 38% between 2010 and 2015, despite an increase in the global population of 400 million. In the same period, the wealth of the richest 62 people between the World's Billionaires increased by $500bn to $1.76tn. This number has fallen from 388 as as 2010. More in 2017 an Oxfam report noted that just eight billionaires own as much combined wealth as "half the human race".
The table below lists numerous statistics relating to billionaires, including the total number of known billionaires and the net worth of the world's wealthiest individual for each year since 2008. Data for each year is from the annual Forbes list of billionaires, with currency figures given in U. S. dollars. Ritholtz, Barry. "Map of World Billionaires by Country and by Origin of Wealth". The Big Picture
Boys on the Side
Boys on the Side is a 1995 American comedy-drama film directed by Herbert Ross. It stars Whoopi Goldberg, Drew Barrymore, Mary-Louise Parker as three friends on a cross-country road trip; the screenplay was written by Don Roos. Three women embark on a cross-country road trip: Jane, a tough lesbian lounge singer in search of a new life after a breakup and getting fired. Robin and Jane cross paths through Robin's newspaper ad for a traveling companion. Thinking Robin's a square, Jane declines, but agrees to join Robin after Jane's car gets towed. Jane and Robin leave New York City and travel through Pittsburgh to see Jane's friend Holly, they stumble across a knock out-fight between Holly and her violent boyfriend, over some missing drugs. The three women work together against Nick. Impulsively, Holly hits Nick in the head with a bat to stop him from attacking Jane; the women worry about the damage. To keep the police from getting involved, they leave him in the home bound to a chair with tape and furious.
Hours Nick frees himself from the chair, stumbles across the floor and hits his head on the bat and dies. The three unlikely travelers form a special friendship, after learning that Nick is dead and Holly is pregnant, all decide to continue to California together. Along their journey in Tucson, Robin has to be hospitalized for pneumonia, at which point Jane and Holly learn of her HIV; the three decide to stay in Tucson. Things are cheerful for a while, as the three live together and Holly falls in love with a local police officer named Abe Lincoln. Jane has a secret crush on Robin, Robin tenderly buys Jane a piano. However, things fall apart. Jane and Robin's friendship crumbles when Jane, well-intended, tells a friendly bartender interested in Robin that she has HIV. Feeling betrayed, Robin asks Jane to move out; when Abe proposes to Holly, Holly confesses her crime and he arrests her, despite still intending to marry her. Holly is taken back to Pittsburgh to face the consequences of her actions.
Jane and Robin return to Pittsburgh and make peace with each other in the courthouse. Holly takes an offer of involuntary manslaughter, one to two years in prison but an honest life ahead. Robin collapses after the trial from a lung infection, in the hospital Jane and Robin confess how they loved each other. Time passes, Holly is free and with Abe and her daughter, celebration to all family and friends. Robin is now in a wheelchair far along with AIDS and not expected to live much longer. At the party, Robin weakly begins to sing the Roy Orbison song "You Got It" as a reference to her first conversation with Jane, Jane finishes the song. In the final scene, Robin has died from AIDS, Holly and Abe plan to stay in Arizona and become a family, Jane hits the road to seek a new life in Los Angeles. Whoopi Goldberg - Jane DeLuca Mary-Louise Parker - Robin Nickerson Drew Barrymore - Holly Pulchik Matthew McConaughey - Abe Lincoln James Remar - Alex Billy Wirth - Nick Anita Gillette - Elaine Nickerson Dennis Boutsikaris - Massarelli, Prosecuting Attorney Estelle Parsons - Louise Amy Aquino - Anna Boys on the Side received a positive response from critics.
It holds a 73% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 33 reviews. The film was entered into the 19th Moscow International Film Festival; the film was not a major box office hit, though it did break against its budget. The film's soundtrack album is made up of contributions from female pop/rock artists, including lesbian icons Melissa Etheridge, Joan Armatrading and the Indigo Girls. Previous hit singles by Annie Lennox and The Cranberries are included, as are new recordings by Sheryl Crow, Sarah McLachlan, Stevie Nicks and The Pretenders among others; the hit single from the movie soundtrack was Bonnie Raitt's cover of the Roy Orbison hit "You Got It", which peaked at #33 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart. Bonnie Raitt - "You Got It" – 3:27 Melissa Etheridge - "I Take You with Me" – 4:50 Sheryl Crow - "Keep On Growing" – 5:27 Indigo Girls - "Power of Two" – 5:23 Stevie Nicks - "Somebody Stand By Me" – 5:06 Pretenders - "Everyday Is Like Sunday" – 3:42 The Cranberries - "Dreams" – 4:32 Annie Lennox - "Why" – 4:54 Sarah McLachlan - "Ol"55" – 4:14 Joan Armatrading - "Willow" – 4:04 Jonell Mosser - "Crossroads" – 2:49 Whoopi Goldberg - "You Got It" – 3:03 Bonnie Raitt - "You Got It" – 3:26There are several songs from the film that are not included on the official soundtrack album, such as Toni Childs' version of "Take Me To The River" and Boxing Gandhis' version of "Magic Carpet Ride".
Boys on the Side at Rotten Tomatoes Boys on the Side at Metacritic Boys on the Side on IMDb Boys on the Side at AllMovie Boys on the Side at Box Office Mojo
Nuclear weapons and Israel
The State of Israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons. Current estimates put the size of the Israeli nuclear arsenal at between 80 and 400 nuclear warheads, the country is believed to possess the ability to deliver them in a variety of methods including: aircraft, its first deliverable nuclear weapon is thought to have been created in late 1966 or early 1967. However, Israel maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity, never denying nor admitting to having nuclear weapons, instead repeating over the years that "Israel will not be the first country to introduce nuclear weapons to the Middle East". Israel has declined to sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons despite international pressure to do so, saying that would be contrary to its national security interests. Additionally, Israel developed the Begin Doctrine of counter-proliferation and preventive strikes, denying other regional actors the ability to acquire their own nuclear weapons; the Israeli Air Force conducted Operation Opera and Operation Orchard, destroying the Iraqi and Syrian nuclear reactors in 1981 and 2007 and the Stuxnet malware that damaged Iranian nuclear facilities in 2010 is thought to have been developed by Israel.
As of 2019, Israel remains the only country in the Middle East believed to possess nuclear weapons. The Samson Option refers to Israel's deterrence strategy of massive retaliation with nuclear weapons as a "last resort" against a country whose military has invaded and/or destroyed much of Israel. Israel started investigating the nuclear field soon after it declared independence in 1948, with French co-operation secretly began building the Shimon Peres Negev Nuclear Research Center, a facility near Dimona housing a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plant in the late 1950s; the first extensive details of the weapons program came in October 5, 1986, with news coverage of information provided by Mordechai Vanunu, a technician employed at the center. Vanunu was captured by the Mossad and brought back to Israel, where he was sentenced to 18 years in prison for treason and espionage. Israel's first Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion was "nearly obsessed" with obtaining nuclear weapons to prevent the Holocaust from recurring.
He stated, "What Einstein and Teller, the three of them are Jews, made for the United States, could be done by scientists in Israel, for their own people". Ben-Gurion decided to recruit Jewish scientists from abroad before the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War that established Israel's independence, he and others, such as head of the Weizmann Institute of Science and defense ministry scientist Ernst David Bergmann and hoped that Jewish scientists such as Oppenheimer and Teller would help Israel. In 1949 a unit of the Israel Defense Forces Science Corps, known by the Hebrew acronym HEMED GIMMEL, began a two-year geological survey of the Negev. While a preliminary study was prompted by rumors of petroleum fields, one objective of the longer two year survey was to find sources of uranium; that year Hemed Gimmel funded six Israeli physics graduate students to study overseas, including one to go to the University of Chicago and study under Enrico Fermi, who had overseen the world's first artificial and self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
In early 1952 Hemed Gimmel was moved from the IDF to the Ministry of Defense and was reorganized as the Division of Research and Infrastructure. That June, Bergmann was appointed by Ben-Gurion to be the first chairman of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission. Hemed Gimmel was renamed Machon 4 during the transfer, was used by Bergmann as the "chief laboratory" of the IAEC; the techniques were two years more advanced than American efforts. Bergmann, interested in increasing nuclear cooperation with the French, sold both patents to the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique for 60 million francs. Although they were never commercialized, it was a consequential step for future French-Israeli cooperation. In addition, Israeli scientists helped construct the G-1 plutonium production reactor and UP-1 reprocessing plant at Marcoule. France and Israel had close relations in many areas. France was principal arms supplier for the young Jewish state, as instability spread through French colonies in North Africa, Israel provided valuable intelligence obtained from contacts with Sephardi Jews in those countries.
At the same time Israeli scientists were observing France's own nuclear program, were the only foreign scientists allowed to roam "at will" at the nuclear facility at Marcoule. In addition to the relationships between Israeli and French Jewish and non-Jewish researchers, the French believed that cooperation with Israel could give them access to international Jewish nuclear scientists. After U. S. President Dwight Eisenhower announced the Atoms for Peace initiative, Israel became the second country to sign on, signed a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement with the United States on July 12, 1955; this culminated in a public signing ceremony on March 20, 1957, to construct a "small swimming-pool research reactor in Nachal Soreq", which would be used to shroud the construction of a much larger facility with the French at Dimona. In 1986 Francis Perrin, French high-commissioner for atom
Shimon Peres was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth President of Israel, the Prime Minister of Israel, the Interim Prime Minister, in the 1970s to the 1990s. He was a member of twelve cabinets and represented five political parties in a political career spanning 70 years. Peres was elected to the Knesset in November 1959 and except for a three-month-long hiatus in early 2006, was in office continuously until he was elected President in 2007. At the time of his retirement in 2014, he was the world's oldest head of state and was considered the last link to Israel's founding generation. From a young age, he was renowned for his oratorical brilliance, was chosen as a protégé by David Ben-Gurion, Israel's founding father, he began his political career in the late 1940s, holding several diplomatic and military positions during and directly after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. His first high-level government position was as Deputy Director-General of Defense in 1952 which he attained at the age of 28, Director-General from 1953 until 1959.
In 1956, he took part in the historic negotiations on the Protocol of Sèvres described by British Prime Minister Anthony Eden as the "highest form of statesmanship". In 1963, he held negotiations with U. S. President John F. Kennedy, which resulted in the sale of Hawk anti-aircraft missiles to Israel, the first sale of U. S. military equipment to Israel. Peres represented Mapai, the Alignment and Kadima in the Knesset, led Alignment and Labor. Peres first succeeded Yitzhak Rabin as Acting Prime Minister during 1977, before becoming Prime Minister from 1984 to 1986; as Foreign Minister under Prime Minister Rabin, Peres engineered the 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty, won the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize together with Rabin and Yasser Arafat for the Oslo Accords peace talks with the Palestinian leadership. In 1996, he founded the Peres Center for Peace, which has the aim of "promot lasting peace and advancement in the Middle East by fostering tolerance and technological development and well-being." After suffering a stroke, Peres died on 28 September 2016 near Tel Aviv.
Peres was a polyglot, speaking Polish, English, Russian and Hebrew, although he never lost his Polish accent when speaking in Hebrew. In his private life, he was a poet and songwriter, writing stanzas during cabinet meetings, with some of his poems being recorded as songs in albums; as a result of his deep literary interests, he could quote from Hebrew prophets, French literature, Chinese philosophy with equal ease. Shimon Peres was born Szymon Perski, on 2 August 1923, in Wiszniew, Poland, to Yitzhak and Sara Perski; the family spoke Hebrew and Russian at home, Peres learned Polish at school. He learned to speak English and French, his father was a wealthy timber merchant branching out into other commodities. Peres had Gershon, he was related to the American film star Lauren Bacall, they were described as first cousins, but Peres said, "In 1952 or 1953, I came to New York... Lauren Bacall called me, said that she wanted to meet, we did. We sat and talked about where our families came from, discovered that we were from the same family... but I'm not sure what our relation is...
It was she who said that she was my cousin. Peres told Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson that he had been born as a result of a blessing his parents had received from a chassidic rebbe and that he was proud of it. Peres' grandfather, Rabbi Zvi Meltzer, a grandson of Rabbi Chaim Volozhin, had a great impact on his life. In an interview, Peres said: "As a child, I grew up in my grandfather's home. … I was educated by him. ... My grandfather taught, it was not as easy. My home was not an observant one. My parents were not Orthodox but I was Haredi. At one point, I heard my parents listening to the radio on the Sabbath and I smashed it." When he was a child, Peres was taken by his father to Radun' to receive a blessing from Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan. As a child, Peres would say, "I did not dream of becoming president of Israel. My dream as a boy was to be a shepherd or a poet of stars." He inherited his love of French literature from his maternal grandfather. In 1932, Peres' father settled in Tel Aviv; the family followed him in 1934.
He attended Balfour Elementary School and High School, Geula Gymnasium in Tel Aviv. At 15, he lived on Kibbutz Geva for several years. Peres was one of the founders of Kibbutz Alumot. In 1941, he was elected Secretary of HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed, a Labor Zionist youth movement, in 1944 returned to Alumot, where he had an agricultural training and worked as a farmer and a shepherd. At age 20, he was elected to the HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed national secretariat, where he was only one of two Mapai party supporters, out of the 12 members. Three years he took over the movement and won a majority; the head of Mapai, David Ben-Gurion, Berl Katznelson began to take an interest in him, appointed him to Mapai's secretariat. In 1944, Peres led an illicit expedition into the Negev a closed military zone requiring a permit to enter; the expedition, consisting of a group of teenagers, along with a Palmach scout, a zoologist, an archaeologist, had been funded by Ben-Gurion and planned by Palmach head Yitzhak Sadeh, as part of a plan for future Jewish settlement of the area so as to include it in the Jewish state.
Once Upon a Time in America
Once Upon a Time in America is a 1984 epic crime drama film co-written and directed by Italian filmmaker Sergio Leone and starring Robert De Niro and James Woods. The film is an Italian-American venture produced by The Ladd Company, Embassy International Pictures, PSO Enterprises, Rafran Cinematografica, distributed by Warner Bros. Based on Harry Grey's novel The Hoods, it chronicles the lives of best friends David "Noodles" Aaronson and Maximilian "Max" Bercovicz as they lead a group of Jewish ghetto youths who rise to prominence as Jewish gangsters in New York City's world of organized crime; the film explores themes of childhood friendships, lust, betrayal, broken relationships, together with the rise of mobsters in American society. It was the final film directed by Leone before his death five years and the first feature film he had directed in 13 years; the cinematography was by Tonino Delli Colli, the film score by Ennio Morricone. Leone envisaged two three-hour films a single 269-minute version, but was convinced by distributors to shorten it to 229 minutes.
The American distributors, The Ladd Company, further shortened it to 139 minutes, rearranged the scenes into chronological order, without Leone's involvement. The shortened version was a critical and commercial flop in the United States, critics who had seen both versions harshly condemned the changes that were made; the original "European cut" has remained a critical favorite and appears in lists of the greatest gangster films of all time. Three thugs enter a Chinese wayang theatre; the proprietors slip into a hidden opium den and warn a man named "Noodles", but he pays no attention. In a flashback, Noodles observes police removing three disfigured corpses from a street. Although he kills one of the thugs pursuing him, Noodles learns they have murdered his girlfriend and that his money has been stolen, so he leaves the city. David "Noodles" Aaronson struggles as a street kid in a neighborhood on Manhattan's Lower East Side in 1920, he and his friends Patrick "Patsy" Goldberg, Philip "Cockeye" Stein and Dominic commit petty crimes under the supervision of local boss, Bugsy.
Planning to rob a drunk as a truck hides them from a policeman, they're foiled by the older Max Bercovicz, who jumps off the truck to rob the man himself. Noodles confronts Max. Max blackmails the policeman, having sex with Peggy, a teenage girl and Noodle's neighbor. Max, Noodles and Cockeye start their own gang, independent of Bugsy, who had enjoyed the policeman's protection; the boys establish a suitcase money fund, which they hide in a locker at the railway station, giving the key to Fat Moe, a reliable friend, not part of the operation. Noodles is in love with Fat Moe's sister, who aspires to be a dancer and actress. After the gang has some success, Bugsy ambushes the boys and shoots Dominic, who dies in Noodles' arms. In a rage, Noodles stabs Bugsy and injures a police officer, he is sentenced to 12 years in prison. Adult Noodles is released from jail in 1932 and is reunited with his old gang, who are now major players in the bootlegging industry during Prohibition. Noodles reunites with Deborah, seeking to rekindle their relationship.
Meanwhile, during a robbery, the gang meet Carol, who on becomes Max's girlfriend. The gang prospers from providing muscle for union boss Jimmy Conway O'Donnell. Noodles tries to impress Deborah on an extravagant date, but rapes her on their way home in a limousine after she declines his proposal. Noodles is seen at the train station looking for Deborah; when she too spots him from her train seat, she closes the blind, as the train heads off. The gang's financial success ends with the repeal of Prohibition. Max suggests joining the Teamsters' union, as muscle. Max penitently runs after Noodles and they go to Florida together. While there, Max suggests robbing the New York Federal Reserve Bank, but Noodles regards it as a suicide mission. Carol, who fears for Max's life, convinces Noodles to inform the police about him for a lesser offence, just to keep him in jail briefly. Shortly after, who follows Noodles to the office, knocks him unconscious for calling him "crazy". Regaining consciousness, Noodles finds out that Max and Cockeye have been killed by the police, is consumed with guilt over making the phone call.
Noodles boards the first bus to leave New York, going to Buffalo, to live in hiding under a false identity. In 1968, Noodles receives a letter informing him that the cemetery where his friends are buried has been sold; the letter asks him to make arrangements for their reburial. Realizing that someone has deduced his identity, Noodles returns to Manhattan, stays with Fat Moe above his still-open restaurant. While visiting the cemetery, Noodles finds a key to the railway locker once kept by the gang, notes the license plate of a car following him. Opening the locker, he finds a suitcase full of money but with a note stating that the cash is a down-payment on his next job. Noodles hears about a corruption scandal and assassination attempt on U. S. Secretary of Commerce Christopher Bailey, an embattled political figure, mentioned in a news report. Noodles visits Carol, she tells him that Max planted the idea of Carol and Noodles tipping him off to the police, because he wanted to die rather than go insane like his father, who died in an asylum.
Max opened fire on the police to ensure his own death. While at the retirement home, Noodles sees a photo of Deborah at
Amanda Coetzer is a South African former professional tennis player. Coetzer turned professional in 1988 and retired in 2004, she won her first top-level singles title in 1993 in Melbourne, her second that year in Tokyo. Coetzer entered the top twenty on the women's world rankings in 1992 and remained there for most of the next ten years, she earned a reputation for beating players who were ranked higher than her, reached the peak of her career in 1997. By virtue of scoring so many upset wins in spite of her five-foot-two stature, she gained her nickname: "The Little Assassin." Coetzer is the daughter of Suska Coetzer. She started playing tennis at the age of 6. During her playing career she resided in Hilton Head, South Carolina and was coached by Gavin Hopper, she is married to the Hollywood film producer Arnon Milchan. At the Canadian Open in 1995, Coetzer defeated three players ranked in the world's top 5 – Steffi Graf, Jana Novotná and Mary Pierce – before losing to Monica Seles in the final.
The defeat of Graf ended a 32-match winning-streak for the German. At the Australian Open in 1996, Coetzer became the first South African woman in the Open era to reach a Grand Slam semifinal, where she lost in three sets to Anke Huber. 1997 was the best season of Coetzer's career. In reaching the Australian Open semi-finals for the second consecutive year, she defeated World No. 1 Graf in the fourth round. She beat Graf for a second time in the quarter-finals at Berlin, and in the quarter-finals of the French Open, she defeated Graf yet again to become one of just six players to beat Graf three times in one year, one of only four to defeat her more than once in Grand Slam matches. Coetzer lost in the French Open semi-finals to eventual-champion Iva Majoli. In the year in Leipzig, Coetzer beat Martina Hingis, who by had taken over the World No. 1 ranking. Coetzer won two singles titles that year -- in Luxembourg. Coetzer won the biggest title of her career in 1998 at Hilton Head. In 1999, Coetzer became the only player to defeat Steffi Graf, Martina Hingis and Lindsay Davenport while they were ranked No. 1.
In 2000, Coetzer teamed-up with Wayne Ferreira to win the Hopman Cup for South Africa. She was a member of South Africa's Fed Cup team for six years and represented South Africa at the Olympic Games on three occasions. In 2001, she qualified for her ninth consecutive year-end championship. In 2002, she obtained an invite from the Hong Kong Tennis Patrons' Association to play The Hong Kong Ladies Challenge 2002. In her career, Coetzer won nine doubles titles, her final singles title was won in Acapulco in 2003. Her career prize-money earnings totalled $5,594,821. A = did not participate in the tournament. SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number played. Coetzer's win-loss record against certain players who have been ranked world No. 10 or higher is as follows:Players who have been ranked world No. 1 are in boldface. Amanda Coetzer at the Women's Tennis Association Amanda Coetzer at the International Tennis Federation Amanda Coetzer at the Fed Cup
JFK is a 1991 American political thriller film directed by Oliver Stone. It examines the events leading to the assassination of John F. Kennedy and alleged cover-up through the eyes of former New Orleans district attorney Jim Garrison. Garrison filed charges against New Orleans businessman Clay Shaw for his alleged participation in a conspiracy to assassinate the President, for which Lee Harvey Oswald was found responsible by the Warren Commission; the film was adapted by Stone and Zachary Sklar from the books On the Trail of the Assassins by Jim Garrison and Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy by Jim Marrs. Stone described this account as a "counter-myth" to the Warren Commission's "fictional myth." The film became embroiled in controversy. Upon its theatrical release, many major American newspapers ran editorials accusing Stone of taking liberties with historical facts, including the film's implication that President Lyndon B. Johnson was part of a coup d'état to kill Kennedy. Despite the controversy surrounding its historical depiction, JFK received critical praise for the performances of its cast, Stone's directing, score and cinematography.
The film picked up momentum at the box office after a slow start, earning over $205 million in worldwide gross, making it the sixth highest-grossing film of 1991 worldwide. JFK was nominated for eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director for Stone and Best Supporting Actor for Jones and won two for Best Cinematography and Best Film Editing, it was the most successful of three films Stone made about American presidents, followed by Nixon with Anthony Hopkins in the title role and W. with Josh Brolin as George W. Bush; the film opens with newsreel footage, including the farewell address in 1961 of outgoing President Dwight D. Eisenhower, warning about the build-up of the "military-industrial complex"; this is followed by a summary of John F. Kennedy's years as president, emphasizing the events that, in Stone's thesis, would lead to his assassination; this builds to a reconstruction of the assassination on November 22, 1963. New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison subsequently learns about potential links to the assassination in New Orleans.
Garrison and his team investigate several possible conspirators, including private pilot David Ferrie, but are forced to let them go after their investigation is publicly rebuked by the federal government. Kennedy's suspected assassin Lee Harvey Oswald is killed by Jack Ruby, Garrison closes the investigation; the investigation is reopened in 1966 after Garrison reads the Warren Report and notices what he believes to be multiple inaccuracies. Garrison and his staff interrogate several witnesses to the Kennedy assassination, others involved with Oswald and Ferrie. One such witness is Willie O'Keefe, a male prostitute serving five years in prison for soliciting, who reveals he witnessed Ferrie discussing a coup d'état; as well as meeting Oswald, O'Keefe was romantically involved with a man called "Clay Bertrand". Jean Hill, a teacher who says she witnessed shots fired from the grassy knoll, tells the investigators that Secret Service threatened her into saying three shots came from the book depository, revealing changes that were made to her testimony by the Warren Commission.
Garrison's staff test the single bullet theory by aiming an empty rifle from the window through which Oswald was alleged to have shot Kennedy. They conclude that Oswald was too poor a marksman to make the shots, indicating someone else, or multiple marksmen, were involved. In 1968, Garrison meets a high-level figure in Washington D. C. who identifies himself as "X". He suggests a conspiracy at the highest levels of government, implicating members of the CIA, the Mafia, the military-industrial complex, Secret Service, FBI, Kennedy's vice-president and president Lyndon Baines Johnson as either co-conspirators or as having motives to cover up the truth of the assassination. X explains that the President was killed because he wanted to pull the United States out of the Vietnam War and dismantle the CIA. X encourages Garrison to keep digging and prosecute New Orleans-based international businessman Clay Shaw for his alleged involvement; when Shaw is interrogated, the businessman denies any knowledge of meeting Ferrie, O'Keefe or Oswald, but he is soon charged with conspiring to murder the President.
Some of Garrison's staff begin to doubt his motives and disagree with his methods, leave the investigation. Garrison's marriage is strained when his wife Liz complains that he is spending more time on the case than with his own family. After a sinister phone call is made to their daughter, Liz accuses Garrison of being selfish and attacking Shaw only because of his homosexuality. In addition, the media launches attacks on television and in newspapers attacking Garrison's character and criticizing the way his office is spending taxpayers' money; some key witnesses become scared and refuse to testify while others, such as Ferrie, are killed in suspicious circumstances. Before his death, Ferrie tells Garrison that he believes people are after him, reveals there was a conspiracy around Kennedy's death; the trial of Clay Shaw takes place in 1969. Garrison presents the court with further evidence of multiple killers and dismissing the single bullet theory, proposes a Dealey Plaza shots scenario involving three assassins who fired six total shots and framing Oswald for the murders of Kennedy and officer J. D. Tippit, but the jury acquits Shaw after less than one hour of deliberation.
The film reflects that members of that jury stated publicly that they believed there was a conspiracy behind the assassination, but not enough evidence to link Shaw to that conspiracy. Shaw died of lung cancer in 1974, but in 1979, Richard H