Girac is a commune in the Lot department in south-western France. Communes of the Lot department
Aurillac is the prefecture of the Cantal department, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aurillacoises. Aurillac is at 600 metres above sea level and located at the foot of the Cantal mountains in a small Sedimentary basin; the city is built on the banks of a tributary of the Cère. It is 223 km north of Toulouse. Aurillac was part of a former Auvergne province called Haute-Auvergne and is only 20 km away from the heart of the Auvergne Volcano Park. Access to the commune is by numerous roads including the D922 from Naucelles in the north, the D17 from Saint-Simon in the north-east, Route nationale N122 from Polminhac in the east which continues to Sansac-de-Marmiesse in the south-west, the D920 to Arpajon-sur-Cère in the south-east, the D18 to Ytrac in the west; the Figeac-Arvant railway passes through the commune with a station in the centre of town but there is no TGV service. About 50 % of the commune is urbanised with farmland to the west of the urban area.
Aurillac – Tronquières Airport is located in the south of the commune with its runway extending beyond the commune boundary. It is connected to Paris by two daily flights by the Air France subsidiary HOP!. The commune was awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom; the Jordanne river flows through the heart of the commune from north to south where it joins the Cère just south of the commune. Boudieu on the N122, called the Route de Sansac-de-Marmiesse or de Toulouse, is a farm with a farm house from the 1900s and three farm buildings. Boudieu-Bas on the N122 is a set of houses built in the 1960s with some buildings used commercially or for crafts. Gueret on the N122 is a farm with two agricultural buildings; this hamlet is traversed by an old country road from a place called Julien from which name for the SNCF Julien Bridge comes. The former Julien is towards the Chateau of Tronquières in the urban area on Avenue Charles de Gaulle opposite the Medico-Surgical Centre.
This farm with its house and barn were absorbed by the city on the creation of a district in the 1970s until the mid 1980s. The agricultural buildings were demolished to make room for a shop. La Sablère on the RN122 is a set of dwellings from the 1980s. There was a farm; this place spreads over two communes: Aurillac and Arpajon-sur-Cere with the majority of the buildings in Arpajon-sur-Cere. Le Barra near the avenue Aristide Briand called the Ancienne route de Vic or the old N120; this is houses. Les Quatre Chemins at the intersection of the D120 and the D922 on the borders of Aurillac and Ytrac, it is a complex of commercial buildings and residences on the crossroads of the two former National highways. Tronquières on an avenue, it was a farm with a chateau but the chateau and outbuildings were demolished in 2011. Today it is a grouping of housing units specializing in housing assistance for the integration of disabled people and the airport, it is the reception area for a former landfill and rubbish centre.
Before the construction of the airport the meadows were areas for summer grazing for nearby farms such as the Boudieu farm. Aurillac has an oceanic climate with cool winters and warm summers due to its distance from the ocean and its altitude. Rainfall, however, is abundant with 130 days per year with precipitation. Snow is common and sometimes abundant with 31 snow days per year and during some snowfalls the quantity of snow can be high. Frost is common with 80 days of frost per year with the period of freezing extending from October to May. Despite its altitude, Aurillac still has 8 days of high temperatures. Days with heavy frosts are frequent; the city has 2118 sunshine hours per year. The record low temperature was −24.5 °C on 9 January 1985 and the record high was 38.0 °C on 30 July 1983. The origin of the name Aurillac is from Aureliacum meaning "Villa of Aurelius" and dates back to the Gallo-Roman era, it is attested in the polygonal Fanum d'Aron, built in the 1st century and discovered in 1977 at Lescudillier.
It is thought that in the Gallic era the original site of the city was on the heights overlooking the current city at Saint-Jean-de-Dône and, like most oppida, it was abandoned after the Roman conquest in favour of a new city established on the plain. With the return of instability in the Lower Roman Empire there was a movement towards Encastellation and a new fortified site was established in mid-slope between the former oppidum and the old Gallo-Roman city where the Chateau of Saint-Étienne is today; the history of the city is only known from 856, the year of the birth of Count Gerald of Aurillac at the castle where his father named Gerald, was lord. In 885 he founded a Benedictine monastery which bore his name, it was in this monastery that Gerbert, the first French pope under the name of Sylvester II, studied. The city was made in a Sauveté area, located between four crosses and was founded in 898 by Gerald shortly after the abbey; the first urban area was built close to the Abbey of Aurillac.
Gerald died around 910 but his influence was such that over the centuries Gerald was always a baptismal name prevalent in the population of Aurillac and the surrounding area. It was in the 13th century that municipal conflict began between abbots. After taking the Chateau of Saint-Étienne in 1255 and two negotiated agreements called the Peace of Aurillac, relations were
Cantal is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France, with its prefecture in Aurillac. Its other principal towns are Saint-Flour and Mauriac and its residents are known as Cantalians. Cantal borders the departments of Puy-de-Dôme, Haute-Loire, Lot, Lozère and Corrèze, in the Massif Central natural region. Along with Lozère and Creuse, Cantal is among the most sparsely populated and geographically isolated departments of France and Aurillac is the departmental capital farthest removed from a major motorway, it had a population of 145,969 in 2016. The department is named for the Plomb du Cantal, the central peak of the bare and rugged mounts of Cantal mountain chain which traverses the area. Cantal lies in the middle of France's central plateau; the Cantal range is a group of eroded volcanic peaks. Its highest point is the Plomb du Cantal, its neighbors are Puy Chavaroche. To their north lie the Cézallier and Dore ranges and the arid Artense Plateau. To their east is the fertile Planèze Plateau, bound on its east by the Monts de la Margeride.
The principal rivers are the Alagnon, tributary to the Allier. At an elevation of 250 meters above sea level, the low point of the province lies in the Lot valley; the Truyère valley skirts the Planèze on the south and divides it from the Monts d'Aubrac, whose foothills include the thermal springs of Chaudesaigues. The western area of the department consists of beautiful river valleys. At first, Cantal was divided into four arrondissements—Aurillac, Saint-Flour and Murat; the climate of the department varies considerably. Prevailing winds and mountain ranges divide Cantal into four climatic zones: The west is subject to oceanic winds which bring rains; the mountains of the Cantal and the Cézallier create a rain shadow: it rains and snows quite often. The Planèze of Saint-Flour and the region of Massiac receive less precipitation, owing to winds coming from the north and south; the plateaux of the Margeride and the Aubrac have pleasant summers. The weather is mild and dry in the alluvial plain between Murat and Saint-Flour and around Aurillac, while summer storms and winters can be long and severe in the northern and central areas.
The west—nearer precipitation coming in from the Atlantic—is well watered. There is abundant snowfall. Winter temperatures can fall to below −15 °C, whereas in summer 25 °C is reached; the southern part of the department, on its borders with Aveyron and Lot, is the hottest region. Aurillac averaged 2080 hours of sunlight per year over the period from 1991 to 2000. Fog disappears quickly. Wind is not strong, but the lightning flashes in this department are among the most spectacular in France. Televised French weather forecasts note Aurillac as the coldest city in France in the mornings; this status should be understood in light of their derivation from temperature readings by Météo-France. Of the 30 cities included on its maps, Aurillac is by far the one with the highest altitude, at 640 m above sea level; the area of Cantal was part of the southern, upper area of Auvergne. Cantal is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. Prior to the First World War, it comprised parts of the XIII.
Army Corps military region and the Clermont-Ferrand educational division. After the 1790 Constitution Civile du Clergé, the Diocese of Saint-Flour in Cantal was among the half of the French sees being abolished to realign the new bishoprics to coincide with the new departments, such as Cantal, where outsider parish priest Anne-Alexandre-Marie Thibault was elected Bishop, it was formally abolished in turn after the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801, in favor of the reinstated bishopric of Saint Poul, but retained the departemental borders. The climate being too cool and damp for grain, much of Cantal is given over to pasture for Aubrac and Salers cattle and horses; this in turn supports a dairy industry responsible for butter and Roquefort cheese and the appellation-controlled cheeses Cantal and Bleu d'Auvergne. Cantal is the French department with the greatest number of appellation-controlled cheeses, although proper Roquefort is now restricted to cheese produced in the Aveyron department; the region's mineral products include coal, lead, antimony, granite and lime, but the department's isolation and poor infrastructure long precluded their exploitation.
Before the First World War, the primary exports were livestock, cheese and coal and the main imports were coal, grain and pottery. By it had been connected to both the Orleans and Midi railways. Traditionally, many Cantalians roamed France during the year plying humble trades but now the area's relative lack of industry and development permits tourism. An area has been set aside as the Auvergne Volcanos Regional Park. Cantal was dominated by the Occitan language; the official population count for 2013 was 147,000. The population peaked at 262,117 in 1836, it has been below
Labrousse is a commune in the Cantal department in south-central France. Communes of the Cantal department INSEE
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
The Cère is a 120 km long river in south-western France, left tributary of the Dordogne River. Its source is in the south-western Massif Central, near the mountain Plomb du Cantal, it flows west through the following départements and towns: Cantal: Vic-sur-Cère, Arpajon-sur-Cère Corrèze Lot: BretenouxThe Cère flows into the Dordogne River near Bretenoux. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Cère at the Sandre database
Brive-la-Gaillarde is a commune of France. It is a sub-prefecture of the Corrèze department, it has around 50,000 inhabitants, while the population of the urban area was 89,260 in 1999. Although it is by far the biggest commune in Corrèze, the capital is Tulle. In French popular culture, the town is associated with a song by Georges Brassens. Though the inhabitants settled around the 1st century, the city only started to grow much later. From around the 5th century onwards, the original city began to develop around a church dedicated to Saint-Martin-l'Espagnol. During the 12th century walls were built around the city and during the Hundred Years' War a second wall was built; these fortifications no longer have been replaced by boulevards. The commune was named "Brive" until 1919, when it was renamed "Brive-la-Gaillarde"; the word "Gaillarde" stands for bravery or strength in the city's name, but it can refer to the city's walls. Brive now extends outside of its original boundaries into Ussac. During World War II, Brive-la-Gaillarde was a regional capital of the Resistance, acting as a seat of several clandestine information networks and several of the principal resistance movements, including the Armée secrète and the Mouvements Unis de la Résistance.
Brive-la-Gaillarde was the first city of Occupied France to liberate itself by its own means, on 15 August 1944. For this, the city received the “Croix de guerre 1939–1945” military decoration; the medieval centre is a commercial district with retail shops and various cafés. It is the location of the city hall, the main police station, the Labenche museum. One notable landmark outside the inner city is the Pont Cardinal, a bridge which used to be a crossing point for travelers from Paris to Toulouse; the most recent mayors of Brive-la-Gaillarde were: 1966–1995: Jean Charbonnel 1995–2008: Bernard Murat 2008–present: Philippe Nauche Brive-la-Gaillarde railway station offers connections to Limoges, Périgueux, Clermont-Ferrand and several regional destinations. The A20 motorway connects the A89 with Bordeaux. Brive–Souillac Airport lies south of the city, it was opened in 2010 to replace the older Brive-La Roche Airport. The city is home to CA Brive, it hosted the 2009 Junior World Rowing Championships.
Guillaume Dubois and statesman Pierre André Latreille, entomologist Jean-Baptiste Treilhard was a French jurist and politician at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century. Nicolas Ernault des Bruslys, born on 7 August 1757 in Brive-la-Gaillarde and died on 25 September 1809 in Reunion, is a French general of the Revolution and the Empire. Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, marshal of France Michel Labrousse, scholar of Roman history David Feuerwerker is a rabbi and professor of French Jewish history. Antoinette Feuerwerker Belgian lawyer and educator, wife of David Feuerwerker. Edmond Michelet, leader of the Movement Combat Limousin. Xavier Patier, civil servant and writer Cédric Villani, mathematician.