The term cultivar most refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Most cultivars arose in cultivation. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form; the world's agricultural food crops are exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield and resistance to disease, few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose origin or selection is due to intentional human activity. A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies, there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars.
In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to persons or organisations that introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be "distinct, uniform", "stable". To be "distinct", it must have characters that distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be "uniform" and "stable", the cultivar must retain these characters in repeated propagation; the naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet; the cultivar epithet is in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum'King Edward'.'King Edward' is the cultivar epithet, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.
The word cultivar originated from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that arose in cultivation, presently denominated cultigens. This distinction dates to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the "Father of Botany", keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton noted that Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution"; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature the Latin names in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus enumerated all plants known to him, either directly or from his extensive reading, he recognised the rank of varietas and he indicated these varieties with letters of the Greek alphabet, such as α, β, λ, before the varietal name, rather than using the abbreviation "var." as is the present convention. Most of the varieties that Linnaeus enumerated were of "garden" origin rather than being wild plants.
In time the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with variations, cultivated increased. In the nineteenth century many "garden-derived" plants were given horticultural names, sometimes in Latin and sometimes in a vernacular language. From circa the 1900s, cultivated plants in Europe were recognised in the Scandinavian and Slavic literature as stamm or sorte, but these words could not be used internationally because, by international agreement, any new denominations had to be in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international nomenclature was proposed for cultivated plants. Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell University in New York, United States created the word cultivar in 1923 when he wrote that: The cultigen is a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication – the plant is cultigenous. I now propose another name, for a botanical variety, or for a race subordinate to species, that has originated under cultivation, it is the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin.
In that essay, Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, but it was obvious to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, that realization appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new category of cultivar. Bailey created the word cultivar, assumed to be a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. Bailey never explicitly stated the etymology of cultivar, it has been suggested that it is instead a contraction of cultigen and variety, which seems correct; the neologism cultivar was promoted as "euphonious" and "free from ambiguity". The first Cultivated Plant Code of 1953 subsequently commended its use, by 1960 it had achieved common international acceptance; the words cultigen and cultivar may be confused with
Charleston red rice
Charleston red rice or Savannah red rice is a rice dish found along the Southeastern coastal regions of Georgia and South Carolina, known as red rice by natives of the region. This traditional meal was brought over to the U. S. by enslaved Africans originating from the West Coast of Africa. This cultural foodway is always synonymous with the Gullah or Geechee people and heritage that are still prevalent throughout the coastal regions of South Carolina and Georgia; the main component of the dish consists of the cooking of white rice with crushed tomatoes instead of water and small bits of bacon or smoked pork sausage. Celery, bell peppers, onions are the traditional vegetables used for seasoning; the dish bears resemblance to African dishes the Senegambian dish thieboudienne, suggesting a creolization of the dish from West Africa to the New World. It bears a resemblance to jollof rice. List of regional dishes of the United States
Loco moco is a dish featured in contemporary Hawaiian cuisine. There are many variations, but the traditional loco moco consists of white rice, topped with a hamburger patty, a fried egg, brown gravy. Variations may include chili, ham, kalua pork, Portuguese sausage, teriyaki beef, teriyaki chicken, mahi-mahi, shrimp and other meats. Loco Moco is the name of a Hawaiian-based restaurant chain that serves Hawaiian rice bowl dishes; the dish was created at the Lincoln Grill restaurants in Hilo, Hawaii, in 1949 by its proprietors, Richard Inouye and his wife Nancy, at the request of teenagers from the Lincoln Wreckers Sports club seeking something that differed from a sandwich, was inexpensive, yet could be prepared and served. They asked Nancy to put some rice in a bowl, a hamburger patty over the rice, top it with brown gravy; the egg came later. The teenagers named the dish Loco Moco after one of their members, George Okimoto, whose nickname was "Crazy". George Takahashi, studying Spanish at Hilo High School, suggested using Loco, Spanish for crazy.
They tacked on "moco" which "rhymed with loco and sounded good". To Spanish-speakers, the name can sound odd, given that they hear it as "crazy snot"; this dish was featured on the "Taste of Hawai'i" episode of Girl Meets Hawai'i, a Travel Channel show hosted by Samantha Brown. The episode features the dish being served at the popular restaurant, Hawaiian Style Cafe, in Waimea together with the plate lunch, another Hawaiian specialty dish; the loco moco was featured on a Honolulu-based episode of the Travel Channel show Man v. Food; the host, Adam Richman, tried this dish at the Hukilau Café, located in nearby Laie. Richman tried an off-the-menu loco moco at a San Francisco eatery called Namu Gaji on his 2014 show, Man Finds Food. In 2018 on a different episode of the revived Man v. Food, host Casey Webb tried a loaded version of the loco moco at Da Kitchen in Maui. Garbage Plate List of Hawaiian dishes List of regional dishes of the United States Okonomiyaki Gimla Shortridge, Barbara; the Taste of American Place: A Reader on Regional and Ethnic Foods, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-8476-8507-1.
A reprint of Kelly's original paper. Kelly, James, "Loco Moco: A Folk Dish in the Making", Social Process in Hawai'i, 30: 59–64. Hawaii Tribune-Herald article written by staff writer. September 23, 1981 edition
An heirloom plant, heirloom variety, heritage fruit, or heirloom vegetable is an old cultivar of a plant used for food, grown and maintained by gardeners and farmers in isolated or ethnic minority communities of the Western world. These were grown during earlier periods in human history, but are not used in modern large-scale agriculture. In some parts of the world, it is illegal to sell seeds of cultivars that are not listed as approved for sale; the Henry Doubleday Research Association, now known as Garden Organic, responded to this legislation by setting up the Heritage Seed Library to preserve seeds of as many of the older cultivars as possible. However, seed banks alone have not been able to provide sufficient insurance against catastrophic loss. In some jurisdictions, like Colombia, laws have been proposed that would make seed saving itself illegal. Many heirloom vegetables have kept their traits through open pollination, while fruit varieties such as apples have been propagated over the centuries through grafts and cuttings.
The trend of growing heirloom plants in gardens has been returning in popularity in North America and Europe. Before the industrialization of agriculture, a much wider variety of plant foods were grown for human consumption. During the 19th and early 20th centuries the diversity was huge. Old nursery catalogues were filled with plums, peaches and apples of numerous varieties. In modern agriculture in the industrialized world, most food crops are now grown in large, monocultural plots. In order to maximize consistency, few varieties of each type of crop are grown; these varieties are selected for their productivity, their ability to withstand mechanical picking and cross-country shipping, their tolerance to drought, frost, or pesticides. Heirloom gardening is a reaction against this trend. In the Global South, heirloom plants are still grown, for example, in the home gardens of South and Southeast Asia. Before World War II, the majority of produce grown in the United States was heirlooms. In the 21st century, numerous community groups all over the world are working to preserve historic varieties to make a wide variety of fruit trees available again to the home gardener, by renovating old orchards, sourcing historic fruit varieties and encouraging community participation.
The definition and use of the word heirloom to describe plants is fiercely debated. One school of thought places an date point on the cultivars. For instance, one school says the cultivar must be over 100 years old, others 50 years, others prefer the date of 1945, which marks the end of World War II and the beginning of widespread hybrid use by growers and seed companies. Many gardeners consider 1951 to be the latest year a plant could have originated and still be called an heirloom, since that year marked the widespread introduction of the first hybrid varieties, it was in the 1970s. Some heirloom varieties are much older. Another way of defining heirloom cultivars is to use the definition of the word heirloom in its truest sense. Under this interpretation, a true heirloom is a cultivar, nurtured and handed down from one family member to another for many generations. Additionally, there is another category of cultivars that could be classified as "commercial heirlooms": cultivars that were introduced many generations ago and were of such merit that they have been saved and handed down – if the seed company has gone out of business or otherwise dropped the line.
Additionally, many old commercial releases have been family heirlooms that a seed company obtained and introduced. Regardless of a person's specific interpretation, most authorities agree that heirlooms, by definition, must be open-pollinated, they may be open-pollinated varieties that were bred and stabilized using classic breeding practices. While there are no genetically modified tomatoes available for commercial or home use, it is agreed that no genetically modified organisms can be considered heirloom cultivars. Another important point of discussion is that without the ongoing growing and storage of heirloom plants, the seed companies and the government will control all seed distribution. Most, if not all, hybrid plants, if regrown, will not be the same as the original hybrid plant, thus ensuring the dependency on seed distributors for future crops; the heritage fruit trees that exist today are clonally descended from trees of antiquity. Heirloom roses are sometimes collected from vintage homes and from cemeteries, where they were once planted at gravesites by mourners and left undisturbed in the decades since.
Modern production methods and the rise in population have supplanted this practice. In the UK and Europe, it is thought that many heritage vegetable varieties have been lost since the 1970s, when EEC laws were passed making it illegal to sell any vegetable cultivar not on the national list of any EEC country; this was set up to help in eliminating dishonest seed suppliers selling one seed as another and to keep any given variety true. Thus, there were stringent tests to assess varieties, with a view to ensuring they remain the same from one generation to the next; these tests assess "distinctness", "uniformity", "stability". But since some heritage cultivars are not uniform from plant to plant, or indeed within a single plant—a single cultivar—this has been a sticking point. "Distinctness" has been a problem, because many cultivars have several names coming from different areas or countries (e.g. carrot
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, fish, or vegetables have been simmered. It can be eaten alone, but it is most used to prepare other dishes, such as soups and sauces. Commercially prepared liquid broths are available for chicken broth, beef broth, fish broth, vegetable broth. In North America, dehydrated meat stock in the form of tablets is called a bouillon cube. Industrially produced bouillon cubes were commercialized under the brand name Maggi in 1908, by Oxo in 1910. Using commercially prepared broths saves home and professional cooks time in the kitchen. By 2013, broth labeled as "bone broth" became popularized as a health food trend or fad in certain parts of the United States. Many cooks and food writers use the terms stock interchangeably. In 1974, James Beard wrote emphatically that stock and bouillon "are all the same thing". While many draw a distinction between stock and broth, the details of the distinction differ. One possibility is that stocks are made from animal bones, as opposed to meat, therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture.
Another distinction, sometimes made is that stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor. A third possible distinction is that stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone. In Britain, "broth" can refer to a soup which includes solid pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables, whereas "stock" would refer to the purely liquid base. Traditionally, according to this definition, broth contained some form of fish. Bouillon is the French word for "broth", is used as a synonym for it. In the late 18th century, Benjamin Thompson, an American-born physicist in service to the Elector of Bavaria and mass-produced a nutritious, solidified stock of bones, inexpensive meat by-products and other ingredients, using it to feed the Elector's army, his invention was the precursor of the bouillon cube. Broth has been made for many years using the animal bones which, are boiled in a cooking pot for long periods to extract the flavor and nutrients.
The bones may not have meat still on them. Egg whites may be added during simmering; the egg whites will coagulate, trapping sediment and turbidity into an strained mass. Not allowing the original preparation to boil will increase the clarity. Roasted bones will add a rich flavor to the broth but a dark color. A clarified broth eaten as a soup is called a consommé. In East Asia, a form of kelp called kombu is used as the basis for broths. In the Maldives the tuna broth known as garudiya is a basic food item, but it is not eaten as a soup in the general sense of the term. By 2013, "bone broth" had become a popular health food trend, due to the resurgence in popularity of dietary fat over sugar, interest in "functional foods" to which "culinary medicinals" such as turmeric and ginger could be added. Bone broth bars, bone broth home delivery services, bone broth carts and freezer packs grew in popularity in the United States; the fad was heightened by the 2014 book Nourishing Broth, in which authors Sally Fallon Morell and Kaayla T. Daniel state that the broth's nutrient density has a variety of health effects: boosting the immune system.
However, there is no scientific evidence to support many of the claims made for bone broth. For example, while bone broths do contain collagen, there is no evidence that consuming bone broths improves joint pain or improve skin, because dietary collagen is broken down into amino acids, which become building blocks for body tissues, is not transported directly to joints or skin in the form in which it is ingested. In addition, the fact that the broth is derived from bone does not mean that therefore it will build bone or prevent osteoporosis, as the bones release little calcium into the broth when prepared. There is little evidence that the gelatin. A few small studies have found some possible benefit for chicken broth, such as the clearing of nasal passages. Chicken soup may reduce inflammation. Canja de galinha Bouillon cube Dashi Ramen Rosół Scotch broth Bouillon, a Haitian soup Court-bouillon