In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a composed work. It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration in that the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra, concert band, or other musical ensemble. Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations, endings... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety". Arrangement and transcriptions of classical and serious music go back to the early history of this genre. In particular, music written for the piano has undergone this treatment, as it has been arranged for orchestra or concert band. Pictures at an Exhibition, a suite of ten piano pieces by Modest Mussorgsky, has been arranged over twenty times, notably by Maurice Ravel. Due to his lack of expertise in orchestration, the American composer George Gershwin had his Rhapsody in Blue arranged and orchestrated by Ferde Grofé.
Popular music recordings include parts for brass horn sections, bowed strings, other instruments that were added by arrangers and not composed by the original songwriters. Some pop arrangers add sections using full orchestra, though this is less common due to the expense. Popular music arrangements may be considered to include new releases of existing songs with a new musical treatment; these changes can include alterations to tempo, key and other musical elements. Well-known examples include Joe Cocker's version of the Beatles' "With a Little Help from My Friends," Cream's "Crossroads", Ike and Tina Turner's version of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Proud Mary"; the American group Vanilla Fudge and British group Yes based their early careers on radical re-arrangements of contemporary hits. Bonnie Pointer performed disco and Motown-themed versions of "Heaven Must Have Sent You." Remixes, such as in dance music, can be considered arrangements. Though arrangers may contribute to finished musical products, they hold no legal claim to their work for the purpose of copyright and royalty payments.
Arrangements for small jazz combos are informal and uncredited. Larger ensembles have had greater requirements for notated arrangements, though the early Count Basie big band is known for its many head arrangements, so called because they were worked out by the players themselves and never written down. Most arrangements for big bands, were written down and credited to a specific arranger, as with arrangements by Sammy Nestico and Neal Hefti for Count Basie's big bands. Don Redman made innovations in jazz arranging as a part of Fletcher Henderson's orchestra in the 1920s. Redman's arrangements introduced a more intricate melodic presentation and soli performances for various sections of the big band. Benny Carter became Henderson's primary arranger in the early 1930s, becoming known for his arranging abilities in addition to his previous recognition as a performer. Beginning in 1938, Billy Strayhorn became an arranger of great renown for the Duke Ellington orchestra. Jelly Roll Morton is sometimes considered the earliest jazz arranger.
While he toured around the years 1912 to 1915, he wrote down parts to enable "pickup bands" to perform his compositions. Big-band arrangements are informally called charts. In the swing era they were either arrangements of popular songs or they were new compositions. Duke Ellington's and Billy Strayhorn's arrangements for the Duke Ellington big band were new compositions, some of Eddie Sauter's arrangements for the Benny Goodman band and Artie Shaw's arrangements for his own band were new compositions as well, it became more common to arrange sketchy jazz combo compositions for big band after the bop era. After 1950, the big bands declined in number. However, several bands continued and arrangers provided renowned arrangements. Gil Evans wrote a number of large-ensemble arrangements in the late 1950s and early 1960s intended for recording sessions only. Other arrangers of note include Vic Schoen, Pete Rugolo, Oliver Nelson, Johnny Richards, Billy May, Thad Jones, Maria Schneider, Bob Brookmeyer, Lou Marini, Nelson Riddle, Ralph Burns, Billy Byers, Gordon Jenkins, Ray Conniff, Henry Mancini, Ray Reach, Vince Mendoza, Claus Ogerman.
In the 21st century, the big-band arrangement has made a modest comeback. Gordon Goodwin, Roy Hargrove, Christian McBride have all rolled out new big bands with both original compositions and new arrangements of standard tunes; the string section is a body of instruments composed of various bowed stringed instruments. By the 19th century orchestral music in Europe had standardized the string section into the following homogeneous instrumental groups: first violins, second violins, violas and double basses; the string section in a multi-sectioned orchestra is referred sometimes to as the "string choir."The harp is a stringed instrument, but is not a member of nor homogeneous with the violin family and is not considered part of the string choir. Samuel Adler classifies the harp as a plucked string instrument in the same category as the guitar, banjo, or zither. Like the harp these instruments do not belong to the violin family and are not homogeneous with the string choir. In modern arranging these instruments are considered part of the rhythm section.
The electric bass and upright string bass—depending on t
Tuvia Bielski was the leader of the Bielski group, Jewish partisans who set up a camp for Jews fleeing the Holocaust during World War II. Their camp was situated in the Naliboki forest, part of Poland between World War I and World War II, and, now in western Belarus. Bielski grew up in the only Polish Jewish family in Stankiewicze; the small village in Eastern Poland is located between towns of Lida and Navahrudak, both of which housed Jewish ghettos during World War II. Tuvia was the son of Beila Bielski, who had 12 children: 10 boys and two girls. Tuvia was the third eldest, his brothers Asael and Aron were to become members of his partisan group. During the First World War, Bielski served as an interpreter for the Imperial German Army, which were occupying the western territories of the Russian Empire. A speaker of Yiddish, he learned to speak the German language from these men and remembered it all his life. In 1927, he was recruited into the Polish Army, where he became a corporal in the 30th Infantry Battalion.
After completing his military service, Bielski returned home. In an effort to add to his family's income, he rented another mill; this income was still inadequate, so in 1929, at the age of 23, he married an older woman named Rifka who owned a general store and a large house. The couple lived in the nearby small town of Subotniki. During the Soviet occupation in 1939, Bielski feared that he would be arrested by the NKVD due to his "bourgeois capitalist" occupation, so he moved to Lida. Before Tuvia left Subotniki he urged Rifka, to join him in the move to Lida, she refused. In Soviet-controlled Lida, Bielski fell in love with another woman named Sonia Warshavsky; the love affair became serious. In late 1939, Bielski divorced his wife and married Sonia, though they were not yet "officially" married due to wartime conditions. Sonia was killed while taking shelter with others in a peasant home. Not long after, Tuvia married Lila "Lilka" Tiktin, only 17 at the time, they stayed married until his death 44 years later.
When Operation Barbarossa broke out, Tuvia and Asael were called up by their army units to fight against the Nazi German occupiers. Tuvia recalls: "Suddenly about fifty planes flew over the town dropping incendiary bombs. In a few minutes the entire place was on fire; the commander called us in, ordered us to leave the burning town and regroup in a forest about five kilometers from there. We were to continue working. We carried out his command but soon after we began our job in the forest another wave of planes flew over the area and set the woods on fire; the commander called us in and said:'Friends, you are on your own!'" After the units disbanded, the Bielski brothers fled to Stankiewicze. In early July 1941, a German army unit arrived in Stankiewicze and Jewish residents were moved to a ghetto in Nowogródek; the four Bielski brothers managed to flee to the nearby forest. Their parents, two of their brothers and other family members, including Rifka and Zus' wife and child, were killed in the ghetto on December 8, 1941.
Tuvia Bielski led a group of Jewish partisans. Although always hunted by Nazis, Bielski's group continued to grow, they periodically raided the ghettos to help people escape. They lived in the forests for over two years, in their camp, they built a school, a hospital, a nursery; as leader of the Bielski partisans, his aim was to save the lives of Jews, where he could make a large impact, rather than getting involved with skirmishes with Nazis, where their effect would be negligible. Thus, they did not explicitly seek to attack railroads and roads that the German Nazis were using as supply routes, but did sometimes carry out such attacks in order to save Jews at risk of being killed by Nazis in the Holocaust; the Bielski partisans saved the lives of more than 1,200 Jews. In 1944, Asael Bielski was killed in battle in Germany. After the war, Tuvia and their wives went to Israel via Romania, immigrated to the United States in 1956, they joined their older brother Walter in New York. Tuvia and Zus ran a small trucking firm in New York City for 30 years.
He married another Jewish escapee. They had three children: sons Michael and Robert, daughter Ruth, ten grandchildren. Granddaughter Sharon Rennert made a documentary about her family called In Our Hands: The Legacy of the Bielski Partisans; when Tuvia died in 1987, he was nearly penniless. He was buried on Long Island; the exact grave is at Har Tamir - a part of Har HaMenuchot. The following location is in Hebrew using Latin letters: Gush taf-bet, Chelka daled, Shura 19, kever 11. Daniel Craig portrayed Tuvia in the film Defiance, criticised in Poland due to its omission of the alleged involvement of the Bielski group in a massacre of Polish civilians conducted by Soviet-aligned partisans in Naliboki; the Naliboki massacre was the subject of an official inquiry by the Polish Institute of National Remembrance's Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation. As of 2009, the investigation had not concluded. Bielski partisan survivors have denied any involvement. Tuvia Bielski at Find a Grave Tuvia Bielski: Partisan Leader Voices on Antisemitism Interview with Daniel Craig from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Holocaust Res
Tomáš Vandas is a Czech far-right politician, chairman of the non-parliamentary Workers' Party of Social Justice since 2003. Vandas was born in Prague. Having completed a plumbing course, he continued his education at the High School of Industrial Technology, he is a graduate of the Jan Amos Komensky University of Prague, where he achieved a bachelor's degree in social and mass communication. His first job was in public transport services, he now works as a quality manager in a construction company. Vandas began his political activism in 1995. From 1997-98 he worked for the Coalition for Republic - Republican Party of Czechoslovakia as an assistant to an MP, as a member of the party's audit committee. After the parliamentary elections in 1998 he became general secretary to SPR-RSČ. In 2003 he was a founding member of the Workers' Party, has been its chairman since 31 May 2003. Vandas was unsuccessful, receiving 5.13 % of the vote. In March 2012, Vandas announced his intention to run for Czech president in the 2013 direct presidential elections, but failed to collect the required 50,000 signatures.
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