For the gadget, see wireless tour guide system. A tour guide or a tourist guide is a person who provides assistance, information on cultural and contemporary heritage to people on organized tours and individual clients at educational establishments and historical sites, at venues of other significant interest, attractions sites. In 18th-century Japan, a traveler could pay for a tour guide or consult guide books such as Kaibara Ekken's Keijō Shōran; the CEN definition for "tourist guide" – part of the work by CEN on definitions for terminology within the tourism industry – is a "person who guides visitors in the language of their choice and interprets the cultural and natural heritage of an area, which person possesses an area-specific qualification issued and/or recognized by the appropriate authority". CEN defines a "to manager" as a "person who manages and supervises the itinerary on behalf of the tour operator, ensuring the programme is carried out as described in the tour operator's literature and sold to the traveller/consumer and who gives local practical information".
In Europe, tourist guides are represented by FEG, the European Federation of Tourist Guide Associations. In Europe, the tourist guiding qualification is specific to every country. In all cases it is embedded in the educational and training ethic of that country. EN15565 is a European Standard for the Qualification of Tourist Guides. In Australia, tour guides are qualified to a minimum of Certificate III Guiding, they belong to a couple of organisations, notably the Professional Tour Guide Association of Australia and Guides of Australia. In Japan, tour guides are required to pass a certification exam by the Commissioner of the Japan Tourism Agency and register with the relevant prefectures. Non-licensed guides caught performing guide-interpreter activities can face a fine up to 500,000 YenIn India its mandatory to own the license approved by the Ministry of Tourism to work as a tourist guide; the government provides the license to regional level tour guide and runs a Regional Level Guide Training Program.
These programs and training sessions are conducted under the guidance of Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management or other government recognized institutes. 3. Qualities of a tour guide: travel expert in travel industry Notes Salazar, Noel B.. Tourism and glocalization: ‘Local’ tour guiding. Annals of Tourism Research, 32, 628-646. Salazar, Noel B.. Touristifying Tanzania: Local guides, global discourse. Annals of Tourism Research, 33, 833-852. Salazar, Noel B.. "Enough stories!” Asian tourism redefining the roles of Asian tour guides. Civilisations, 57, 207-222. Salazar, Noel B.. Envisioning Eden: Mobilizing imaginaries in tourism and beyond. Oxford: Berghahn. MacCannell, Dean; the Ethics of Sightseeing. University of California Press, 2011. Pond, Kathleen Lingle; the Professional Guide: Dynamics of Tour Guiding. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. Ruitenberg, Claudia W. "Learning by Walking: Non-Formal Education as Curatorial Practice and Intervention in Public Space." International Journal of Lifelong Education 31, no. 3: 261-275.
Wynn, Jonathan R. The Tour Guide: Walking and Talking New York. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011. Wynn, Jonathan R. "City Tour Guides: Urban Alchemists at Work." City & Community 9, no. 2. World Federation of Tourist Guide Associations European Federation of Tourist Guide Associations
Veronica Perrule Dobson
Veronica Perrule Dobson, is an Australian Aboriginal Eastern Arrernte woman, from the Alice Springs area, respected for her cultural and linguistic knowledge. She is an interpreter and teacher of the Arrernte language, an Arrernte elder and traditional owner, linguist and ecologist, she was instrumental in establishing Eastern Arrernte as a written language. Veronica was born at Arltunga, central Australia in 1944, she lived on the Arltunga Mission for 10 years. Her family re-located to Lytentye Apurte mission she moved to Alice Springs at the age of 16 where she worked in domestic service and in some of the local factories. Veronica has worked as a translator and educator of the Arrernte language and culture for many years, she co-authored a dictionary of Arrernte helping to establish Arrernte as a written language and has written educational materials for teaching the language. She was a pioneer in the development of Arrernte language curriculum materials at Yipirinya, an indigenous school in Alice Springs.
Veronica is a botanist and ecologist drawing on her vast knowledge of Arrernte culture, local plants and their uses. She knows the food and medicines of the Arrernte lands intimately and has co-authored books on botany and worked with scientists on projects about plants, water quality, bush fire management, Arrente concepts of relatedness, the Native Seed Bank, has contributed to a number of reports and papers on indigenous ecology, she has worked with staff of Central Land Council, NT Parks and Wildlife and CSIRO. She helped establish the bush medicine garden at the Olive Pink Botanic Garden and the Alice Springs Desert Park in central Australia, she served on The Merne Altyerre-ipenhe Reference Group advising on ethical guidelines for the bush foods industry in central Australia. She has been awarded for her community service as a research collaborator, she shares her natural history knowledge with the public. Dobson, Anwerne alheke yerrampeke = We went for honeyants, School of Australian Linguistics, retrieved 14 July 2015 Dobson, Ingkwerlpe, nthakenbe iteme = How Aboriginal prepared bush tobacco, School of Australian Linguistics, retrieved 14 July 2015 Henderson, John.
T. IAD Press, ISBN 978-1-86465-095-2CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Dobson, Veronica. T. IAD Press, ISBN 978-1-86465-130-0CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Walsh, Fiona. Things that birds let you know about, posters 2011 Member of the Order of Australia for her services to the Indigenous Community as an Arrernte elder and traditional owner, as a linguist and ecologist, for the preservation of Aboriginal language and culture in Central Australia. 2011 Northern Territory Research and Innovation Award co-recipient of Desert Knowledge Award with Myra Ah Chee, M Kemarre Turner, Lorna Wilson, Rayleen Brown, Bess Price, Gina Smith, Maree Meredith, Josie Douglas and Fiona Walsh 2013 Companion of the Charles Darwin University 2015 NAIDOC Female Elder of the Year
Australian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Australia. Although English has no official status in the Constitution, Australian English is the country's national and de facto official language as it is the first language of the majority of the population. Australian English began to diverge from British English after the First Settlers, who set up the Colony of New South Wales, arrived in 1788. By 1820, their speech was recognised as being different from British English. Australian English arose from the intermingling of early settlers, who were from a great variety of mutually intelligible dialectal regions of the British Isles, developed into a distinct variety of English which differs from other varieties of English in vocabulary, pronunciation, register and spelling; the earliest form of Australian English was spoken by the children of the colonists in early New South Wales. This first generation of native-born children created a new dialect, to become the language of the nation.
The Australian-born children in the new colony were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British Isles, in particular from Ireland and South East England. The native-born children in the colony created the new dialect from the speech they heard around them, with it expressed peer solidarity; when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech. A quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in Ireland, some in Great Britain. Many, if not most, of the Irish spoke Irish and either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from non-English speaking parts of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands and parts of Cornwall. Records from the early 19th century show this distinct dialect in the colonies after the first settlement in 1788. Peter Miller Cunningham's 1827 book Two Years in New South Wales, described the distinctive accent and vocabulary of the native-born colonists, that differed from that of their parents and with a strong London influence.
Anthony Burgess writes that "Australian English may be thought of as a kind of fossilised Cockney of the Dickensian era." The first of the Australian gold rushes, in the 1850s, began a large wave of immigration, during which about two per cent of the population of the United Kingdom emigrated to the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. According to linguist Bruce Moore, "the major input of the various sounds that went into constructing the Australian accent was from south-east England"; some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian English—mainly as names for places and fauna and local culture. Many such are localised, do not form part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo, budgerigar, wallaby and so on have become international. Other examples are hard yakka; the former is used for attracting attention, which travels long distances. Cooee is a notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagera/Yagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region.
Of Aboriginal origin is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin English, meaning "dead", with some extension to "broken" or "useless". Many towns or suburbs of Australia have been influenced or named after Aboriginal words; the best-known example is the capital, named after a local language word meaning "meeting place". Among the changes starting in the 19th century were the introduction of words, spellings and usages from North American English; the words imported included some considered to be Australian, such as bushwhacker and squatter. This American influence continued with the popularity of American films and the influx of American military personnel in World War II; the primary way in which Australian English is distinctive from other varieties of English is through its unique pronunciation. It shares most similarity with other Southern Hemisphere accents, in particular New Zealand English. Like most dialects of English it is distinguished by its vowel phonology; the vowels of Australian English can be divided according to length.
The long vowels, which include monophthongs and diphthongs correspond to the tense vowels used in analyses of Received Pronunciation as well as its centring diphthongs. The short vowels, consisting only of monophthongs, correspond to the RP lax vowels. There exist pairs of long and short vowels with overlapping vowel quality giving Australian English phonemic length distinction, unusual amongst the various dialects of English, though not unknown elsewhere, such as in regional south-eastern dialects of the UK and eastern seaboard dialects in the US; as with New Zealand English, the weak-vowel merger is complete in Australian English: unstressed /ɪ/ is merged into /ə/, unless it is followed by a velar consonant. There is little variation in the sets of consonants used in different English dialects but there are variations in how these consonants are used. Australian English is no exception. Australian English is non-rhotic. However, a linking /r/ can occur when a word that has a final <r> in the spelling comes before another word that starts with a vowel.
An intrusive /r/ may be inserted before a vowel in words that do not have <r> in the spelling in certain environments, namely after the long vowel /oː/ and after wor
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment. Every culture has its own stories or narratives, which are shared as a means of entertainment, cultural preservation or instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot and narrative point of view; the term "storytelling" can refer in a narrow sense to oral storytelling and in a looser sense to techniques used in other media to unfold or disclose the narrative of a story. Storytelling predates writing; the earliest forms of storytelling were oral combined with gestures and expressions. In addition to being part of religious rituals, some archaeologists believe rock art may have served as a form of storytelling for many ancient cultures; the Australian aboriginal people painted symbols from stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was told using a combination of oral narrative, rock art and dance, which bring understanding and meaning of human existence through remembrance and enactment of stories.
People have used the carved trunks of living trees and ephemeral media to record stories in pictures or with writing. Complex forms of tattooing may represent stories, with information about genealogy and social status. With the advent of writing and the use of stable, portable media, stories were recorded and shared over wide regions of the world. Stories have been carved, painted, printed or inked onto wood or bamboo and other bones, clay tablets, palm-leaf books, bark cloth, silk and other textiles, recorded on film and stored electronically in digital form. Oral stories continue to be created, improvisationally by impromptu storytellers, as well as committed to memory and passed from generation to generation, despite the increasing popularity of written and televised media in much of the world. Modern storytelling has a broad purview. In addition to its traditional forms, it has extended itself to representing history, personal narrative, political commentary and evolving cultural norms.
Contemporary storytelling is widely used to address educational objectives. New forms of media are creating new ways for people to record and consume stories. Tools for asynchronous group communication can provide an environment for individuals to reframe or recast individual stories into group stories. Games and other digital platforms, such as those used in interactive fiction or interactive storytelling, may be used to position the user as a character within a bigger world. Documentaries, including interactive web documentaries, employ storytelling narrative techniques to communicate information about their topic. Self-revelatory stories, created for their cathartic and therapeutic effect, are growing in their use and application, as in Psychodrama, Drama Therapy and Playback Theatre. Storytelling is used as a means by which to precipitate psychological and social change in the practice of transformative arts. Oral traditions of storytelling are found in several civilisations. Storytelling was used to explain natural phenomena, bards told stories of creation and developed a pantheon of gods and myths.
Oral stories passed from one generation to the next and storytellers were regarded as healers, spiritual guides, cultural secrets keepers and entertainers. Oral storytelling came in various forms including songs, poetry and dance. Albert Bates Lord examined oral narratives from field transcripts of Yugoslav oral bards collected by Milman Parry in the 1930s, the texts of epics such as the Odyssey and Beowulf. Lord found that a large part of the stories consisted of text, improvised during the telling process. Lord identified two types of story vocabulary; the first he called "formulas": "rosy-fingered dawn", "the wine-dark sea" and other specific set phrases had long been known of in Homer and other oral epics. Lord, discovered that across many story traditions 90% of an oral epic is assembled from lines which are repeated verbatim or which use one-for-one word substitutions. In other words, oral stories are built out of set phrases which have been stockpiled from a lifetime of hearing and telling stories.
The other type of story vocabulary is a set sequence of story actions that structure a tale. Just as the teller of tales proceeds line-by-line using formulas, so he proceeds from event-to-event using themes. One near-universal theme is repetition, as evidenced in Western folklore with the "rule of three": Three brothers set out, three attempts are made, three riddles are asked. A theme can be as simple as a specific set sequence describing the arming of a hero, starting with shirt and trousers and ending with headdress and weapons. A theme can be large enough to be a plot component. For example: a hero proposes a journey to a dangerous place / he disguises himself / his disguise fools everybody / except for a common person of little account / who recognizes him / the commoner becomes the hero's ally, showing unexpected resources of skill or initiative. A theme does not belong to a specific story, but may be found with minor variation in many different stories. Themes may be no more than handy prefabricated parts for constructing a tale, or they may represent universal truths – ritual-based, religious truths, as James Frazer saw in The Golden Bough, or archetypal, psychological truths, as Joseph Campbell describes in The Hero With a Thousand Faces.
The story was described by Reynolds
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in Newbury Park, California. It publishes more than 1,000 journals, more than 800 books a year, reference works and electronic products covering business, social sciences, science and medicine. SAGE owns and publishes under the imprints of Corwin Press, CQ Press, Learning Matters, Adam Matthew Digital, it has more than 1,500 employees in its principal offices in Los Angeles, New Delhi, Washington DC, Melbourne. SAGE was the Independent Publishers Guild Academic and Professional Publisher of the Year in 2012. SAGE was founded in 1965 in New York City by Sara Miller with Macmillan Publishers executive George D. McCune as a "mentor". SAGE relocated to Southern California in 1966, after McCune married. Sara Miller McCune remained president for 18 years, shifting to board chairman in 1984; the couple continued to develop the company together until George McCune's death in 1990. SAGE Publishing was a founding member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association when it was established in 2008.
In November 2013, OASPA reviewed SAGE's membership after the Journal of International Medical Research published a false and intentionally flawed paper created and submitted by a reporter for the journal Science as part of a "sting" to test the effectiveness of the peer-review processes of open access journals. SAGE's membership was reinstated at the end of the six month review period following changes to the journal's editorial processes. Journals published by SAGE Cambridge University Press v. Patton, a copyright infringement case in which SAGE Publications is a plaintiff Official website
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964, is the country's most circulated nationally distributed newspaper, available in each state and territory. It rivals with other nationally distributed newspapers like the business-focused Australian Financial Review and The Saturday Paper; the Australian is owned by News Corp Australia. The Australian is published by News Corp Australia, an asset of News Corp, which owns the sole daily newspapers in Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin, the most circulated metropolitan daily newspapers in Sydney and Melbourne. News Corp's Chairman and Founder is Rupert Murdoch; the Australian integrates content from overseas newspapers owned by News Corp Australia's international parent News Corp, including The Wall Street Journal and The Times of London. The first edition of The Australian was published by Rupert Murdoch on 15 July 1964, becoming the third national newspaper in Australia following shipping newspaper Daily Commercial News and Australian Financial Review.
Unlike other original Murdoch newspapers, it is not a tabloid publication. At the time, a national paper was considered commercially unfeasible, as newspapers relied on local advertising for their revenue; the Australian was printed in Canberra plates flown to other cities for copying. From its inception the paper struggled for financial viability and ran at a loss for several decades; the Australian's first editor was Maxwell Newton, before leaving the newspaper within a year, was succeeded by Walter Kommer, by Adrian Deamer. Under his editorship The Australian encouraged female journalists, was the first mainstream daily newspaper to hire an Aboriginal reporter, John Newfong. During the 1975 election, campaigning against the Whitlam government by its owner led to the newspaper's journalists striking over editorial direction. Editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell was appointed in 2002 and retired on 11 December 2015. In May 2010, the newspaper launched. In October 2011 The Australian announced that it was planning to become the first general newspaper in Australia to introduce a paywall, with the introduction of a $2.95 per week charge for readers to view premium content on its website, mobile phone and tablet applications.
The paywall was launched on 24 October, with a free 3 month trial. In September 2017 The Australian launched their Chinese website. In October 2018 it was announced that Chris Dore, former editor of The Daily Telegraph, would be taking over as editor-in-chief. Daily sections include National News followed by Worldwide News and Business News. Contained within each issue is a prominent op/ed section, including regular columnists and non-regular contributors. Other regular sections include Technology, Features, Legal Affairs, Defence, Horse-Racing, The Arts, Health and Higher Education. A Travel & Indulgence section is included on Saturdays, along with The Inquirer, an in-depth analysis of major stories of the week, alongside much political commentary. Saturday lift-outs include Review, focusing on books, arts and television, The Weekend Australian Magazine, the only national weekly glossy insert magazine. A glossy magazine, Wish, is published on the first Friday of the month. "The Australian has long maintained a focus on issues relating to Aboriginal disadvantage."
It devotes attention to the information technology and mining industries, as well as the science and politics of climate change. It has published numerous "special reports" into Australian energy policy; the Australian Literary Review was a monthly supplement from September 2006 to October 2011. Former editor Paul Kelly stated in 1991 that "The Australian has established itself in the marketplace as a newspaper that supports economic libertarianism". Laurie Clancy asserted in 2004 that the newspaper "is conservative in tone and oriented toward business. Former editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell has said that the editorial and op-ed pages of the newspaper are centre-right. In 2007 Crikey described the newspaper as in support of the Liberal Party and the then-Coalition government, but has pragmatically supported Labor governments in the past as well. In 2007 The Australian announced their support for the Rudd Australian Labor Party in the Federal election; the Australian presents varying views on climate change, publishing articles by those who disagree with the scientific consensus such as Ian Plimer, authors who agree with the scientific consensus such as Tim Flannery and Bjørn Lomborg.
A 2011 study of the previous seven years of articles claimed that four out of every five articles were opposed to taking action on climate change. In 2010 the ABC's Media Watch presenter Paul Barry accused The Australian of waging a campaign against the Australian Greens, the Greens' federal leader Bob Brown wrote that The Australian has "stepped out of the fourth estate by seeing itself as a determinant of democracy in Australia." In response, The Australian opined that "Greens leader Bob Brown has accused The Australian of trying to wreck the alliance between the Greens and Labor. We wear Senator Brown's criticism with pride. We believe he and his Green colleagues are hypocrites.
Kings Canyon (Northern Territory)
Kings Canyon is a canyon in the Northern Territory of Australia located at the western end of the George Gill Range about 323 kilometres southwest of Alice Springs and about 1,316 kilometres south of Darwin within the Watarrka National Park. The walls of Kings Canyon are over 100 metres high, with Kings Creek at the bottom. Part of the gorge is a sacred Aboriginal site and visitors are discouraged from leaving the walking tracks. Three walks exist at Kings Canyon; the two km and one-hour Kings Creek Walk traces the bottom of the gorge. At the end of the walk is a platform, with views of the canyon walls above; the six km Kings Canyon Rim Walk traces the top of the canyon and takes three to four hours to complete. A steep climb at the beginning of the walk, which locals call "Heartbreak Hill", takes visitors up to the top, with views of the gorge below and of the surrounding landscape. About half way during the walk, a detour descends to the Garden of Eden, a permanent waterhole surrounded by plant life.
The last half of the walk passes through a maze of weathered sandstone domes, reminiscent of the Bungle Bungle. A slow descent brings the visitor back to the starting point; the loop can be done in reverse, but the National Park Rangers encourage visitors to walk in one direction. Access to the walk may be restricted during hot weather; the 22 km Giles Track connects Kings Canyon to Kathleen Springs and is popular with more adventurous hikers. Birds that can be seen on the Kings Canyon Rim walk include spinifex pigeon, zebra finch, grey-headed honeyeater, dusky grasswren, black-breasted buzzard and peregrine falcon. Kings Canyon Solar Power Station was a photovoltaic power station in the Northern Territory, with a generating capacity of 225 kWp and electricity production of 372,000 kWh of electricity per annum, it was the largest single installation of its kind in Australia and began operation in December 2003. It has been shut down since December 2015 due to the local tourist resort installing its own generators.
Kings Creek Station