Arriva London is a bus company operating services in Greater London. It operates services under contract to Transport for London, it was formed in 1998 from a fusion of separate Arriva subsidiaries Grey-Green, Leaside Buses, Kentish Bus, London & Country and South London Transport. Operations are split between two registered companies, Arriva London North Limited and Arriva London South Limited; the origins of Arriva London can be traced back to 1980 when the Cowie Group purchased the Grey-Green coach business in London. In February 1987, Grey-Green commenced operating bus routes in north and east London under contract to London Regional Transport. Meanwhile, on 1 April 1989 London Buses was divided into 11 separate business units, two of which were Leaside Buses and South London Transport; as part of the privatisation of London bus services, the Cowie Group purchased these business units in September 1994 and January 1995. On 1 August 1996, the Cowie Group purchased British Bus, which owned the Kentish Bus and London & Country businesses that operated London bus services.
In November 1997, the Cowie Group was rebranded as Arriva. Arriva London North Limited operates eleven bus garages; as of November 2019 Palmers Green operated routes 34, 102, 141, 329 and 340. Opened in July 1912 by the London General Omnibus Company to house their Central London bus fleet operating in competition with the MET trams. Just before World War II the allocation at Palmers Green was AEC Regents, whilst afterwards it was allocated AEC Regent III RT, RTL, RTW and SRTs the only garage to be allocated all four standard double deck types, although none could fit in the garage until the roof could be raised by 10 inches, completed in 1952 after a process taking 20 weeks; the garage was further modernised in 1974. AEC Routemasters arrived in 1969 replacing the RTs, but the RTs lasted there until 1978. One man operated buses in the form of AEC Regal VIs began arriving and were followed in time by AEC Swifts, Daimler Fleetlines, MCW Metrobuses; the Routemasters lasted on route 29 until the late 1980s, in 1994 the allocation was 51 MCW Metrobuses.
In latter years the allocation has increased and other than Metrobuses, Volvo B10Ms and Alexander ALX400 bodied DAF DB250LFs have been allocated. As at November 2019, Ash Grove bus garage operated routes 78, 106, 254. One of three new garages opened in 1981 by London Buses at a cost of £3.5 million, it had space for 140 buses undercover and a further 30 in the yard. The roof was unusual in being carried by 10 35-ton triangular trusses, said to be the largest in the UK, supported on reinforced concrete columns. Although technically in Hackney, buses showed "CAMBRIDGE HEATH Ash Grove Garage" on their blinds. On opening the garage took over Hackney's operation of Red Arrow routes 502 and 513 using brand new Leyland Nationals, stored at the garage, the entire Hackney and Dalston allocations. Ash Grove found itself in the London Forest operation, had a reputation for staff militancy and closed in 1991; the garage was reopened in 1994 by Kentish Bus to operate their Leyton area route gains, although they referred to it as Cambridge Heath.
It was used over the years to house stored vehicles for the London Transport Museum, again in 2000 to store additional AEC Routemasters, acquired to supplement shortages in London. In 2000 it was reopened by the London Buses subsidiary East Thames Buses which took over the former Harris Bus routes after that company ran into financial difficulties. Hackney Community Transport moved into the garage yard in recent times to house its routes won in the London area although East Thames Buses moved to new premises in Mandela Way and were replaced at the garage by Arriva's new Mercedes-Benz Citaro articulated buses for route 38 following the conversion from Routemasters in November 2005. On 27 April 2013, Arriva London commenced operating route 106. In addition, from May 2014, route 38 was operated with New Routemasters. On 26 September 2015, route 168 was passed to Metroline; as at March 2019, Tottenham garage operated routes 19, 41, 123, 149, 230, 243, 341, N19 and N41. Tottenham garage was built in 1913 by the MET to run buses to support their tram network.
The buses were requisitioned during World War I, between 1917-1919 the garage was loaned to AEC. Before World War II in 1939 the allocation consisted of ST, STL and LTs, but during the war it was the first garage to receive utility Guy Arabs, in 1949 London's first 8 ft wide buses; when route 236 moved with its RFs to Dalston in 1971 it signalled an absence of single deckers at the garage that would last until 2001 when route W4 was won. MCW Metrobuses and AEC Routemasters were the staple diet of the garage for many years until the new Alexander ALX400 bodied DAF DB250LFs arrived; the final Routemasters left Tottenham in September 2004 when route 73 was converted to Mercedes-Benz Citaro articulated bus operation and moved to Lea Valley. However, Tottenham has retained a single Routemaster for the Arriva London Heritage fleet for use at shows and special events, it is the most famous too, being the first production Routemaster, RM5. As at March 2019, Clapton garage operated routes 38, 242 and N38.
As at October 2017, Barking garage operated routes 150, 173, 175, 325, 368 and 673. Barking garage was opened in 1992 by Grey-Green to meet the demands of their expanding North East London operations. Dix Coaches was a subsidiary of Grey-Green operating from a base in the Dagenham area, which moved to the new garage on opening, hence the DX code. Route 135 was taken over by Docklands Buses on 23 May 2015. On 30 April 2016, Arriva London too
Elizabeth Zelinski is an American college professor known for her expertise in gerontechnology and cognition. She is the Rita and Edward Polusky Chair in Education and Aging Professor of Gerontology and Psychology at the USC Davis School of Gerontology and she heads the Center for Digital Aging. Zelinski studies longitudinal changes in objective cognition and self-reported memory in healthy older adults, interventions to improve their cognition and health effects on cognition in aging. Zelinski has joint appointments in the Psychology Department and the Study of Women and Men in Society Programs, she is the principal investigator of the Long Beach Longitudinal Study. This study evaluates cognition and language comprehension in older adults as well as the relationship between peoples' perceptions of their memory ability and their actual performance, how these change as people grow old, she graduated summa cum laude from Pace University and received her graduate degrees in psychology, with a specialization in aging, from the University of Southern California.
Zelinski was a postdoctoral fellow at Claremont Graduate School. She served as the Interim Dean of the USC Davis School of Gerontology. Zelinski developed the first comprehensive standardized questionnaire of self-reported memory to determine whether people’s beliefs about their memory are echoed in their objective performance; the questionnaire, the Memory Functioning Questionnaire, has modest concurrent validity with respect to memory performance and is a better predictor of performance than responses to a yes/no question about memory problems, as used in medical history-taking. Correlates of memory ratings include age, memory performance, health ratings and personality, these findings translate across my comprehensive longitudinal study of aging and a nationally representative sample of older adults. Changes in ratings up to 19 years after baseline measurement are modestly associated with increasing age as well as declining objective performance; the MFQ has been used in samples of older adults throughout other countries.
Questionnaires similar to it are in wide use today. About 25 % of the American population over the age of 70 rate their memory abilities as poor. Many older adults are concerned about developing dementia, recent findings of brain plasticity throughout life have created much interest in brain training to improve cognition. Zelinski's current work shows that cognitive interventions involving repeated practice of simple cognitive skills are effective for improving cognitive abilities of healthy elderly; this is important for alleviating older peoples’ concerns about declines, but may help them to remain independent longer, a major goal of reducing the economic and psychological costs of care for an aging population. She has given many interviews on the subject of cognitive training and gerontechnology, including the popular video game Brain Age. President, Division of Adult Development and Aging, American Psychological Association 2007-2009 Study section member, NIA HUD-2, NIH BBBP-4, NIA-S USC Mortar Board Faculty Member of the Month, September 2000 Zelinski, E. M. Gilewski, M. J. & Anthony-Bergstone, C. R..
Memory Functioning Questionnaire: Concurrent validity with memory performance and self-reported memory failures. Psychology and Aging, 5, 388-399. Gilewski, M. J. Zelinski, E. M, Schaie, K. W.. The Memory Functioning Questionnaire. Psychology and Aging, 5, 482-490. Zelinski, E. M. Spina, L. M. Yaffe, K. Ruff, R. Kennison, R. F. Mahncke, H. W. & Smith, G. E.. Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training: Results of the 3-Month Follow-up. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 258-265. Hindin, S. & Zelinski, E. M.. Extended practice and aerobic exercise interventions benefit untrained cognitive outcomes in older adults: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
The Institute for Philanthropy is a not-for-profit organisation which provides information and educational programmes to philanthropists and to charitable organizations. Established in 2000 by Hilary Browne-Wilkinson, a former solicitor at University College London, the Institute operates from offices in London and New York; the Institute carries out research about charitable organizations and charitable tax law, provides advice to potential donors on the efficient utilisation of funding. The Institute works to increase effective philanthropy in the United Kingdom and internationally, by raising awareness and understanding of philanthropy, providing donor education and building donor networks; the Institute has developed several international philanthropy programmes: The Philanthropy Workshop, implemented in 1995 as an offshoot of the Rockefeller Foundation, is a series of three confidential one-week workshops which inform and connect wealthy donors so they are able to manage their own philanthropic activities more effectively.
The Youth and Philanthropy Initiative was launched in Canada by the Toskan-Casale Foundation in 2002 at the Royal St. George's College in Toronto and has been directed by the Philanthropy Institute since 2007, working with the Toskan Casale Foundation and the Wood Family Trust, it is a school-based programme which works with local charities to help increase community awareness and knowledge of philanthropy among young people. As of 2013, it is part of the curriculum in 75 secondary schools. Pupils visit their chosen local charity and prepare presentations showing why that charity is worthy of support; the group judged to have made the best presentation in each school is granted £3,000 to award to their charity. Over 10,000 pupils have participated in the program. Next Generation Philanthropy is an educational program directed in partnership with the Institute for Family Business, it provides education to younger philanthropists in a group setting. Think Philanthropy is a series of lectures and workshops discussing and providing information about current issues and trends in the field of philanthropy, such as effective charitable asset management, climate change, funding in areas of high risk, funding in an economic downturn.
The talks are led philanthropists and by experts such as Paul Collier, Professor of Economics, Oxford University. The Institute has partnered with several leading organisations including Credit Suisse, Goldman Sachs, The Royal Bank of Canada and Arcapita, it has worked with charitable foundations such as The Rockefeller Foundation, The Wellcome Trust and The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. It provided advice and nominations for the Inaugural Happy List
John Stephen, dubbed by the media "The £1m Mod" and "The King Of Carnaby Street", was one of the most important fashion figures of the 1960s. Stephen was the first individual to identify and sell to the young menswear mass market which emerged in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he was the pioneer of the high turnover, disposable fashion ethos of such contemporary operators as Topman. By 1967, Stephen operated a chain of 15 shops on the thoroughfare in central London which he and boyfriend Bill Franks made the epicentre of Swinging London: Carnaby Street."Carnaby is my creation," Stephen said in 1967. "I feel about it the same way Michelangelo felt about the beautiful statues he created." Born in Glasgow, Stephen became a welder's apprentice on leaving school. He moved to London from Glasgow in 1952 at the age of 18, worked as a waiter and for London's first young male boutique, Vince Man Shop in Newburgh Street, central London. In 1956 Stephen opened his own retail outlet in Beak Street but a fire at the premises forced a move in 1957 to 5 Carnaby Street an undistinguished narrow parade behind the London Palladium.
He and Franks made their mark by painting the exterior canary yellow and blaring out pop music, while selling short-runs of such designs as jeans in various colours, simple unlined three button jackets, matelot shirts, Italian knits, etc. This outlet – called His Clothes – was followed by others under Stephen's name or other titles including Domino Male, Mod Male and Male W1. Stephen's fast-turnover approach to design and free-and-easy retail environments with music and attractive young staff was soon emulated by others including Lord John, Take Six and Mates. Stephen expanded his retail business – including outlets for female customers – with shops in other London locations, including Chelsea, opened a clothing manufacturer in Glasgow and operated franchises in the US and Russia. John Stephen opened the first boutique with women's clothing on Carnaby Street called TreCamp. Stephen's clothes were worn by those at the forefront of the beat boom and Swinging London, including The Who, The Kinks, the Rolling Stones and The Small Faces.
Such was the popularity of Carnaby Street that it was paved and pedestrianised in 1973. Thereafter it became home to tourist and novelty outlets, as London fashion's centre moved west to Chelsea, with such psychedelic stores as Michael Rainey's Hung On You, Granny Takes a Trip, Mr Freedom and Dandie Fashions, Kensington and Bus Stop. Stephen's company was publicly floated in 1972 and closed in 1975, when the archive was donated to the Victoria & Albert Museum. In the mid-1970s Stephen imported continental European designs for a new chain of shops, Francisco-M, represented fashion franchises in the UK, including that for Lanvin. Stephen died in 2004. In his last interview, for Paul Gorman's fashion history The Look, Stephen said, "I was the same age and into pop music, so I gave kids something they could wear to complement that. There was nobody else around doing what I was doing, so I had it all to myself for a long time. Once others started coming through, all they could do was copy me."In 2005, Westminster City Council unveiled a plaque at 1 Carnaby Street to commemorate Stephen's importance to London and his influence over fashion.
Q, Special Edition: The Who. Jeremy Reed, The King of Carnaby Street, Haus Publishing, London 2010, ISBN 978-1906598310 Art & Hue collaboration with the estate of John Stephen. John Stephen at Find a Grave
Camille Jullian was a French historian, philologist and historian of French literature, student of Fustel de Coulanges, whose posthumously published work he helped to compile. Jullian was born in Marseille. Specialising in Gaul and the Roman epoch, he was notably a student of the École Normale Supérieure, member of the École française de Rome and professor of national antiquities at the Collège de France, his major work is a multi-volume history of Gaul. He was involved with the controversy over the archaeological findings at Glozel in France. Jullian was elected member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1908 and the Académie française in 1924, he was a member of the Legion of Honour. He died in Paris in 1933, his daughter married a man of questionable background named Simounet, a war veteran who ended his life in poverty. Étude d'épigraphie bordelaise. Les Bordelais dans l'armée romaine. Notes concernant les inscriptions de Bordeaux extraites des papiers de M. de Lamontagne, 1884 Les antiquités de Bordeaux, 1885 Inscriptions romaines de Bordeaux, 1887-1890 Ausone et Bordeaux.
Études sur les derniers temps de la Gaule romaine, 1893 Read online Histoire de Bordeaux depuis les origines jusqu'en 1895, 1895 Read online L'orientalisme à Bordeaux. Bordeaux: Feret. 1897. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2014. De protectoribus et domesticis augustorum, 1883 Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France, de Fustel de Coulanges, 1890 Gallia, tableau sommaire de la Gaule sous la domination romaine, Hachette, 1892 Fréjus romain, 1886 Notes d'épigraphie, 1886 Les transformations politiques de l'Italie sous les empereurs romains, 43 av JC-330 après J.-C. 1884 Extraits des historiens du XIXe, publiés, annotés et précédés d'une introduction sur l'histoire de France, 1897 Inscriptiones Galliae narbonensis Latinae, en collaboration, 1899 Vercingétorix. Paris: Hachette. 1901. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2014. La politique romaine en Provence, 1901 Recherches sur la religion gauloise, 1903 Plaidoyer pour la préhistoire, 1907 Les anciens dieux de l'Occident, 1913 Les Paris des Romains.
Les Arènes. Les Thermes, 1924 Histoire de la Gaule, rééd. Hachette, Coll. Références, 1993, 1270 pages, Au seuil de notre histoire. Leçons faites 1905-1930, 3 vol. 1930-1931 Les invasions ibériques en Gaule et l'origine de Bordeaux. Bordeaux: Imp. G. Gounouilhou. 1903. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2014. Le Rhin gaulois: le Rhin français, 1915 Pas de paix avec Hohenzollern. À un ami du front, 1918 La guerre pour la patrie, 1919 Aimons la France, conférences: 1914-1919, 1920 De la Gaule à la France. Nos origines historiques, 1922 Christian Goudineau, Le dossier Vercingétorix, co-ed Actes Sud/Errance, 2001 Albert Grenier, Camille Jullian, un demi-siècle de science historique et de progrès français, Albin Michel, 1944 Charles-Olivier Carbonnell, Histoire et historiens, une mutation idéologique des historiens français, 1865-1885, Institut d'études politiques de Toulouse, 1976. Works by Camille Jullian at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Camille Jullian at Internet Archive
The 2nd New Guinea Infantry Battalion was a battalion of the Australian Army during World War II. One of four infantry battalions raised in New Guinea, 2 NGIB was formed in September 1944. Formed late in the war, the battalion played only a minor role in the Allied campaign in New Guinea, supporting the 6th Division during the final stages of the Aitape–Wewak campaign. In 1945, it became part of the Pacific Islands Regiment, but was disbanded in June 1946. Earlier efforts by the Australian Army to raise infantry battalions from local Papuan and New Guinean personnel for service during World War II had resulted in the creation of the Papuan Infantry Battalion in 1940. In March 1944 the 1st New Guinea Infantry Battalion had been raised; these successes had encouraged the Army to raise more such units, in August 1944 and second New Guinea infantry battalion was authorised. The battalion was formed on 26 September 1944 in the territory of New Guinea, to augment Australian troops fighting against the Japanese.
Its soldiers were natives of New Guinea, under the command of Australian officers and NCOs. The PIB along with the 1st and 2nd New Guinea Infantry Battalions were amalgamated to form the Pacific Islands Regiment in November 1944. Several more units were raised and the 3rd and 4th New Guinea Infantry Battalion joined the other battalions of the PIR in mid-1945, although 4 NGIB was soon disbanded. A further battalion, the 5th New Guinea Infantry Battalion—although authorised—was never raised. Upon formation, the battalion adopted the same organisation as a standard Australian Army infantry battalion, consisting of four rifle companies, but it lacked several of the usual support platoons including machine guns and anti-tank; the New Guinea battalions each had an establishment of about 77 Europeans and 550 native soldiers, although 2 NGIB was above that establishment, with 28 officers and 56 NCOs, all Australians, 598 New Guineans, many of whom had been transferred from the PIB. Formed late in the war, the battalion played only a minor role during the Allied campaigns in New Guinea.
After forming at Camp Diddy, near Nadzab, training was undertaken and in early June 1945, the battalion was allocated to the 6th Division to take part in the final stages of the Aitape–Wewak campaign. Wewak had just been captured by the Australians, so 2 NGIB was attached to the 17th Brigade to assist in mopping up operations in the mountains south of the town, arriving on 25 June. Setting out from Hayfield, near the Sepik River, the battalion detached companies to patrol towards Gwalip; the fighting that the battalion undertook during this time proved heavier than expected, with over 25 Japanese being killed in clashes with 2 NGIB for three men killed in the first month alone. As the battalion entered the Prince Alexander Range, they were employed as a complete battalion, undertaking conventional operations, rather than as smaller components as envisaged. In early July, the battalion headquarters moved to Kwimbu, a company captured Gisanambu in a firefight that killed 10 Japanese. A further 27 Japanese were killed around Dunbit, although the platoon sent to capture it withdrew after sustaining several casualties, including its commander.
In the middle of the month, several efforts were made to secure Aoniaru, although these too were checked until 24 July when Allied air attacks forced the remaining Japanese to abandon the position. Battalion headquarters was moved to Gwalip around this time, the battalion concentrated there prior to capturing Sigora on 27 July. Three days a 2 NGIB company attacked Ulama, after a heavy aerial bombardment, in the heavy fighting that followed 16 Japanese were killed. By 2 August, the battalion had consolidated their position are Sigora, to become a base of operations for the 2/7th Battalion, they continued on towards Mt Irup. The war was coming to an end by this time and during this phase, large numbers of Japanese prisoners were taken. There were still large numbers of Japanese offering resistance and heavy fighting took place around Miyamboara, in the final days of the war, when a 2 NGIB patrol attempted to enter the village. By mid-August a ceasefire came into effect and the fighting came to an end prior to the official Japanese surrender in Wewak on 13 September 1945.
Following the end of the war, the battalion was disbanded in June 1946 as part of the demobilisation process. World War II: Liberation of Australian New Guinea and Kiarivu; the following officers commanded the battalion during the war: Lieutenant Colonel H. M. Stewart Lieutenant Colonel A. C. Murchison Lieutenant Colonel A. C. Cameron Members of the battalion received the following decorations: 1 George Medals 3 Military Crosses 2 Military Medals 2 NGIB's casualties during the war amounted to: 17 killed, 5 died, 31 wounded. Australia-Japan research project Australian War Memorial – Pacific Islands Regiment