Iron Range refers collectively or individually to a number of elongated iron-ore mining districts around Lake Superior in the United States and Canada. Despite the word "range," the iron ranges are not mountain chains, but outcrops of Precambrian sedimentary formations containing high percentages of iron; these cherty iron ore deposits are Precambrian in age for the Vermilion Range, while middle Precambrian in age for the Mesabi and Cuyuna ranges, all in Minnesota. The Gogebic Range in Wisconsin and the Marquette Iron Range and Menominee Range in Michigan have similar characteristics and are of similar age. Natural ores and concentrates were produced from 1848 until the mid 1950s, when taconites and jaspers were concentrated and pelletized, started to become the major source of iron production; the far eastern area, containing the Duluth Complex along the shore of Lake Superior, the far northern area, along the Canada–US border, of the region are not associated with iron ore mining. Due to its shape, the area is collectively referred to as the Arrowhead region of Minnesota.
It consists of seven counties: Aitkin, Cook, Koochiching and Saint Louis. Minnesota's Iron Range is notable in terms of public safety. From a geological perspective, the Iron Range in Minnesota includes these four major iron deposits: Mesabi Range, the largest iron range within Itasca and Saint Louis counties. Within Minnesota, "The Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation is a State Department, established by the legislature of 1941 to render public service through research and the actual development of all the state's resources both natural and human." The Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation Board, known as "the I-triple-R-B" or Iron Range Resources, is an economic development agency funded by taxes levied by the state on taconite-producing companies and charged with creating jobs. Geologically, the iron ranges in Minnesota belong to the Animikie Group; the geologic history of the formations containing iron are typical of banded iron formations worldwide. Prior to the 19th century, Native American groups mined native copper on the Keweenaw Peninsula.
William Austin Burt discovered iron ore in the Marquette Range near Negaunee, Michigan in 1844. Iron ore was discovered on the Menominee Range in 1867, on the Gogebic Range in 1884, on the Vermilion Range in 1885, the Mesabi Range in 1890, the Cuyuna Range in 1903. Underground mines were developed to remove the valuable ore of most ranges. However, iron mining operations on the Mesabi and Cuyuna Ranges evolved into enormous open pit mines, where steam shovels and other industrial machines could remove massive amounts of ore. "Large-scale commercial production of magnetite taconite ore on the Mesabi Range started in 1956 at the Peter Mitchell Mine near Babbitt, Minnesota." The Iron Range contains several smaller cities. Some of the more significant communities in the region include: Aitkin is located on the eastern edge of the Cuyuna Range. Aitkin was the birthplace of film actor Warren William. Aurora is located on the Eastern Mesabi Range; the former St. James, Meadow and Stephens mines lie within the city limits.
Babbitt Biwabik Bovey is located along U. S. Highway 169 between Taconite. Bovey was the birthplace of NHL goaltender Adam Hauser, San Francisco politician Richard Hongisto, Eric Enstrom – photographer of the famous 1918 photograph "Grace." Buhl is located along U. S. Highway 169 between Virginia. Buhl claims "The Finest Water in America" on its water tower. Chisholm is the geographic center of the Mesabi Range, home of the Chisholm Bluestreaks, it is the home of Minnesota Discovery Center, the Minnesota Museum of Mining, the Iron Range Research Center. Archibald "Moonlight" Graham, subject of the motion picture "Field of Dreams" settled in Chisholm; the motion picture "North Country" was partly filmed in Chisholm. Coleraine is referred to as the "start place of the Iron Range." The town was built in the early 20th century to accommodate the miners of the Oliver Iron Mining's Canisteo Mine. John Greenway was the superintendent of the mine. Crosby is an old mining boomtown on the southwestern edge of the Iron Range, home of the Crosby-Ironton Rangers.
Duluth The fourth largest city in the state, while not part of the Iron Range, is a destination for much of its production shipped via the DM&IR railroad. Iron pellets are shipped "downward" through the Soo Locks to steel towns such as Cleveland, Toledo et al; the Port of Duluth allows for the iron ore to be shipped through the Great Lakes. Deerwood Mining engineer Cuyler Adams discovered the Cuyuna Range near Deerwood in 1895. Ely, in the Vermillion Range, is best known as the most popular entry point for the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. Eveleth is where U. S. Senator Paul Wellstone and seven others died in a plane crash in 2002 two miles away from the municipal airport, it the site of the conflict that resulted in the landmark sexual harassment class action case Jenson v. Eveleth Taconite Co. and the film North Country. It is al
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
History of Minnesota
The history of the U. S. state of Minnesota is shaped by its original Native American residents, European exploration and settlement, the emergence of industries made possible by the state's natural resources. Minnesota achieved prominence through fur trading and farming, through railroads, iron mining. While those industries remain important, the state's economy is now driven by banking and health care; the earliest known settlers followed herds of large game to the region during the last glacial period. They preceded the Anishinaabe, the Dakota, other Native American inhabitants. Fur traders from France arrived during the 17th century. Europeans moving west during the 19th century, drove out most of the Native Americans. Fort Snelling, built to protect United States territorial interests, brought early settlers to the area. Early settlers used Saint Anthony Falls for powering sawmills in the area that became Minneapolis, while others settled downriver in the area that became Saint Paul. Minnesota gained legal existence as the Minnesota Territory in 1849, became the 32nd U.
S. state on May 11, 1858. After the upheaval of the American Civil War and the Dakota War of 1862, the state's economy started to develop when natural resources were tapped for logging and farming. Railroads attracted immigrants, established the farm economy, brought goods to market; the power provided by St. Anthony Falls spurred the growth of Minneapolis, the innovative milling methods gave it the title of the "milling capital of the world". New industry came from iron ore, discovered in the north, mined easily from open pits, shipped to Great Lakes steel mills from the ports at Duluth and Two Harbors. Economic development and social changes led to an expanded role for state government and a population shift from rural areas to cities; the Great Depression brought layoffs in mining and tension in labor relations but New Deal programs helped the state. After World War II, Minnesota became known for technology, fueled by early computer companies Sperry Rand, Control Data and Cray; the Twin Cities became a regional center for the arts with cultural institutions such as the Guthrie Theater, Minnesota Orchestra, the Walker Art Center.
The oldest known human remains in Minnesota, dating back about 9000 years ago, were discovered near Browns Valley in 1933. "Browns Valley Man" was found with tools of the Folsom types. Some of the earliest evidence of a sustained presence in the area comes from a site known as Bradbury Brook near Mille Lacs Lake, used around 7500 BC. Subsequently, extensive trading networks developed in the region; the body of an early resident known as "Minnesota Woman" was discovered in 1931 in Otter Tail County. Radiocarbon dating places the age of the bones 8,000 years ago 7890 ±70 BP or near the end of the Eastern Archaic period, she had a conch shell from a snail species known as Busycon perversa, which had only been known to exist in Florida. Several hundred years the climate of Minnesota warmed significantly; as large animals such as mammoths became extinct, native people changed their diet. They gathered nuts and vegetables, they hunted smaller animals such as deer and birds; the stone tools found from this era became smaller and more specialized to use these new food sources.
They devised new techniques for catching fish, such as fish hooks and harpoons. Around 5000 BC, people on the shores of Lake Superior were the first on the continent to begin making metal tools. Pieces of ore with high concentrations of copper were pounded into a rough shape, heated to reduce brittleness, pounded again to refine the shape, reheated. Edges could be made sharp enough to be useful as knives or spear points. Archaeological evidence of Native American settlements dates back as far as 3000 BC. Around 700 BC, burial mounds were first created, the practice continued until the arrival of Europeans, when 10,000 such mounds dotted the state. By AD 800, wild rice became a staple crop in the region, corn farther to the south. Within a few hundred years, the Mississippian culture reached into the southeast portion of the state, large villages were formed; the Dakota Native American culture may have descended from some of the peoples of the Mississippian culture. When Europeans first started exploring Minnesota, the region was inhabited by tribes of Dakota, with the Ojibwa beginning to migrate westward into the state around 1700.
There were the Chiwere Ioway in the southwest, the Algonquian A'ani to the west, the Menominee in some parts of the southeast as well as other tribes which could have been either Algonquian or Chiwere to the northeast, alongside Lake Superior. The economy of these tribes was chiefly based on hunter-gatherer activities. There was a small group of Ho-Chunk Native Americans near Long Prairie, who moved to a reservation in Blue Earth County in 1855. At some early point, the Missouria moved south into what is now Missouri, the Menominee ceded much of their westernmost lands and withdrew closer to the region of Green Bay and the A'ani were pushed north and west by the Dakota and split into the Gros Ventre and the Arapaho. Tribes who would inhabit the region include the Assiniboine, who split from the Dakota and returned to Minnesota, but also moved
Koochiching County, Minnesota
Koochiching County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,311, its county seat is International Falls. A portion of the Bois Forte Indian Reservation is in the county. A small part of Voyageurs National Park extends into its boundary, with Lake of the Woods County to its northwest. Historymakers of Koochiching County were of many occupations, they were explorers, traders and lumberjacks. They were teachers, merchants and builders of industry. Settlers came at the beginning of the 1900s and suffered through isolation, harsh weather, poverty, they built schools and good roads. Koochiching County is the second largest county in area next to Saint Louis County, it is one of the youngest counties in the state having been created in 1906 after it was separated from Itasca County. The name "Koochiching" comes from either the Ojibwe word Gojijiing or Cree Kocicīhk, both meaning "at the place of inlets," referring to the neighboring Rainy Lake and River. Reverend J.
A. Gilfillan recorded their meaning, "according to some, Neighbor lake, according to others a lake somewhere," referring to the neighbouring Rainy Lake and to Lake Couchiching located in southern Ontario. Early European inhabitants gave the names Lac à la Pluie and Rivière à la Pluie to the nearby bodies of water because of the mist-like rain present at the falls of Rainy River and to the settlement that became known as International Falls. About 10,000 years ago 90% of Koochiching County was covered by Lake Agassiz; when it receded it left low areas of decayed vegetation. Koochiching County lies on the north edge of Minnesota, its northern border abuts the south border of Canada. The Rainy River flows west-northwestward along its north border, being fed by several rivers which drain from the county into the Rainy: Rat Root River drains the east central part of the county; the county terrain consists of low rolling hills, with swampy areas where Lake Agassiz basin was deepest. There are deposits of peat from 1½ to 50 feet in the low areas.
The level soil is broken by ledges of precambrian rock. Bed rock in the area includes Ely greenstone and greenstone schists that are said to be among the oldest on the planet; the terrain slopes to the north, with its highest point on the western part of its southern border at 1,515' ASL. The county has a total area of 3,154 square miles, of which 3,104 square miles is land and 50 square miles is water, it third-largest by total area. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 14,355 people, 6,040 households, 3,962 families in the county; the population density was 4.62/sqmi. There were 7,719 housing units at an average density of 2.49/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.12% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 2.15% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 1.23% from two or more races. 0.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.2 % were of 7.0 % Irish ancestry. There were 6,040 households out of which 28.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.40% were non-families.
30.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.88. The county population contained 23.90% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 25.80% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, 18.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 98.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,262, the median income for a family was $43,608. Males had a median income of $40,642 versus $22,261 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,167. About 8.40% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.10% of those under age 18 and 13.40% of those age 65 or over. Koochiching County voters have tended to vote Democratic for several decades. In 78% of national elections since 1980 the county selected the Democratic Party candidate.
Koochiching County is unique in Minnesota, in the sense that there are no organized civil township governments within the county, due to legislative action taken by the county to absorb existing township governments. Survey townships, as defined by the Public Land Survey System are not organized. Six city governments have been created, the rest of the county consists of unorganized territories and unincorporated communities. Nett Lake Koochiching County is the location of the fictional town of Frostbite Falls, the home of the animated characters Rocky and Bullwinkle. Frostbite Falls was named in honor of International Falls, since International Falls is of
Aitkin County, Minnesota
Aitkin County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 16,202, its county seat is Aitkin. Part of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation is in the county; the county was created in 1857 and organized in 1871. Aitkin County was established in 1857 as Aiken County; the current spelling was adopted in 1872. It was named for William Alexander Aitken, a fur trader for the American Fur Company, under John Jacob Astor. Formed from Ramsey and Pine counties, Aiken County consisted of the 17 townships closest to Mille Lacs Lake, it acquired outlands of Ramsey and Pine Counties to its north and east. It was organized in 1871, taking up lands from Cass and Itasca Counties and losing a point in the southwestern corner to Crow Wing County to form its current boundaries; the Mississippi River flows southward through the west central part of the county. The county terrain consists of wooded rolling hills, dotted with ponds; the terrain slopes to the south. The county has a total area of 1,995 square miles, of which 1,822 square miles is land and 174 square miles is water.
Aitkin County voters selected the Democratic Party candidate in 71% of national elections since 1960. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Aitkin have ranged from a low of 0 °F in January to a high of 80 °F in July, although a record low of −47 °F was recorded in January 1972 and a record high of 100 °F was recorded in August 1976. Although these records are the official records, temperatures above 100 °F has been detected numerous times throughout Aitkin County and surrounding areas. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.79 inches in February to 4.46 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,202 people, 7,542 households, 4,458 families in the county; the population density was 8.89/sqmi. There were 16,626 housing units at an average density of 9.13/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 95.63% or 15,494 people White, 0.35% or 57 people Black or African American, 2.4% or 390 people Native American, 0.17% or 27 people Asian, 0.025% or 4 people Pacific Islander, 0.13% or 21 people from other races, 1.29% or 209 people from two or more races.
Of the population with two or more races, 0.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 29.5% were of German, 14.3% Norwegian, 13.0% Swedish, 6.2% Irish, 5.3% United States or American and 5.2% Finnish ancestry. There were 6,644 households out of which 22.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 6.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were non-families. 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.76. The county population contained 20.90% under the age of 18, 5.50% from 18 to 24, 21.60% from 25 to 44, 29.10% from 45 to 64, 23.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,139, the median income for a family was $58,290.
Males had a median income of $51,604 versus $30,633 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,848. About 5.20% of families and 7.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.50% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over. National Register of Historic Places listings in Aitkin County, Minnesota Aitkin County government’s website Minnesota Department of Transportation map of Aitkin County Records
Geography of Minnesota
Minnesota is the northernmost state outside Alaska. Minnesota is in the U. S. region known as the Upper Midwest. The state shares a Lake Superior water border with Wisconsin on the northeast. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are north. With 87,014 square miles, or 2.26 % of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th largest state. Minnesota contains some of the oldest rocks found on earth, gneisses some 3.6 billion years old, or 80% as old as the planet. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean. The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the landscape of the state and sculpted its current terrain.
The Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. 13,000 years ago gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest. Minnesota is geologically quiet today; the state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 602 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two continental divides meet in the northeastern part of Minnesota in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the St. Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean.
The state's nickname, The Land of 10,000 Lakes, is no exaggeration. The Minnesota portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of water in the state. Minnesota streams that cumulatively flow for 69,000 miles; the Mississippi River begins its journey from its headwaters at Lake Itasca and crosses the Iowa border 680 miles downstream. It is joined by the Minnesota River at Fort Snelling, by the St. Croix River near Hastings, by the Chippewa River at Wabasha, by many smaller streams; the Red River, in the bed of glacial Lake Agassiz, drains the northwest part of the state northward toward Canada's Hudson Bay. 10.6 million acres of wetlands are contained within Minnesota's borders, the most of any state except Alaska. Three of North America's biomes converge in Minnesota: prairie grasslands in the southwestern and western parts of the state, the Big Woods deciduous forest of the southeast, the northern boreal forest; the northern coniferous forests are a vast wilderness of pine and spruce trees mixed with patchy stands of birch and poplar.
Much of Minnesota's northern forest has been logged, leaving only a few patches of old growth forest today in areas such as in the Chippewa National Forest and the Superior National Forest where the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness has some 400,000 acres of unlogged land. Although logging continues, regrowth keeps about one third of the state forested. While loss of habitat has affected native animals such as the pine marten and bison, whitetail deer and bobcat thrive; the state has the nation's largest population of timber wolves outside Alaska, supports healthy populations of black bear and moose. Located on the Mississippi Flyway, Minnesota hosts migratory waterfowl such as geese and ducks, game birds such as grouse and turkeys, it is home to birds of prey including the bald eagle, red-tailed hawk, snowy owl. The lakes teem with sport fish such as walleye, bass and northern pike, streams in the southeast are populated by brook and rainbow trout. Minnesota endures temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate.
Meteorological events include rain, hail, polar fronts, tornadoes and high-velocity straight-line winds. The growing season varies from 90 days per year in the Iron Range to 160 days in southeast Minnesota near the Mississippi River, mean average temperatures range from 36 °F to 49 °F. Average summer dewpoints range from about 58 °F in the south to about 48 °F in the north. Depending on location, average annual precipitation ranges from 19 in to 35 in, droughts occur every 10 to 50 years. Minnesota is home to a variety of wilderness and other open spaces. Minnesota's first state park, Itasca State Park, was established in 1891, is the source of the Mississip