The periodic table known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical elements, which are arranged by atomic number, electron configuration, recurring chemical properties. The structure of the table shows periodic trends; the seven rows of the table, called periods have metals on the left and non-metals on the right. The columns, called groups, contain elements with similar chemical behaviours. Six groups have accepted names as well as assigned numbers: for example, group 17 elements are the halogens. Displayed are four simple rectangular areas or blocks associated with the filling of different atomic orbitals; the organization of the periodic table can be used to derive relationships between the various element properties, to predict chemical properties and behaviours of undiscovered or newly synthesized elements. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published the first recognizable periodic table in 1869, developed to illustrate periodic trends of the then-known elements.
He predicted some properties of unidentified elements that were expected to fill gaps within the table. Most of his forecasts proved to be correct. Mendeleev's idea has been expanded and refined with the discovery or synthesis of further new elements and the development of new theoretical models to explain chemical behaviour; the modern periodic table now provides a useful framework for analyzing chemical reactions, continues to be used in chemistry, nuclear physics and other sciences. The elements from atomic numbers 1 through 118 have been discovered or synthesized, completing seven full rows of the periodic table; the first 94 elements all occur though some are found only in trace amounts and a few were discovered in nature only after having first been synthesized. Elements 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in nuclear reactors; the synthesis of elements having higher atomic numbers is being pursued: these elements would begin an eighth row, theoretical work has been done to suggest possible candidates for this extension.
Numerous synthetic radionuclides of occurring elements have been produced in laboratories. Each chemical element has a unique atomic number representing the number of protons in its nucleus. Most elements have differing numbers of neutrons among different atoms, with these variants being referred to as isotopes. For example, carbon has three occurring isotopes: all of its atoms have six protons and most have six neutrons as well, but about one per cent have seven neutrons, a small fraction have eight neutrons. Isotopes are never separated in the periodic table. Elements with no stable isotopes have the atomic masses of their most stable isotopes, where such masses are shown, listed in parentheses. In the standard periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z. A new row is started. Columns are determined by the electron configuration of the atom. Elements with similar chemical properties fall into the same group in the periodic table, although in the f-block, to some respect in the d-block, the elements in the same period tend to have similar properties, as well.
Thus, it is easy to predict the chemical properties of an element if one knows the properties of the elements around it. Since 2016, the periodic table has 118 confirmed elements, from element 1 to 118. Elements 113, 115, 117 and 118, the most recent discoveries, were confirmed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in December 2015, their proposed names, moscovium and oganesson were announced by the IUPAC in June 2016 and made official in November 2016. The first 94 elements occur naturally. Of the 94 occurring elements, 83 are primordial and 11 occur only in decay chains of primordial elements. No element heavier than einsteinium has been observed in macroscopic quantities in its pure form, nor has astatine. A group or family is a vertical column in the periodic table. Groups have more significant periodic trends than periods and blocks, explained below. Modern quantum mechanical theories of atomic structure explain group trends by proposing that elements within the same group have the same electron configurations in their valence shell.
Elements in the same group tend to have a shared chemistry and exhibit a clear trend in properties with increasing atomic number. In some parts of the periodic table, such as the d-block and the f-block, horizontal similarities can be as important as, or more pronounced than, vertical similarities. Under an international naming convention, the groups are numbered numerically from 1 to 18 from the leftmost column to the rightmost column, they were known by roman numerals. In America, the roman numerals were followed by either an "A" if the group was in the s- or p-block, or a "B" if the group was in the d-block; the roman numerals used correspond to the last digit of today's naming convention (e.g. the
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can be released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek φῶς, phōs, "light", σύνθεσις, synthesis, "putting together". In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants, most algae, cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centres that contain green chlorophyll pigments. In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in bacteria they are embedded in the plasma membrane.
In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used to strip electrons from suitable substances, such as water, producing oxygen gas. The hydrogen freed by the splitting of water is used in the creation of two further compounds that serve as short-term stores of energy, enabling its transfer to drive other reactions: these compounds are reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and adenosine triphosphate, the "energy currency" of cells. In plants and cyanobacteria, long-term energy storage in the form of sugars is produced by a subsequent sequence of light-independent reactions called the Calvin cycle. In the Calvin cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated into existing organic carbon compounds, such as ribulose bisphosphate. Using the ATP and NADPH produced by the light-dependent reactions, the resulting compounds are reduced and removed to form further carbohydrates, such as glucose; the first photosynthetic organisms evolved early in the evolutionary history of life and most used reducing agents such as hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide, rather than water, as sources of electrons.
Cyanobacteria appeared later. Today, the average rate of energy capture by photosynthesis globally is 130 terawatts, about eight times the current power consumption of human civilization. Photosynthetic organisms convert around 100–115 billion tonnes of carbon into biomass per year. Photosynthetic organisms are photoautotrophs, which means that they are able to synthesize food directly from carbon dioxide and water using energy from light. However, not all organisms use carbon dioxide as a source of carbon atoms to carry out photosynthesis. In plants and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis releases oxygen; this is called oxygenic photosynthesis and is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms. Although there are some differences between oxygenic photosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria, the overall process is quite similar in these organisms. There are many varieties of anoxygenic photosynthesis, used by certain types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen.
Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation. Carbon fixation is an endothermic redox reaction. In general outline, photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration: while photosynthesis is a process of reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate, cellular respiration is the oxidation of carbohydrate or other nutrients to carbon dioxide. Nutrients used in cellular respiration include amino acids and fatty acids; these nutrients are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water, to release chemical energy to drive the organism's metabolism. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are distinct processes, as they take place through different sequences of chemical reactions and in different cellular compartments; the general equation for photosynthesis as first proposed by Cornelis van Niel is therefore: CO2carbondioxide + 2H2Aelectron donor + photonslight energy → carbohydrate + 2Aoxidizedelectrondonor + H2OwaterSince water is used as the electron donor in oxygenic photosynthesis, the equation for this process is: CO2carbondioxide + 2H2Owater + photonslight energy → carbohydrate + O2oxygen + H2OwaterThis equation emphasizes that water is both a reactant in the light-dependent reaction and a product of the light-independent reaction, but canceling n water molecules from each side gives the net equation: CO2carbondioxide + H2O water + photonslight energy → carbohydrate + O2 oxygen Other processes substitute other compounds for water in the electron-supply role.
In the first stage, light-dependent reactions or light reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH. During the second stage, the light-independent reactions use these products to capture and reduce carbon dioxid
Drinking is the act of ingesting water or other liquids into the body through the mouth. Water is required for many of life’s physiological processes. Both excessive and inadequate water intake are associated with health problems; when a liquid is poured into an open human mouth, the swallowing process is completed by peristalsis which delivers the liquid to the stomach. The liquid may be poured from the hands or drinkware may be used as vessels. Drinking can be performed by acts of inhalation when imbibing hot liquids or drinking from a spoon. Infants employ a method of suction wherein the lips are pressed tight around a source, as in breastfeeding: a combination of breath and tongue movement creates a vacuum which draws in liquid. Amphibians and aquatic animals which live in freshwater do not need to drink: they absorb water through the skin by osmosis. Saltwater fish, drink through the mouth as they swim, purge the excess salt through the gills. By necessity, terrestrial animals in captivity become accustomed to drinking water, but most free-roaming animals stay hydrated through the fluids and moisture in fresh food.
When conditions impel them to drink from bodies of water, the methods and motions differ among species. Many desert animals do not drink if water becomes available, but rely on eating succulent plants. Cats and ruminants all lower the neck and lap in water with their powerful tongues. Cats and canines lap up water with the tongue in a spoon-like shape. Ruminants and most other herbivores submerge the tip of the mouth in order to draw in water by means of a plunging action with the tongue held straight. Cats drink at a slower pace than ruminants, who face greater natural predation hazards. Uniquely, elephants squirt it into their mouths. Most birds scoop or draw water into the buccal areas of their bills and tilting their heads back to drink. An exception is the common pigeon. Like nearly all other life forms, humans require water for tissue hydration. Lack of hydration causes thirst, a desire to drink, regulated by the hypothalamus in response to subtle changes in the body's electrolyte levels and blood volume.
A decline in total body water is called dehydration and will lead to death by hypernatremia. Methods used in the management of dehydration include oral rehydration therapy. An overconsumption of water can lead to water intoxication, which can dangerously dilute the concentration of salts in the body. Overhydration sometimes occurs among athletes and outdoor laborers, but it can be a sign of disease or damage to the hypothalamus. A persistent desire to drink inordinate quantities of water is a psychological condition termed polydipsia, it is accompanied by polyuria and may itself be a symptom of Diabetes mellitus or Diabetes insipidus. A daily intake of water is required for the normal physiological functioning of the human body; the USDA recommends a daily intake of total water: not by drinking but by consumption of water contained in other beverages and foods. The recommended intake is 3.7 liters per day for an adult male, 2.7 liters for an adult female. Other sources, claim that a high intake of fresh drinking water and distinct from other sources of moisture, is necessary for good health – eight servings per day of eight fluid ounces is the amount recommended by many nutritionists, although there is no scientific evidence supporting this recommendation.
The term “drinking” is used metonymically for the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Most cultures throughout history have incorporated some number of the wide variety of "strong drinks" into their meals, ceremonies and other occasions. Evidence of fermented drinks in human culture goes back as early as the Neolithic Period, the first pictorial evidence can be found in Egypt around 4,000 BC. Alcohol consumption has developed into a variety of well-established drinking cultures around the world. Despite its popularity, alcohol consumption poses significant health risks. Alcohol abuse and the addiction of alcoholism are common maladies in developed countries worldwide. A high rate of consumption can lead to cirrhosis, gout, hypertension, various forms of cancer, numerous other illnesses. Eating Hydration BibliographyBroom, Donald M.. Biology of Behaviour: Mechanisms and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29906-3. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Curtis, Helena. Invitation to Biology.
Macmillan. ISBN 0879016795. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Fiebach, Nicholas H. ed.. Principles of Ambulatory Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-6227-8. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Flint, Austin; the Physiology of Man. New York: D. Appleton and Co. OCLC 5357686. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Gately, Iain. Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. New York: Penguin. Pp. 1–14. ISBN 1-59240-464-2. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Mayer, William. Physiological Mammalogy. II. Elsevier. ISBN 9780323155250. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Provan, Drew. Oxford Handbook of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-923371-3. Retrieved 31 August 2013. Smith, Robert Meade; the Physiology of the Domestic Animals. Philadelphia, London: F. A. Davis. Retrieved 31 August 2013. "Are You Drinking Enough?", recommendations by the European Hydration Institute
Mono Lake is a large, shallow saline soda lake in Mono County, formed at least 760,000 years ago as a terminal lake in an endorheic basin. The lack of an outlet causes high levels of salts to accumulate in the lake; these salts make the lake water alkaline. This desert lake has an unusually productive ecosystem based on brine shrimp that thrive in its waters, provides critical habitat for two million annual migratory birds that feed on the shrimp and alkali flies; the native Kutzadika'a people derived nutrition from the Ephydra hians pupae, which live in the shallow waters around the edge of the lake. When the city of Los Angeles diverted water from the freshwater streams flowing into the lake, it lowered the lake level, which imperiled the migratory birds; the Mono Lake Committee formed in response and won a legal battle that forced Los Angeles to replenish the lake level. Mono Lake occupies part of an endorheic basin that has no outlet to the ocean. Dissolved salts in the runoff thus remain in the lake and raise the water's pH levels and salt concentration.
The tributaries of Mono Lake include Lee Vining Creek, Rush Creek and Mill Creek which flows through Lundy Canyon. The basin was formed by geological forces over the last five million years: basin and range crustal stretching and associated volcanism and faulting at the base of the Sierra Nevada. Five million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was an eroded set of rolling hills and Mono Basin and Owens Valley did not yet exist. From 4.5 to 2.6 million years ago, large volumes of basalt were extruded around what is now Cowtrack Mountain. Volcanism in the area occurred 3.8 million to 250,000 years ago. This activity was northwest of Mono Basin and included the formation of Aurora Crater, Beauty Peak, Cedar Hill, Mount Hicks. Mono Lake is believed to have formed at least 760,000 years ago, dating back to the Long Valley eruption. Sediments located below the ash layer hint that Mono Lake could be a remnant of a larger and older lake that once covered a large part of Nevada and Utah, which would put it among the oldest lakes in North America.
At its height during the most recent ice age, the lake would have been about 900 feet deep. Prominent old shore lines, called strandlines by geologists, can be seen west of the Lake. Mono Lake is in a geologically active area at the north end of the Mono–Inyo Craters volcanic chain and is close to Long Valley Caldera. Volcanic activity continues in the Mono Lake vicinity: the most recent eruption occurred 350 years ago, resulting in the formation of Paoha Island. Panum Crater is an excellent example of a combined rhyolite cinder cone. Among the most iconic features of Mono Lake are the columns of limestone that tower over the water surface; these limestone towers consist of calcium carbonate minerals such as calcite. This type of limestone rock is referred to as tufa, a term used for limestone that forms in low to moderate temperatures. Mono Lake is a alkaline lake, or soda lake. Alkalinity is a measure of how many bases are in a solution, how well the solution can neutralize acids. Carbonate and bicarbonate are both bases.
Hence, Mono Lake has a high content of dissolved inorganic carbon. Through supply of calcium ions, the water will precipitate carbonate-minerals such as calcite. Subsurface waters enter the bottom of Mono Lake through small springs. High concentrations of dissolved calcium ions in these subsurface waters cause huge amounts of calcite to precipitate around the spring orifices; the tufa formed at the bottom of the lake. It took many decades or centuries to form the well-recognized tufa towers; when lake levels fell, the tufa towers came to rise above the water surface and stand as the majestic pillars seen today. Description of the Mono Lake tufa dates back to the 1880s, when Edward S. Dana and Israel C. Russell made the first systematic descriptions of the Mono Lake tufa; the tufa occurs as "modern" tufa towers. However, you can find tufa sections from old shorelines, when the lake levels were higher; these pioneering works in tufa morphology are still referred to by researchers today and were confirmed by James R. Dunn in 1953.
The tufa types can be divided into three main categories based on morphology:Lithoid tufa - massive and porous with a rock-like appearance Dendritic tufa - branching structures that look similar to small shrubs Thinolitic tufa - large well-formed crystals of several centimetersThese tufa types vary interchangeably both between individual tufa towers but within individual tufa towers. There can be multiple transitions between tufa morphologies within a single tufa tower. Through time, many hypotheses were developed regarding the formation of the large thinolite crystals in thinolitic tufa, it was clear that the thinolites represented a calcite pseudomorph after some unknown original crystal. However, the original crystal was only determined when the mineral ikaite was discovered in 1963. Ikaite, or hexahydrated CaCO3, is only crystallizes at near-freezing temperatures, it is believed that calcite crystallization inhibitors such as phosphate and organic carbon may aid in the stabilization of ikaite.
When heated, ikaite becomes replaced by smaller crystals of calcite. In the Ikka Fjord of Greenland, ikaite was observed to grow in columns similar to the tufa towers of Mono Lake; this has led scienti
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
A mineral is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound that occurs in pure form. A rock may consist of a single mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different minerals, spacially segregated into distinct phases. Compounds that occur only in living beings are excluded, but some minerals are biogenic and/or are organic compounds in the sense of chemistry. Moreover, living beings synthesize inorganic minerals that occur in rocks. In geology and mineralogy, the term "mineral" is reserved for mineral species: crystalline compounds with a well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure. Minerals without a definite crystalline structure, such as opal or obsidian, are more properly called mineraloids. If a chemical compound may occur with different crystal structures, each structure is considered different mineral species. Thus, for example and stishovite are two different minerals consisting of the same compound, silicon dioxide; the International Mineralogical Association is the world's premier standard body for the definition and nomenclature of mineral species.
As of November 2018, the IMA recognizes 5,413 official mineral species. Out of more than 5,500 proposed or traditional ones; the chemical composition of a named mineral species may vary somewhat by the inclusion of small amounts of impurities. Specific varieties of a species sometimes have official names of their own. For example, amethyst is a purple variety of the mineral species quartz; some mineral species can have variable proportions of two or more chemical elements that occupy equivalent positions in the mineral's structure. Sometimes a mineral with variable composition is split into separate species, more or less arbitrarily, forming a mineral group. Besides the essential chemical composition and crystal structure, the description of a mineral species includes its common physical properties such as habit, lustre, colour, tenacity, fracture, specific gravity, fluorescence, radioactivity, as well as its taste or smell and its reaction to acid. Minerals are classified by key chemical constituents.
Silicate minerals comprise 90% of the Earth's crust. Other important mineral groups include the native elements, oxides, carbonates and phosphates. One definition of a mineral encompasses the following criteria: Formed by a natural process. Stable or metastable at room temperature. In the simplest sense, this means. Classical examples of exceptions to this rule include native mercury, which crystallizes at −39 °C, water ice, solid only below 0 °C. Modern advances have included extensive study of liquid crystals, which extensively involve mineralogy. Represented by a chemical formula. Minerals are chemical compounds, as such they can be described by fixed or a variable formula. Many mineral groups and species are composed of a solid solution. For example, the olivine group is described by the variable formula 2SiO4, a solid solution of two end-member species, magnesium-rich forsterite and iron-rich fayalite, which are described by a fixed chemical formula. Mineral species themselves could have a variable composition, such as the sulfide mackinawite, 9S8, a ferrous sulfide, but has a significant nickel impurity, reflected in its formula.
Ordered atomic arrangement. This means crystalline. An ordered atomic arrangement gives rise to a variety of macroscopic physical properties, such as crystal form and cleavage. There have been several recent proposals to classify amorphous substances as minerals; the formal definition of a mineral approved by the IMA in 1995: "A mineral is an element or chemical compound, crystalline and, formed as a result of geological processes." Abiogenic. Biogenic substances are explicitly excluded by the IMA: "Biogenic substances are chemical compounds produced by biological processes without a geological component and are not regarded as minerals. However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound the product can be accepted as a mineral."The first three general characteristics are less debated than the last two. Mineral classification schemes and their definitions are evolving to match recent advances in mineral science. Recent changes have included the addition of an organic class, in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.
The organic class includes a rare group of minerals with hydrocarbons. The IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names adopted in 2009 a hierarchical scheme for the naming and classification of mineral groups and group names and established seven commissions and four working groups to review and classify minerals into an official listing of their published names. According to these new r