SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Art

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. Other activities related to the production of works of art include the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.

The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.

In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.

The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.

If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exploring and apprecia

Harvard Square Subway Kiosk

The Harvard Square Subway Kiosk is a historic kiosk and landmark located at Zero Harvard Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It was built in 1928 as the new main headhouse for the previously-opened Harvard Square subway station. After the station closed in 1981 for major renovations, the kiosk was moved and renovated; the Out of Town News newsstand, which opened in 1955, has occupied the kiosk from 1984 to 2019. As of 2019, the City of Cambridge plans to convert it for public use. Harvard station opened on March 1912, as the northern terminus of the Cambridge Subway. Early plans called for an upright stone entrance in the center of Harvard Square, similar to those at Scollay Square and Adams Square; the headhouse was constructed as a massive circular brick structure. As automobile traffic through the square increased during the 1920s, motorists called the building a hazard to navigation. In February 1928, the Boston Elevated Railway demolished the 1912-built headhouse and replaced it with a lower rectangular brick structure with a copper-clad roof.

There is debate about the relative contributions to the design by Boston architect Clarence H. Blackall compared to MIT civil engineering professor Charles B. Breed; the new headhouse, featuring three walls of brick and limestone, with mullion-framed glass windows on three sides, cost around $20,000, of which the city paid $15,000. The distinctive structure became a Harvard Square landmark. In the late 1970s, the MBTA began planning an extension of the Cambridge Subway – by known as the Red Line – further north in Cambridge, which involved rebuilding Harvard station; the original subway entrance structure was overcrowded during peak hours and could not handle the anticipated pedestrian flow of an expanded station, so it had to be replaced for fundamental functional reasons. Public opinion called for the historic headhouse to be saved. Harvard station closed for reconstruction on January 31, 1981; the expanded Harvard station, opened in 1983, would use a larger, modern glass and steel headhouse at the original location.

On February 13, 1981 the original headhouse roof was removed in one piece and stored during subway construction. The remaining components were discarded. Following completion of the subway station and new headhouses, the kiosk was reconstructed with a contemporary façade north of its original location. No longer needed for MBTA functions, the historic structure was acquired by the City of Cambridge. Out of Town News was founded in 1955 by Sheldon Cohen. Located next to a bustling subway entrance, the newsstand was long noted for stocking leading newspapers and periodicals from around the nation and around the world, many of which were flown to Boston to be available just one day after printing. Customers academics, came to get the most recent editions of their hometown paper or of newspapers from parts of the world where important news events were unfolding; the newsstand became famous for its regular clientele and visitors. John Kenneth Galbraith and Julia Child were both regular customers, Robert Frost once asked for directions at the stand on the way to a poetry reading.

Paul Allen a young programmer at Honeywell, bought the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics at Out of Town News. The magazine inspired his friend Bill Gates to found Microsoft that April. In 1984, Out of Town News moved into the former subway kiosk structure, relocated a few feet north of its original location on June 8. Cohen operated several other businesses around the square, was known as the “unofficial mayor of Harvard Square". In 1994 Cohen sold Out of Town News to Hudson News, although it kept its name and unique business model. Responding to the 1994 sale, a citizen group submitted a petition to landmark the kiosk, but the Cambridge Historical Committee decided that the lease restrictions on the kiosk were sufficient protections. In 2008, it was announced that the newsstand might go out of business, principally because its unique function of supplying yesterday's newspapers was made obsolete by the ability to read them online. By the physical structure required hundreds of thousands of dollars for repairs.

In January 2009, a new owner, Muckey's Corporation, won a bidding competition and signed a lease to take over the newsstand. Muckey's diversified the stand's offering with more typical magazines and convenience store fare, but maintained the original name. In 2013, the city began studying use and possible renovation of Harvard Square, including further restoration or reworking of the kiosk; when the long-term lease expired in January 2016, the city signed a month-to-month lease ending in July 2017, while exploring its options for the space. In August 2016, the city announced plans to convert the structure to a glass-walled public space, despite the lessee's offer to contribute to the renovations if the business could stay. In September 2016, a citizen group again petitioned the Cambridge Historical Commission to designate the kiosk as a protected landmark, which would stop the proposed major renovation. In November 2016, the Cambridge Historical Commission voted in support of proceeding with a landmark study.

Out of Town News closed on October 31, 2019. Temporary artwork will be placed in the

UB40

UB40 are an English reggae and pop band, formed in December 1978 in Birmingham, England. The band has had more than 50 singles in the UK Singles Chart, has achieved considerable international success, they have been nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album four times, in 1984 were nominated for the Brit Award for Best British Group. UB40 have sold over 70 million records worldwide; the ethnic make-up of the band's original line-up was diverse, with musicians of English, Irish, Jamaican and Yemeni parentage. Their hit singles include their debut "Food for Thought" and two Billboard Hot 100 number ones with "Red Red Wine" and "Can't Help Falling in Love". Both of these topped the UK Singles Chart, as did the band's version of "I Got You Babe", their two most successful albums, Labour of Love and Promises and Lies, reached number one on the UK Albums Chart. UB40 and the English ska band Madness hold the record for most weeks spent by a group in the UK singles chart during the 1980s, with 214 weeks each.

The band's line-up was stable for nearly 29 years, from March 1979 until January 2008, when frontman Ali Campbell left the band, followed shortly thereafter by keyboardist Mickey Virtue. Another member, remained with the band until November 2013, when he departed the original band to team up with Campbell and Virtue in a new version of UB40. In 2014, legal advice was sought by the original band who took action against the group containing Campbell and Astro over usage of the band name, due to its being used by both parties; the band members began as friends who knew each other from various schools across Birmingham, England. The name "UB40" was selected in reference to a form issued to people claiming unemployment benefits from the UK government's Department of Employment; the designation UB40 stood for Unemployment Benefit, Form 40. The origins of what would become UB40 began when in mid-1978 guitarist Ali Campbell, together with the rhythm section of drummer Jimmy Brown and bassist Earl Falconer, began rehearsing charting reggae songs in addition to some of their own original compositions.

They were soon joined by several of their friends, firstly percussionists Yomi Babayemi and Norman Hassan, saxophonist Brian Travers and keyboardist Jimmy Lynn. Robin Campbell, although reluctant to commit to forming a band with the others, was invited to join once again by his brother and bought a guitar with which to do so in December of that year. Once Robin had joined the others in their jamming sessions, the eight musicians formed a band, deciding on the name'UB40' after a friend suggested it was an appropriate name given the unemployed status of all of the band members. Prior to this, Travers had work as an electrical apprentice for NG Bailey; this lineup of the band lasted long enough to play their first show at the Hare & Hounds pub in Kings Heath in February 1979 and one other, before the band underwent its first lineup change in the form of Babyemi and Lynn leaving the band and Mickey Virtue joining in place of Lynn. A month UB40's classic lineup was rounded out with the inclusion of percussionist and vocalist Astro.

Astro had been working for Duke Alloy's sound system attending reggae dances in Birmingham. Before some of them could play their instruments, Ali Campbell and Brian Travers travelled around Birmingham promoting the band, putting up UB40 posters, their sound was honed through many long jam sessions at various locations in Birmingham. Their first gig took place on 9 February 1979 at The Hare & Hounds Pub in Kings Heath, Birmingham for a friend's birthday party; this was commemorated in October 2011 by the unveiling of a plaque at the venue, indicating the band receiving the Performing Rights Society's Music Heritage Award. UB40 caught their first break when Chrissie Hynde saw them at a pub and gave them an opportunity as a support act to her band, The Pretenders. UB40's first single, "King"/"Food for Thought" was released on Graduate Records, a local independent label run by David Virr, it reached No. 4 on the UK Singles Chart. The title of their first album, Signing Off, indicates the band was signing off from, or ending, their claim for unemployment benefits.

It was produced by Bob Lamb. Norman Hassan said of the recording: "if you stripped my track down, you could hear the birds in the background." This is. Signing Off was released on 29 August 1980, it entered the UK Albums Chart on 2 October 1980, spent 71 weeks in total on the chart. Signing Off is now a Platinum album; as UB40 grew in popularity, they encouraged and supported local musicians and bands from Birmingham, such as Beshara bringing them on tour. After great success in the UK, UB40's popularity in the US was established when they released Labour of Love, an album of cover songs, in 1983; the album reached No. 1 on the UK Albums Chart and No. 8 on the Billboard 200 in the US. The album featured the song "Red Red Wine", a cover version of a Neil Diamond song. Three years UB40 performed at the Birmingham Heart Beat Charity Concert 1986. In 1987 Ray "Pablo" Falconer, producer of UB40 music, died in a car crash, his brother, Earl Falconer, the band's bassist, was driving with nearly twice the legal limit of alcohol in his blood.

Earl was sentenced to six months imprisonment in June 1988 and banned from driving for