Art director is the title for a variety of similar job functions in theater, marketing, fashion and television, the Internet, video games. It is the charge of a sole art director to unify the vision. In particular, the art director is in charge of the overall visual appearance and how it communicates visually, stimulates moods, contrasts features, psychologically appeals to a target audience; the art director makes decisions about visual elements used, what artistic style to use, when to use motion. One of the most difficult problems that art directors face is to translate desired moods, messages and underdeveloped ideas into imagery. During the brainstorming process, art directors, co-workers, clients are engaged in imagining what the finished piece or scene might look like. At times, an art director is responsible for solidifying the vision of the collective imagination while resolving conflicting agenda and inconsistencies between the various individual inputs. Despite the title, an advertising art director is not the head of an art department.
In modern advertising practice, an art director works in tandem with a copywriter and are known as a creative team. They work together to devise an overall concept for the commercial, brochure, or other advertisements; the copywriter is responsible for the art director for the visual aspects. But the art director may come up with the headline or other copy, the copywriter may suggest a visual or the aesthetic approach; each person welcomes suggestions and constructive criticism from the other. The process of collaboration improves the work. Ideally, the words and visual should not parrot each other. Although a good art director is expected to have graphic design judgment and technical knowledge of production, it may not be necessary for an art director to hand-render comprehensive layouts, now that all but the most preliminary work is done on computer. Except in the smallest organizations, the art director/copywriter team is overseen by a creative director, senior media creative, or chief creative director.
In a large organization, an art director may oversee other art directors and a team of junior designers, image developers, and/or production artists, coordinates with a separate production department. In a smaller organization, the art director may fill all these roles, including oversight of printing and other production. An art director, in the hierarchical structure of a film art department, works directly below the production designer, in collaboration with the set decorator and the set designers. A large part of their duties include the administrative aspects of the art department, they are responsible for assigning tasks to personnel such as the art department coordinator, the construction coordinator, keeping track of the art department budget and scheduling as well as overall quality control. They are also a liaison to other departments; the art director attends all production meetings and tech scouts in order to provide information to the set designers in preparation for all departments to have a visual floor plan of each location visited.
In the past, the title of art director was used to denote the head of the art department which included the set decorator. Now the award includes the production set decorator. On the movie Gone with the Wind, David O. Selznick felt that William Cameron Menzies had such a significant role in the look of the film, that the title art director was not sufficient and so he gave Menzies the title of production designer; the title has become more common, now production designer is used as the title for the head of the art department, although the title implies control over every visual aspect of a film, including costumes. On films with smaller art departments, such as small independent films and short films, the terms'production designer' and'art director' are synonymous, the person taking on the role may be credited as either. Art directors in publishing work with the publication's editors. Together, they work on a concept for pages of a publication. Individually, the art director is responsible for the visual look and feel of the publication, the editor has ultimate responsibility for the publication's verbal and textual contents.
O'Brien's Tower marks the highest point of the Cliffs of Moher, a popular tourist destination in County Clare, Ireland. It is located a short distance from the villages Liscannor; the tower was built on the cliffs in 1835 by local landlord and MP Sir Cornellius O'Brien as an observation tower for the English tourists who frequented the cliffs at the time: "strangers visiting the Magnificent Scenery of this neighbourhood". It is said to have served as a teahouse, featuring a large round table with seats of ironwork. Another version tells of O'Brien building the tower. On a clear day the view can extend as far as Loop Head at the southern tip of Clare and beyond to the mountains of Kerry. Looking north from O'Brien's Tower on clear days, the Twelve Bens in Connemara beyond Galway Bay can be seen, the Aran Islands to the west. Portrait of Ireland: Landscapes, Traditions, August 1, 2000, ISBN 0-7894-6361-X Irish Coast Guard Doolin Unit The Cliffs of Moher and O'Brien's Tower
Romanos I Lekapenos or Lakapenos, Latinized as Romanus I Lecapenus, was an Armenian who became a Byzantine naval commander and reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 920 until his deposition on December 16, 944. Romanos Lekapenos, born in Lakape between Melitene and Samosata, was the son of an Armenian peasant with the remarkable name of Theophylact the Unbearable. Theophylact, as a soldier, had rescued the Emperor Basil I from the enemy in battle at Tephrike and had been rewarded by a place in the Imperial Guard. Although he did not receive any refined education, Romanos advanced through the ranks of the army during the reign of Emperor Leo VI the Wise. In 911 he was general of the naval theme of Samos and served as admiral of the fleet. In this capacity he was supposed to participate in the Byzantine operations against Bulgaria on the Danube in 917, but he was unable to carry out his mission. In the aftermath of the disastrous Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Acheloos in 917 by the Bulgarians, Romanos sailed to Constantinople, where he overcame the discredited regency of Empress Zoe Karvounopsina and her supporter Leo Phokas.
On 25 March 919, at the head of his fleet, Lekapenos seized the Boukoleon Palace and the reins of government. He was named magistros and megas hetaireiarches, but he moved swiftly to consolidate his position: in April 919 his daughter Helena was married to Constantine VII, Lekapenos assumed the new title basileopator. In subsequent years Romanos crowned his own sons co-emperors, Christopher in 921, Stephen and Constantine in 924, for the time being, Constantine VII was regarded as first in rank after Romanos himself, it is notable that, as he left Constantine untouched, he was called'the gentle usurper'. Romanos strengthened his position by marrying his daughters to members of the powerful aristocratic families of Argyros and Mouseles, by recalling the deposed patriarch Nicholas Mystikos, by putting an end to the conflict with the Papacy over the four marriages of Emperor Leo VI, his early reign saw several conspiracies to topple him, which led to the successive dismissal of his first paradynasteuontes, John the Rhaiktor and John Mystikos.
From 925 and until the end of his reign, the post was occupied by the chamberlain Theophanes. The first major challenge faced by the new emperor was the war with Bulgaria, re-ignited by the regency of Zoe; the rise to power of Romanos had curtailed the plans of Simeon I of Bulgaria for a marital alliance with Constantine VII, Romanos was determined to deny the unpopular concession of imperial recognition to Simeon, which had toppled two imperial governments. The first four years of Romanos' reign were spent in warfare against Bulgaria. Although Simeon had the upper hand, he was unable to gain a decisive advantage because of the impregnability of Constantinople's walls. In 924, when Simeon had once again blockaded the capital by land, Romanos succeeded in opening negotiations. Meeting Simeon in person at Kosmidion, Romanos criticized Simeon's disregard for tradition and Orthodox Christian brotherhood and shamed him into coming to terms and lifting the siege. In reality, this was accomplished by Romanos' tacit recognition of Simeon as emperor of Bulgaria.
Relations were subsequently marred by continued wrangling over titles, but peace had been established. On the death of Simeon in May 927, Bulgaria's new emperor, Peter I, made a show of force by invading Byzantine Thrace, but he showed himself ready to negotiate for a more permanent peace. Romanos seized the occasion and proposed a marriage alliance between the imperial houses of Byzantium and Bulgaria, at the same time renewing the Serbian-Byzantine alliance with Časlav of Serbia, returning independence the same year. In September 927 Peter arrived before Constantinople and married Maria, the daughter of his eldest son and co-emperor Christopher, thus Romanos' granddaughter. On this occasion Christopher received precedence in rank over his brother-in-law Constantine VII, something which compounded the latter's resentment towards the Lekapenoi, the Bulgarians, imperial marriages to outsiders. From this point on, Romanos' government was free from direct military confrontation with Bulgaria. Although Byzantium would tacitly support a Serbian revolt against Bulgaria in 931, the Bulgarians would allow Magyar raids across their territory into Byzantine possessions and Bulgaria remained at peace for 40 years, until Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria.
Romanos appointed the brilliant general John Kourkouas commander of the field armies in the East. John Kourkouas subdued a rebellion in the theme of Chaldia and intervened in Armenia in 924. From 926 Kourkouas campaigned across the eastern frontier against the Abbasids and their vassals, won an important victory at Melitene in 934; the capture of this city is considered the first major Byzantine territorial recovery from the Muslims. In 941, while most of the army under Kourkouas was absent in the East, a fleet of 15 old ships under the protovestiarios Theophanes had to defend Constantinople from a Kievan raid; the invaders were defeated at sea, through the use of Greek fire, again at land, when they landed in Bithynia, by the returning army under Kourkouas. In 944 Romanos concluded a treaty with
The Huskies Pep Band is a scramble band from Michigan Technological University in Houghton, Michigan. They bill themselves as "Living Proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, The Cream of the Keweenaw, The Pride of Pastyland, The Second Best Feeling in the World." They are known for their irreverent cheers and taunts as well as their unique uniforms consisting of black-and-gold striped bib overalls and creative hats unique to each band member. The Huskies Pep Band performs at all home football, basketball and ice hockey games, as well as parades and other local events; the band is recognized as one of the best bands in NCAA Division 1 hockey because of their sheer power and energy, their firm roots in tradition. Michigan Technological University does not offer a degree in music, they have been featured in Inside College Hockey and are periodically mentioned when sportscasters discuss the tradition of the MacInnes Student Ice Arena. The band was formed in the fall of 1928 as the Michigan Tech ROTC Band, under the baton of E. E. Melville.
Their purpose was twofold: as an official part of the Michigan College of Mining and Technology's ROTC organization, they provided music for all military functions. They functioned as a circus style band, playing at various athletic and community events. In years, they would drop the ROTC affiliation, became the Michigan Tech Band the Michigan Tech Pep Band. In 1957, under the direction of B. Franz Schubert, the pep band became a university course; the Huskies Pep Band is under the direction of Michael Christianson, now maintains a membership of close to 300. The Pep Band is banned from the Northern Michigan University football dome and has been since the mid 80's; the band was formally requested by NMU's athletic director never to appear in their stadium as an opposing band again, because they took away the home field advantage. In 2008, the band attempted to circumvent this by crashing the yearly NMU-MTU football game without instruments; the band was refused seats and were forced to set up camp in the end zone, where they received more television airtime than the NMU band.
Chief among the band's traditional is the entry into the performance area. They are known for a distinctive drum cadence and playing Thus Spoke Zarathustra, the main theme from 2001: A Space Odyssey, as a warm-up before beginning the pre-game or other songs; the band's certain trademarks consist of excessive taunting of the opposing team. Some of the band's cheers and taunts have been blacklisted or banned due to their level of offensiveness, they are known for performing traditional songs such as "In Heaven There Is No Beer" and "The Engineers" along with a variety of selections in popular music. Some cheers and songs have been around since the 1930s and'40s, such as the "Blue Skirt Waltz" in which the pep band would link arms and sway back and forth; this tradition began during Winter Carnival in 1948 after Frankie Yankovic had performed there and has been since dubbed "The Copper Country Anthem". In addition to playing traditional songs, the pep band's repertoire has gone to more than 100 songs, with the exception of the Michigan Tech fight song, it is rare to hear a song played more than once in a weekend.
The band plays songs from the classic rock, pop genres and some orchestra and symphonic pieces such as Phantom of the Opera and Carmina Burana. The band is known locally for the tradition of'sunshining,' which involves surrounding a person who has done a worthy thing the eyes of the band, singing "You are my sunshine," off-key and loudly; the band plays "Hey Baby", sings the verse to by-standers, ballboys and the occasional opposing player or fan. The band is known for their creative visual performances at halftime shows. During Homecoming weekend, the entire band was known to dress up as hobos for Michigan's Tech Homecoming Parade; some of the antics of the band are considered Monty Python-esque performing songs from the sketches themselves and shouting the phrase "Run away!" when they exit from the performance. The band incorporates other non-traditional ensemble instruments, including electric bass guitar, kazoos, accordions, an electric viola, a toaster, an oven, a large inflatable lobster.
The history of the stripes themselves is as scrambled as the band itself. From the beginning of the band, they have been known for their entertaining uniforms. One of the original ideas was for a railroad engineer's cap. Thankfully, from a historical standpoint director Don Keranen decided to go with multi-colored striped bib overalls. Ten years when director Mike Griffith attempted to reorder, the band encountered a problem; the overalls were only offered in red/white. To remedy the situation, the trombone section was put into red and white and black were given to the new members, the returnees reused the multi-colored pairs as long as they could make them last; the official switch to gold and black stripes came in 1996 when director Jeff Bell-Hanson placed an order through a company called Lil’ Fan. The company made overalls for toddlers, which were the perfect material for the larger copies; the final order total came to about $12,000. The Michigan Tech Presidents club
Zacharias Paulusz was a Dutch Golden Age portrait painter from Alkmaar. According to Houbraken he painted the "Old" or "St. George" schutterij in Alkmaar in 1620, 1627, 1628, the last of which he saw as an over-the-mantel piece in the "Hopman's" room of the old militia meeting hall in Alkmaar. According to the RKD he painted the "Old" schutterij in 1615, 1621, 1629, 1630, he signed his works with the monogram ZP fecit. The Stedelijk Museum Alkmaar has four militia pieces by him on display. During the period he painted in Alkmaar, the city had two militia's, that previous to the Protestant Reformation had been called the militias of St. George and St. Sebastian. After the Reformation the civic guard was secularized; the St. George militia was called the Old guard, the St. Sebastian militia was called the New guard. In 1615 Paulusz painted the "Old guard" after the painter Frans Menton painted the "New guard"
Tokyo Jihen known as Tokyo Incidents, is a Japanese rock band formed by Ringo Sheena, after leaving her solo career. The band's debut single "Gunjō Biyori" was released in September 2004, they ended activities in February 2012; the band sold 2.3 million albums, DVDs. The band reunited and released a new single on January 1st, 2020. Tokyo Jihen started as Ringo Sheena's backing band at first for her last concert tour before ending the first half of her solo career. Sheena was contemplating working with a band while working on her last solo album, Kalk Samen Kuri no Hana, she began looking for members of her backing band to support her solo tour "Sugoroku Ecstasy" in the Autumn of 2003. The tour band was introduced as Tokyo Jihen during the tour for the first time, featuring guitarist Mikio Hirama, pianist H Zett M, drummer Toshiki Hata, familiar bassist Seiji Kameda; the musicians she selected became the core of. After the tour, she announced that she would stop her solo career to join "Tokyo Jihen" as a full-fledged member.
On May 31, 2004, the members of the Tokyo Jihen declared. On July 24, they appeared in the presence of fans at the live 0724 Yamabikari for the first time, they played some live sets during that year's Fuji Rock Festival, made their major debut with the single "Gunjō Biyori" on September 8. Tokyo Jihen released one album and two singles, held their first concert tour -Tokyo Jihen live tour 2005 "dynamite!"-. On July 1, 2005, it was announced during the tour that keyboardist H ZETT M and guitarist Mikio Hirama would leave Tokyo Jihen. H ZETT M returned to his duties as pianist for PE'Z, Hirama went back to being a solo singer, it was decided that they would withdraw from the band before the "dynamite!" tour started. After the departure of the band's former guitarist and keyboardist, Sheena began a search for new members, she was going to have at least a keyboard player join because two people left the band at the same time. H ZETT M recommended his friend and former bandmate, Keitaro Izawa, as a substitute for him to Sheena, but she began visiting music clubs to look for other keyboardists.
In the end she found no one, better than Izawa, Sheena decided to invite him to join. He assumed the stage name of Ichiyo Izawa during his time with the band; the search for a new guitarist proved more difficult. Sheena approached several guitarists as potential members, but was turned down by all of them because they disliked the idea of being considered her "backing band". At worst, she planned to choose a different guitarist each time without having a regular guitarist. However, when the other members listened to the first Tokyo Jihen album Kyōiku demos, the situation changed. All of them asked Sheena his name; this guitarist was Ryosuke Nagaoka. Sheena and Ukigumo had been friends since her days as a soloist, he turned down the offer to join Tokyo Jihen at first, but accepted just before recording began for Adult. With so many members replaced, Sheena considered changing the name of the band, but decided against it in the end. In September 2005, keyboardist Ichiyō Izawa and guitarist Ukigumo formally joined Tokyo Jihen.
The lineup including the former members subsequently came to be called Dai-Ikki, with the current one referred to as Dai-Niki. The band's second album "Adult", released on January 25, 2006, went to number one on the Oricon charts, a first for the band, they held two concerts, entitled "DOMESTIC! Virgin LINE", at Nippon Budokan Osaka-jo Hall in February as the new members debut. A nationwide tour, "DOMESTIC!" Just can't help it followed the same year. In the latter half of 2006, Sheena produced the film score of the movie Sakuran, on which three of the other four band members collaborated. Following the 2007 release of two singles, "O. S. C. A." and "Killer-tune", an album, the first release not containing any compositions by Sheena, they embarked on the concert tour "Tokyo Jihen live tour 2007 Spa & Treatment" to promote the album. The music video for "Killer-tune" won the Best Technical Works Video category in the March 15, 2008 Space Shower Music Video Awards 08 by Space Shower TV; as 2008 marked the 10th anniversary of Sheena's professional debut, she resumed solo activities as "Ringo Sheena" for the first time since the formation of Tokyo Jihen.
She participated in the summer Rising Sun Rock Festival both as a soloist and as a member of Tokyo Jihen. The activity of Tokyo Jihen was thus restricted during this period. In 2009, Sheena continued her solo activity from the previous year with the release of a new solo album, her first since 2003's Kalk Samen Kuri no Hana, in June. During the same period and Izawa resumed activities with their respective bands. Kameda returned to his work as a producer, overseeing several top ten releases, Hata participated in the recording and subsequent tour for Fujifabric's new album. Sheena and Izawa were all involved in the production of Rie Tomosaka's album Toridori the same year. Ukigumo and Izawa joined Tomosaka's promotional tour as part of her backing band. On May 25, 2009, it was announced that Izawa had joined "The Hiatus", a new band formed by former Ellegarden member Takeshi Hosomi, they defined The Hiatus as "a project of music and depicters" on the band's official site. Izawa was listed as a tour member on the site, took part in their "Trash We'd Love Tour 2009".
Izawa held some concerts with Hosomi as "Hosomi Ichiyō" from October to December. On December 2, 2009, Tokyo Jihen released the single "Nōdōteki Sanpunka