Edward Jean Steichen was a Luxembourgish American photographer and art gallery and museum curator. Steichen was the most shown photographer in Alfred Stieglitz's groundbreaking magazine Camera Work during its run from 1903 to 1917. Together Stieglitz and Steichen opened the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, which became known as 291 after its address, his photos of gowns for the magazine Art et Décoration in 1911 are regarded as the first modern fashion photographs published. From 1923 to 1938, Steichen was a photographer for the Condé Nast magazines Vogue and Vanity Fair while working for many advertising agencies including J. Walter Thompson. During these years, Steichen was regarded as the best known and highest paid photographer in the world. In 1944, he directed the war documentary The Fighting Lady, which won the 1945 Academy Award for Best Documentary. From 1947 to 1961, Steichen served as Director of the Department of Photography at New York's Museum of Modern Art. While at MoMA, he curated and assembled the exhibit The Family of Man, seen by nine million people.
Steichen was born Éduard Jean Steichen in Bivange, the son of Jean-Pierre and Marie Kemp Steichen. Jean-Pierre Steichen first immigrated to the United States in 1880. Marie Steichen brought the infant Éduard along once Jean-Pierre had settled in Chicago, in 1881; the family, with the addition of Éduard's younger sister Lilian, moved to Milwaukee in 1889, when Steichen was 10. In 1894, at fifteen, Steichen began attending Pio Nono College, a Catholic boy's high school, where his artistic talents were first noticed, he quit high school to begin a four-year lithography apprenticeship with the American Fine Art Company of Milwaukee. After hours, he would sketch and draw, began to teach himself to paint. Having come across a camera shop near his work, he visited until he persuaded himself to buy his first camera, a secondhand Kodak box "detective" camera, in 1895. Steichen and his friends who were interested in drawing and photography pooled together their funds, rented a small room in a Milwaukee office building, began calling themselves the Milwaukee Art Students League.
The group hired Richard Lorenz and Robert Schade for occasional lectures. Steichen was naturalized as a U. S. signed the naturalization papers as Edward J. Steichen. Steichen married Clara Smith in 1903, they had two daughters and Mary. In 1914, Clara accused her husband of having an affair with artist Marion H. Beckett, staying with them in France; the Steichens left France just ahead of invading German troops. In 1915, Clara Steichen returned to France with her daughter Kate, staying in their house in the Marne in spite of the war. Steichen returned to France with the Photography Division of the American Army Signal Corps in 1917, whereupon Clara returned to the United States. In 1919, Clara Steichen sued Marion Beckett for having an affair with her husband, but was unable to prove her claims. Clara and Eduard Steichen divorced in 1922. Steichen married Dana Desboro Glover in 1923, she died of leukemia in 1957. In 1960, aged 80, Steichen married 27-year-old Joanna Taub and remained married to her until his death, two days before his 94th birthday.
Joanna Steichen died on July 24, 2010, in Montauk, New York, aged 77. Clarence H. White thought Stieglitz should meet. White produced an introduction letter for Steichen and Steichen met Alfred Stieglitz in New York City in 1900. In that first meeting, Stieglitz expressed praise for Steichen's background in painting and bought three of Steichen's photographic prints. In 1902, when Stieglitz was formulating what would become Camera Work, he asked Steichen to design the logo for the magazine with a custom typeface. Steichen was the most shown photographer in the journal. In 1904, Steichen began experimenting with color photography, he was one of the first people in the United States to use the Autochrome Lumière process. In 1905, Stieglitz and Steichen created the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, which became known as 291 after its address, it presented some of the first American exhibitions of Henri Matisse, Auguste Rodin, Paul Cézanne, Pablo Picasso, Constantin Brâncuși. In 1911, Steichen was "dared" by Lucien Vogel, the publisher of Jardin des Modes and La Gazette du Bon Ton, to promote fashion as a fine art by the use of photography.
Steichen took photos of gowns designed by couturier Paul Poiret, which were published in the April 1911 issue of the magazine Art et Décoration. According to Jesse Alexander, this is "... now considered to be the first modern fashion photography shoot. That is, photographing the garments in such a way as to convey a sense of their physical quality as well as their formal appearance, as opposed to illustrating the object."Serving in the US Army in World War I, Steichen commanded significant units contributing to military photography. After World War I, during which he commanded the photographic division of the American Expeditionary Forces, he reverted to straight photography moving into fashion photography. Steichen's 1928 photo of actress Greta Garbo is recognized as one of the definitive portraits of Garbo; the initial publication of Ansel Adams' image Moonrise, New Mexico was in U. S. Camera Annual 1943, after being selected by Steichen, serving as photo judge for the publication; this gave Moonrise an audience before its first formal exhibition at the Museum of Mode
ARTnews is an American visual-arts magazine, based in New York City. It covers art from ancient to contemporary times, it includes news dispatches from correspondents, investigative reports, reviews of exhibitions, profiles of artists and collectors. The magazine was founded by James Clarence Hyde in 1902 as Hydes Weekly Art News and was published eleven times a year. From vol. 3, no. 52 to vol. 21, no. 18, the magazine was published as American Art News. From February 1923 to the present, the magazine has been published as The Art News ARTnews; the magazine's art critics and correspondents include Arthur Danto, Linda Yablonsky, Barbara Pollock, Margarett Loke, Hilarie Sheets, Yale School of Art dean Robert Storr, Doug McClemont and Museum of Modern Art director Glenn D. Lowry. In April 2014, Milton and Judith Esterow, the magazine's owners since 1972, sold the publication to Skate Capital Corp. a private asset-management firm owned by Sergey Skaterschikov. It was revealed that Skate Capital was acting on behalf of the Polish company Abbey House, which renamed itself ARTNEWS SA.
Following this change in ownership the magazine merged with Art in America in June 2015, owned by Brant Publication's BMP Media Holdings, LLC. In October 2015 the monthly frequency of ARTnews was switched to quarterly. In 2016, Brant Publications took full control of BMP; the magazine, along with Art in America, The Magazine ANTIQUES, Modern Magazine have been owned by Art Media Holdings since June 2016 and are based in Soho, New York City. The magazine has won the George Polk Award, the National Magazine Award for General Excellence, the National Headliner Award and the National Arts Club Distinguished Citation for Merit; the ARTNews Top 200 list is released annually and contains the top individual art collectors from around the world based on interviews with collectors, dealers, auction houses, museums. Those on the list are surveyed, their responses are used to inform trends and provide data, such as a breakdown of where the most top art collectors live. Collectors on the list are profiled with a brief biography focused on the type of art that they collect and includes their city or cities of residence, a photo, their source of wealth and the years they have been on the Top 200 list, as many collectors are on it for multiple years.
The list released in September 2018 includes Leonard Lauder and Eli Broad and Warren Eisenberg and Peter Klein and Jeffrey Perelman, Tatsumi Sako and Howard Schultz. The full list is announced in online versions of the magazine. List of art magazines List of United States magazines Official website Artnews Top 200 Collectors
Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the pop art movement. Rauschenberg is well known for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials and objects were employed in innovative combinations. Rauschenberg was both a painter and a sculptor and the Combines are a combination of both, but he worked with photography, printmaking and performance. Robert Rauschenberg was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1993, he became the recipient of the Leonardo da Vinci World Award of Arts in 1995 in recognition of his more than 40 years of fruitful artmaking. Rauschenberg lived and worked in New York City as well as on Captiva Island, Florida until his death from heart failure on May 12, 2008. Rauschenberg was born as Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in Port Arthur, the son of Dora Carolina and Ernest R. Rauschenberg, his father was of his mother of Anglo-Saxon descent. His parents were Fundamentalist Christians. Rauschenberg was dyslexic.
At 16, Rauschenberg was admitted to the University of Texas. He was drafted into the United States Navy in 1943. Based in California, he served as a mental hospital technician until his discharge in 1945. Rauschenberg subsequently studied at the Kansas City Art Institute and the Académie Julian in Paris, where he met the painter Susan Weil. In 1948 Rauschenberg and Weil decided to attend Black Mountain College in North Carolina. Josef Albers, a founder of the Bauhaus, became Rauschenberg's painting instructor at Black Mountain. Albers' preliminary courses relied on strict discipline that did not allow for any "uninfluenced experimentation". Rauschenberg described Albers as influencing him to do "exactly the reverse" of what he was being taught. From 1949 to 1952 Rauschenberg studied with Vaclav Vytlacil and Morris Kantor at the Art Students League of New York, where he met fellow artists Knox Martin and Cy Twombly. Rauschenberg married Susan Weil in the summer of 1950 at the Weil family home in Outer Island, Connecticut.
Their only child, was born July 16, 1951. The two separated in June 1952 and divorced in 1953. According to a 1987 oral history by the composer Morton Feldman, after the end of his marriage, Rauschenberg had romantic relationships with fellow artists Cy Twombly and Jasper Johns. An article by Jonathan D. Katz states that Rauschenberg's affair with Twombly began during his marriage to Susan Weil. Rauschenberg died on May 2008, on Captiva Island, Florida, he died of heart failure at the age of 82 after a personal decision to go off life support. Rauschenberg is survived by his partner of 25 years, artist Darryl Pottorf, his former assistant. Rauschenberg is survived by his son, photographer Christopher Rauschenberg, his sister, Janet Begneaud. Rauschenberg's approach was sometimes called "Neo Dadaist," a label he shared with the painter Jasper Johns. Rauschenberg was quoted as saying that he wanted to work "in the gap between art and life" suggesting he questioned the distinction between art objects and everyday objects, reminiscent of the issues raised by the Fountain, by Dada pioneer, Marcel Duchamp.
At the same time, Johns' paintings of numerals and the like, were reprising Duchamp's message of the role of the observer in creating art's meaning. Alternatively, in 1961, Rauschenberg took a step in what could be considered the opposite direction by championing the role of creator in creating art's meaning. Rauschenberg was invited to participate in an exhibition at the Galerie Iris Clert, where artists were to create and display a portrait of the owner, Iris Clert. Rauschenberg's submission consisted of a telegram sent to the gallery declaring "This is a portrait of Iris Clert if I say so." From the fall of 1952 to the spring of 1953 Rauschenberg traveled through Europe and North Africa with his fellow artist and partner Cy Twombly. In Morocco, he created boxes out of trash, he exhibited them at galleries in Rome and Florence. A lot of them sold. From his stay, 38 collages survived. In a famously cited incident of 1953, Rauschenberg erased a drawing by de Kooning, which he obtained from his colleague for the express purpose of erasing it as an artistic statement.
The result is titled Erased de Kooning Drawing. By 1962, Rauschenberg's paintings were beginning to incorporate not only found objects but found images as well - photographs transferred to the canvas by means of the silkscreen process. Used only in commercial applications, silkscreen allowed Rauschenberg to address the multiple reproducibility of images, the consequent flattening of experience that implies. In this respect, his work is contemporaneous with that of Andy Warhol, both Rauschenberg and Johns are cited as important forerunners of American Pop Art. In 1966, Billy Klüver and Rauschenberg launched Experiments in Art and Technology a non-profit organization established to promote collaborations between artists and engineers. In 1969, NASA invited Rauschenberg to witness the launch of Apollo 11. In response to this landmark event, Rauschenberg created his Stoned Moon Series of lithographs; this involved combining diagrams and other images from NASA's archives with photographs from various media outlets, as well as with his own work.
From 1970 he worked from his studio in Captiva, Florida. His first project on Captiva Island was a 16.5-meter-long silkscreen print called Currents, made with newspapers from the first two months of the year, followed by Cardboards and Early Egyptians, the latter of, a series of wall reliefs and sculptures constructed from u
Women's Wear Daily
Women's Wear Daily is a fashion-industry trade journal sometimes called "the bible of fashion". WWD delivers information and intelligence on changing trends and breaking news in the men and women's fashion and retail industries with a readership composed of retailers, manufacturers, financiers, media executives, advertising agencies and trend makers, it is the flagship publication of Fairchild Fashion Media, owned by Penske Media Corporation. James Fallon is the editorial director of Fairchild Fashion and the publisher of WWD is Paul Jowdy, its editor-in-chief is Miles Socha. The final newsprint edition of WWD was printed on April 24, 2015 as the paper switched to a digital daily format and a weekly print edition was launched on April 29, 2015; the journal was founded by Edmund Fairchild on July 13, 1910 as an outgrowth of the menswear journal Daily News Record. The publication acquired a firm standing in the New York clothing industry, due to the influence of its first advertisers, including the Philadelphia and New York Wanamaker's, an esteemed group of fashion journalists who included Edith Rosenbaum Russell, who served as Women's Wear Daily's first Paris correspondent.
Apart from her work for the paper, Rosenbaum was a leading freelance fashion buyer, a pioneering celebrity stylist and a press attaché for the powerful Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture Parisienne. Though WWD's lesser reporters were sometimes assigned to the last row of couture shows—a sign of the newspaper's specialized appeal within the American garment trade—the paper realized greater popular appeal by the late 1950s. John Fairchild, who became the European bureau chief of Fairchild Publications in 1955 and the publisher of WWD in 1960, improved WWD's standing by focusing on the human side of fashion, he turned his newspaper's attention to the social scene of fashion designers and their clients, helped manufacture a "cult of celebrity" around designers. Fairchild played hardball to help his circulation. After two couturiers forbade press coverage until one month after buyers had seen their clothes, Fairchild published photos and sketches anyway, he sent reporters to fashion houses disguised as messengers, or had them observe designers' new styles from windows of buildings opposite fashion houses.
"I have learned in fashion to be a little savage," he wrote in his memoir. John Fairchild was publisher of the magazine from 1960 to 1996. Under Fairchild, the company's feuds were legendary; when a designer's statements or work offended Fairchild, he would retaliate, sometimes banning any reference to them in his newspaper for years at a stretch. The newspaper famously sparred with Hubert de Givenchy, Cristóbal Balenciaga, John Weitz, Azzedine Alaia, Perry Ellis, Yves Saint Laurent, Giorgio Armani, Bill Blass, Geoffrey Beene, James Galanos, Mollie Parnis, Oscar de la Renta, Norman Norell, among others. In response, some designers forbade their representatives from speaking to WWD reporters or disinvited WWD reporters from their fashion shows. In general, those excluded "kept their mouths shut and it on the chin." When designer Pauline Trigère, excluded from the paper for three years, took out a full-page advertisement protesting the ban in the fashion section of a 1988 New York Times Magazine, it was believed to be the first distributed counterattack on Fairchild's policy.
In 1999, Fairchild Publications was sold by the Walt Disney Company to Advance Publications, the parent company of Condé Nast Publications. As a result, Fairchild Publications became a unit of Condé Nast, though WWD was technically operated separately from Condé Nast's consumer publications such as Vogue and Glamour. In November 2010, WWD celebrated its 100th anniversary at the Cipriani in New York, with some of the fashion industry's leading experts including designers Alber Elbaz, Ralph Lauren, Marc Jacobs and Michael Kors. On August 19, 2014, Conde Nast sold Women's Wear Daily to Penske Media Corporation; the purchase by PMC included WWD's sister publications Footwear News, Menswear, M Magazine, Beauty Inc as well as Fairchild's events business for a sale price close to $100 million. On April 12, 2015, Women's Wear Daily announced on their website that they will launch a weekly print format from April 23 on. A Daily Digital edition of WWD is available to subscribers. On July 20, 2015, Penske Media Corporation and Tribune Publishing Company announced that WWD will appear on LATimes.com and will be distributed to select Los Angeles Times, the San Diego Union-Tribune, Chicago Tribune and Sun-Sentinel subscribers 12 times per year.
Isadore Barmash. Fashion, Retailing and a Bygone Era: Inside Women's Wear Daily—A Look Back. Baltimore, MD: Beard Books. ISBN 1-58798-269-2. WWD.com FootwearNews.com
Richard Prince is an American painter and photographer. In the mid-1970s, Prince made drawings and painterly collages, he began copying other photographers' work in 1977. His image, Untitled, a rephotographing of a photograph by Sam Abell and appropriated from a cigarette advertisement, was the first rephotograph to be sold for more than $1 million at auction at Christie's New York in 2005, he is regarded as "one of the most revered artists of his generation" according to the New York Times. Starting in 1977, Prince photographed four photographs which appeared in the New York Times; this process of rephotographing continued into 1983, when his work Spiritual America featured Garry Gross's photo of Brooke Shields at the age of ten, standing in a bathtub, as an allusion to precocious sexuality and to the Alfred Stieglitz photograph by the same name. His Jokes series concerns the sexual fantasies and sexual frustrations of white, middle-class America, using stand-up comedy and burlesque humor. After living in New York City for 25 years, Prince moved to upstate New York.
His mini-museum, Second House, purchased by the Guggenheim Museum, was struck by lightning and burned down shortly after the museum purchased the House, having only stood for six years, from 2001 to 2007. In 2008 the painting'Overseas Nurse' from 2002 fetched a record-breaking $8,452,000 at Sotheby's in London. Prince now works in New York City. Richard Prince was born on August 6, 1949, in the U. S.-controlled Panama Canal Zone, now part of the Republic of Panama. During an interview in 2000 with Julie L. Belcove, he responded to the question of why his parents were in the Zone, by saying "they worked for the government." When asked further if his father was involved in the military, Prince responded, "No, he just worked for the government." The Wall Street Journal reported that Prince's parents worked for the Office of Strategic Services in the Panama Canal before he was born. Prince lived in the New England city of Braintree, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston, Provincetown on Cape Cod. In 1973, he joined publishing company Time Inc..
His job at the Time Inc. library involved providing the company’s various magazines with tear sheets of articles. Prince was first interested in the art of the American abstract expressionist Jackson Pollock. "I was attracted to the idea of someone, by themselves antisocial, kind of a loner, someone, noncollaborative." Prince grew up during the height of Pollock's career. The 1956 Time magazine article dubbing Pollock "Jack the Dripper" made the thought of pursuing art as career possible. After finishing high school in 1967, Prince set off for Europe at age 18, he attended Nasson College in Maine. He describes his school as without real structure. From Maine moved to Braintree and for a brief time lived in Provincetown, he was drawn to New York City. Prince has said that his attraction to New York was instigated by the famous photograph of Franz Kline gazing out the window of his 14th Street studio. Prince described the picture as "a man content to be alone, pursuing the outside world from the sanctum of his studio."Prince's first solo exhibition took place in June 1980 during a residency at the CEPA gallery in Buffalo, New York.
His short book Menthol Wars was published as part of the residency. In 1981 Prince had his first West Coast solo exhibition at Jancar Kuhlenschmidt Gallery in Los Angeles. In 1985, he spent four months making art in a rented house in Los Angeles. In late 2007, Prince had a retrospective at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, a comprehensive show hung in chronological order along the upward spiraling walls; the show continued onto the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis. Maria Morris Hamburg, the curator of photography at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, asserted, "He is essential to what's going on today, he figured out before anyone else—and in a precocious manner—how pervasive the media is. It's not just an aspect of our lives, but the dominant aspect of our lives." Prince has built up a large collection of Beat papers. Prince owns several copies of On the Road by Jack Kerouac, including one inscribed to Kerouac's mother, one famously read on The Steve Allen Show, the original proof copy of the book and an original galley, as well as the copy owned by Neal Cassady, with Cassady’s signature and marginal notes.
Describing his career and methodology in a 2005 New York magazine interview, Prince said, "It's about knocking about in the studio and bumping into things." Re-photography uses appropriation as its own focus: artists pull from the works of others and the worlds they depict to create their own work. Appropriation art became popular in the late 1970s. Other appropriation artists such as Sherrie Levine, Louise Lawler, Vikky Alexander, Cindy Sherman, Barbara Kruger and Mike Bidlo became prominent in the East Village in the 1980s. All of these artists were influenced by the work of John Baldessari and Robert Heineken, both of whom have worked extensively with found or readymade print photography since the 1960s, Baldessari working with Hollywood film stills and Heineken with magazine advertisements and print pornography. Both artists taught at UCLA and the California Institute for the Arts in Southern California throughout the 1970s, when many of these artists attended school there. During the early period of his career, Prince worked in Time magazine's tear sheets department.
At the end of each work day, he would be left with nothing but the torn out advertising images from the eig
Robert Indiana was an American artist associated with the pop art movement. His "LOVE" print, first created for the Museum of Modern Art's Christmas card in 1965, was the basis for his 1970 Love sculpture and the distributed 1973 United States Postal Service "LOVE" stamp, he created works in media including Cor-ten steel. Robert Indiana was born Robert Clark in New Castle, Indiana, as the only child of Earl Clark and Carmen Watters. After his parents divorced, he relocated to Indianapolis to live with his father so he could attend Arsenal Technical High School, from which he graduated as valedictorian of his class. After serving for three years in the United States Army Air Forces, Indiana studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine and Edinburgh University and Edinburgh College of Art, he settled in New York City. In New York, Indiana's lover Ellsworth Kelly helped. On Coenties Slip he met neighboring artists like Jack Youngerman, Agnes Martin and Cy Twombly, with whom he shared his studio for a time.
In 1964, Indiana moved from Coenties Slip to a five-story building at the Bowery. In 1969, he began renting the upstairs of the mansarded Victorian-style Odd Fellows Hall named "The Star of Hope" in the island town of Vinalhaven, Maine, as a seasonal studio from the photographer Eliot Elisofon. Half a century earlier, Marsden Hartley had made his escape to the same island; when Elisofon died in 1973, Indiana bought the lodge for $10,000 from his estate. He moved in full-time when he lost his lease on the Bowery in 1978. Indiana grew reclusive in his final years, he died on May 19, 2018, at his home in Vinalhaven, Maine, of respiratory failure at the age of 89. One day before his death, a lawsuit was filed over claims that his caretaker had isolated him from family and friends, was marketing unauthorized reproductions of his works. Indiana's work consists of bold, iconic images numbers and short words like EAT, HUG, his best known example, LOVE. In his EAT series, the word blares in light bulbs against a neutral background.
In a major career milestone, the architect Philip Johnson commissioned an EAT sign for the New York State Pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair. The sign was turned off one day after the opening of the fair because visitors believed it to mark a restaurant. Andy Warhol's contribution to the fair was removed that day. Other well-known works by Indiana include: his painting the unique basketball court used by the Milwaukee Bucks in that city's MECCA Arena, with a large M shape taking up each half of the court. Between 1989 and 1994, Indiana painted a series of 18 canvases inspired by the shapes and numbers in the war motifs paintings that Marsden Hartley did in Berlin between 1913 and 1915. Indiana was a theatrical set and costume designer, such as the 1976 production by the Santa Fe Opera of Virgil Thomson's The Mother of Us All, based on the life of suffragist Susan B. Anthony, he was the star of Andy Warhol's film Eat, a 45-minute film of Indiana eating a mushroom. Warhol made the brief silent film Bob Indiana Etc. a portrait of the artist with appearances by Wynn Chamberlain and John Giorno.
Indiana's best known image is the word Love in upper-case letters, arranged in a square with a tilted letter "O". The iconography first appeared in a series of poems written in 1958, in which Indiana stacked LO and VE on top of one another in a painting with the words "Love is God"; the red/green/blue image was created for a Christmas card for the Museum of Modern Art in 1964. It was put on an eight-cent U. S. Postal Service postage stamp in 1973, the first of their regular series of "love stamps"; the first serigraph/silk screen of "Love" was printed as part of an exhibition poster for Stable Gallery in 1966. In 1977, he created a Hebrew version with the four-letter word Ahava using Cor-ten steel, for the Israel Museum Art Garden in Jerusalem. In 2008, Indiana created an image similar to his iconic LOVE, but this time showcasing the word "HOPE", donated all proceeds from the sale of reproductions of his image to Democrat Barack Obama's presidential campaign, raising in excess of $1,000,000. A stainless steel sculpture of HOPE was unveiled outside Denver's Pepsi Center during the 2008 Democratic National Convention.
Editions of the sculpture have been released and sold internationally and the artist himself has called HOPE "Love's close relative". For Valentine's Day 2011, Indiana created a similar variation on LOVE for Google, displayed in place of the search engine site's normal logo. In 1962, Eleanor Ward's Stable Gallery hosted Robert Indiana's first New York solo exhibition, he was represented by Paul Kasmin Gallery in New York Galerie Gmurzynska in Europe. From July 4 – September 14, 2008, Indiana's work was the subject of the grand multiple-location exhibition "Robert Indiana a Milano" with the main exhibition having been at the Padiglione d’Arte Contemporanea, in the city, with other works displayed in public piazzas. In 2013, the Whitney Museum of American Art mounted a retrospective of his work entitled "Robert Indiana: Beyond LOVE", this exhibition traveled to the
A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major