Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Chino is a city in San Bernardino County, United States at the western end of the Riverside-San Bernardino Area. Chino and its surroundings have long been a center of agriculture and dairy farming, providing milk products in Southern California and much of the southwestern United States. Chino's agricultural history dates back to the Spanish land grant forming Rancho Santa Ana del Chino; the area specialized in orchard, row crops and dairy. Chino is bounded by Chino Hills to the west, Pomona to the northwest, unincorporated San Bernardino County to the north, Ontario to the northeast, Eastvale to the Southeast, unincorporated Riverside County to the south, it is accessible via the Chino Valley and Pomona freeways. The population was 77,983 at the 2010 census. Downtown Chino is home to satellite branches of the San Bernardino County Library and Chaffey Community College, the Chino Community Theatre, the Chino Boxing Club and a weekly Farmer's Market. In 2008, the city of Chino was awarded the prestigious "100 Best Communities for Youth" award for the second time in three years.
Chino hosted shooting events for the 1984 Summer Olympics at the Prado Olympic Shooting Park in the Prado Regional Park. Two California state prisons for adults, as well as the Heman G. Stark Youth Correctional Facility, lie within the city limits; the land grant on which the town was founded was called Rancho Santa Ana del Chino. Santa Ana is Spanish for Saint Anne, but the exact meaning of "Chino" has been explained in different ways. One explanation is; the president of the Chino Valley Historical Society, drawing on US Civil War-era letters, designates the "curl" referenced in the toponym as that at the top of the grama grass that abounded in the valley. The Tongva had a settlement called Wapijangna in the Santa Ana River watershed; some residents of Wapijanga were baptized at Mission San Gabriel, established in 1771. The Spanish crown claimed the land until Mexican independence was finalized and possession fell to the Mexican government; some twenty years Mexican governor of Alta California Juan Bautista Alvarado granted Rancho Santa Ana del Chino to Antonio Maria Lugo of the prominent Lugo family.
Two years his successor, Governor Micheltorena, granted an additional three leagues to Lugo's son-in-law Isaac Williams, who took charge of the rancho. Williams kept large quantities of horses and cattle, which attracted the envy of raiding Native Americans as well as unscrupulous whites. One of the latter was James Beckwourth, who, in 1840, posed as an otter hunter and stayed at Rancho Chino to determine the location of the area's animals, which he reported to Walkara, the Ute mastermind of the raids. Early in the Mexican–American War, the Battle of Chino took place at Williams' rancho; the battle ended prior to the arrival of the Mormon Battalion, dispatched on behalf of the United States, who instead labored in the rancho's agricultural harvest and constructed a grist mill. During the California Gold Rush, the rancho was a popular stopover for travelers, in the mining fury, coal was discovered there. In 1850, California was admitted to the union, the process of separating held lands from the public domain began.
The Williams claim to the Chino Rancho was patented in 1869. Richard Gird was the next owner of the Rancho. Beginning in 1887, his land was laid out, it became the'Town of Chino,' and incorporated into a city in 1910. Sugar beets and alfalfa were raised there; the Chino Valley, located at the foot of an alluvial plain with fertile topsoil reaching depths of 4 feet, was an agricultural mecca from the 1890s up through the mid 20th century. Sugar beets were a significant part of the economy in the early 1900s, followed by sweet corn, walnuts and strawberries; the city's official logo/crest features an overflowing cornucopia. The dairy industry flourished from the 1950s through the 1980s, with dairy-friendly zoning in the southwest corner of San Bernardino County encouraging many ethnic Dutch families to locate there and become the cornerstone of the industry. Chino's large efficient dairies made it the largest milk-producing community in the nation's largest milk-producing state; because of its pastoral setting and rural flavor, Chino was a popular site for Hollywood crews to shoot "midwestern" settings.
1960's movies included Bus Riley's Back in Town starring Michael Parks. In the 1970s, Chino developed into a small suburban city, forming the western anchor of the Inland Empire region, now the city's development has taken on a more middle-class character. There are still many industrial areas as well as farm animals such as chickens. According to the 2004 FBI UCR, the city had about 3.6 violent crimes per 1,000 population, typical for an American suburb, its property crime below average. On July 11, 2017, in a special election, Chino voters voted against Measure H, which would have allowed 30 acres of rural land located near Ontario, to be used to build a total of 180 new homes by home builder D. R. Horton; the measure faced considerable opposition by residents of the city despite support from the Chino Chamber of Commerce and school district. According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Chino is a part of the Chino Valley Unified School
My Name Is Earl
My Name Is Earl is an American sitcom series created by Greg Garcia that aired on the NBC television network from September 20, 2005, to May 14, 2009, in the United States. It was produced by 20th Century Fox Television and starred Jason Lee as Earl Hickey, the title character; the series starred Ethan Suplee, Jaime Pressly, Nadine Velazquez, Eddie Steeples. Most episodes from the first season only a few from the rest, began with Earl presenting the premise of the series: Earl Hickey is a small-time thief, living in the fictional rural town of Camden, who loses his winning $100,000 lottery ticket after being hit by a car while he celebrates his good fortune. Lying in a hospital bed, he learns about karma during an episode of the talk show Last Call with Carson Daly. Convinced he has to turn his life around to be happy, Earl gives himself over to the power of karma, he makes a list of every bad thing he's done and every person he has wronged, makes efforts to fix them all. After doing a first good deed, he finds the $100,000 lottery ticket.
Seeing this as a sign of karma rewarding him for his commitment, Earl uses his newfound wealth to do more good deeds according to his list. Earl's wife Joy throws him out, leaving her with Dodge, whom she conceived before getting together with Earl, Earl Jr., fathered during their marriage, but not by Earl. Earl moves into a motel and lives with his brother Randy, they meet Catalina, the motel's beautiful maid who illegally emigrated from somewhere in Latin America. Earl works on the list which involves strangers and old acquaintances he has wronged, but contains items involving his family. Joy plots to kill or blackmail Earl for his lottery winnings, but gives up. Joy marries Darnell Turner, a mutual friend who works at a local restaurant called the Crab Shack, with whom she had been having an affair. In the Season One finale, Earl discovers he had bought the lotto tickets using money he stole from another person, but when he tries to return his winnings to that person, the latter is inflicted with bad karma, so he returns the money to Earl.
The second season has Earl continuing to work on his list, Joy gets in trouble when she steals a delivery truck and ends up kidnapping and assaulting the member of staff, inside. Joy is arrested for felonies. To soften the jury, she decides to have a surrogate baby for her half-sister Liberty Washington; when things do not go well at her trial, Earl sacrifices himself by confessing to all of Joy's crimes, is sentenced to two years in a state penitentiary. During the series, Catalina was deported, so Earl and Randy visit her home village in Latin America, Randy marries Catalina in a green card marriage so she can return to the United States. In the third season, Earl is still imprisoned, but continues to do good deeds despite not having his list on him, he meets Frank, whom he had rented the trailer from in which her husband Darnell now live. Meanwhile, Joy gives birth to Ray Ray's baby. Earl's good deeds attract the attention of the state warden Jerry, who offers Earl a reduction in prison time for helping him resolve his issues.
When Earl is about to leave, Jerry revokes Earl's reductions as he would lose such a productive helper, but Earl gains the upper hand and forces Jerry to honor his early release. After leaving prison, Earl loses his confidence in the list, he reverts to his old, malicious ways, doing cruel and illegal things until Frank's ex-girlfriend Billie Cunningham hits him with her car and puts him into a coma as a result. Randy is able to revive Earl by working on the list. Earl marries her, thinking she is karma's reward for his years of effort; when Earl and Billie argue over the list, when Earl chooses the list over her, Billie goes into a rampage where she undoes his good deeds. However, when Billie hides in the Amish-like "Camdenite" settlement, she has a change of heart, she gives him the rest of her insurance settlement money. The fourth season goes back to focusing on Earl doing good deeds to cross off his list. A major story arc during this season was that Darnell, a former assassin from a secret government agency, blows his witness protection cover.
He, Joy and his family are forced to change identities and relocate until Darnell's father from the agency, goes on a mission with Darnell which clears them of needing protection. The season ends with a cliffhanger episode in which Earl and the gang learn from DNA test results that Earl is Dodge's biological father. However, they learn that Darnell is not Earl Jr.'s father, revealing Joy had another affair. Jason Lee as Earl Hickey, a small-time thug who turns his life around after winning money on a lottery scratcher and making a list of wrongs that he plans to make amends for. Ethan Suplee as Randy Hickey, Earl's dim-witted brother. Jaime Pressly as Joy Turner, Earl's ex-wife who lives in a trailer park. Nadine Velazquez as Catalina, the maid at the motel where Earl and Randy reside. Eddie Steeples as Darnell Turner, a worker at the local restaurant that Earl and the gang frequent, he marries Joy in season 1. Creator and head writer Greg Garcia wrote the pilot while working on another sitcom, Dear.
He pitched the series to Fox which passed on the series. He approached NBC, which optioned the pilot on a cast-contingent basis, meaning the
The gallon is a unit of measurement for volume and fluid capacity in both the US customary units and the British imperial systems of measurement. Three different sizes are in current use: the imperial gallon defined as 4.54609 litres, used in the United Kingdom and some Caribbean nations. The IEEE standard symbol for the gallon is gal; the gallon has one definition in the imperial system, two definitions in the US customary system. There were many definitions and redefinitions. There were more than a few systems of liquid measurements in the pre-1884 United Kingdom. Winchester or Corn Gallon was 272 in3 Henry VII corn gallon from 1497 onwards was 154.80 fl oz Elizabeth I corn gallon from 1601 onwards was 155.70 fl oz William III corn gallon from 1697 onwards was 156.90 fl oz Old English Ale Gallon was 282 in3 Old English Wine Gallon was standardized as 231 in3 in the 1706 Act 5 Anne c27, but it differed before that: London'Guildhall' gallon was 129.19 fl oz Jersey gallon was 139.20 fl oz Guernsey gallon was 150.14 fl oz Irish Gallon was 217 in3 The imperial gallon, now defined as 4.54609 litres, is used in some Commonwealth countries and was based on the volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 °F.
The imperial fluid ounce is defined as 1/160 of an imperial gallon. The US gallon is defined as 231 cubic inches, 3.785411784 litres. A US liquid gallon of water weighs about 8.34 pounds or 3.78 kilograms at 62 °F, making it about 16.6% lighter than the imperial gallon. There are four quarts in a gallon, two pints in a quart and 16 US fluid ounces in a US pint, which makes the US fluid ounce equal to 1/128 of a US gallon. In order to overcome the effects of expansion and contraction with temperature when using a gallon to specify a quantity of material for purposes of trade, it is common to define the temperature at which the material will occupy the specified volume. For example, the volume of petroleum products and alcoholic beverages are both referenced to 60 °F in government regulations; this dry measure is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches. The US dry gallon is not used in commerce, is not listed in the relevant statute, which jumps from the dry quart to the peck.
Gallons used in fuel economy expression in Canada and the United Kingdom are imperial gallons. Despite its status as a U. S. territory, unlike American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands and the U. S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico ceased selling gasoline by the US gallon in 1980; the gallon was removed from the list of defined primary units of measure catalogued in the EU directive 80/181/EEC for trading and official purposes, with effect from 31 December 1994. Under the directive the gallon could still be used – but only as a supplementary or secondary unit. One of the effects of this directive was that the United Kingdom amended its own legislation to replace the gallon with the litre as a primary unit of measure in trade and in the conduct of public business, effective from 30 September 1995. Ireland passed legislation in response to the EU directive, with the effective date being 31 December 1993. Though the gallon has ceased to be the defined primary unit, it can still be used in both the UK and Ireland as a supplementary unit.
The United Arab Emirates started selling gasoline by the litre in 2010, along with Guyana, Panama in 2013. The two former had used the latter the US gallon until they switched. Myanmar switched from Imperial gallon to litre sales before 2014; the Imperial gallon continues to be used as a unit of measure in Anguilla and Barbuda, the Bahamas, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines. Other than the United States, the US gallon is used in Liberia, Colombia, The Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras and Peru, but only for the sale of gasoline. All other products are sold in its multiples and submultiples. Antigua and Barbuda planned to switch over to using litres by 2015, but as of 2018 the switch-over had not been effected. In the Turks & Caicos Islands, both the U. S. gallon and Imperial gallon are used, due to an increase in tax duties disguised by levying the same duty on the 3.79 L U. S. gallon as was levied on the 4.55 L Imperial gallon.
Both the US liquid and imperial gallon are divided into four quarts, which in turn are divided into two pints. These pints are divided into two cups, thus a gallon is equal to four quarts, sixteen cups or thirty-two gills. The imperial gill is further divided into five fluid ounces, whereas the US gill is divided into four fluid ounces, thus an imperial fluid ounce is 1/20 of an imperial pint or 1/160 of an im
Thelma Catherine "Pat" Nixon commonly known as Patricia Nixon, was an American educator and the wife of Richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States. During her more than 30 years in public life, she served as both the Second and First Lady of the United States. Born in Ely, she grew up with her two brothers in what is now Cerritos, graduating from high school in 1929, she attended Fullerton Junior College and the University of Southern California. She paid for her schooling by working multiple jobs, including pharmacy manager, typist and retail clerk. In 1940, she married lawyer Richard Nixon and they had two daughters and Julie. Dubbed the "Nixon team," Richard and Pat Nixon campaigned together in his successful congressional campaigns of 1946 and 1948. Richard Nixon was elected Vice President in 1952 alongside General Dwight D. Eisenhower, whereupon Pat became Second Lady. Pat Nixon did much to add substance to the role of the Vice President's wife, insisting on visiting schools, orphanages and village markets as she undertook many missions of goodwill across the world.
As First Lady, Pat Nixon promoted a number of charitable causes, including volunteerism. She oversaw the collection of more than 600 pieces of historic art and furnishings for the White House, an acquisition larger than that of any other administration, she was the most traveled First Lady in U. S. history, a record unsurpassed until twenty-five years later. She accompanied the President as the first First Lady to visit China and the Soviet Union, was the first President's wife to be designated a representative of the United States on her solo trips to Africa and South America, which gained her recognition as "Madame Ambassador", her tenure ended when, after being re-elected in a landslide victory in 1972, President Nixon resigned two years amid the Watergate scandal. Her public appearances became rare in life, she and her husband settled in San Clemente and moved to New Jersey. She suffered two strokes, one in 1976 and another in 1983 was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1992, she died in 1993, aged 81.
Thelma Catherine Ryan was born in 1912 in the small mining town of Nevada. Her father, William M. Ryan Sr. was a sailor, gold miner, truck farmer of Irish ancestry. The nickname "Pat" was given to her by her father, because of her birth on the day before Saint Patrick's Day and her Irish ancestry. Upon enrolling in college in 1931, she stopped using the name Thelma, replacing it with Pat and spelling it Patricia; the name change was not a legal action, however one of preference. After her birth, the Ryan family moved to California, in 1914 settled on a small truck farm in Artesia. Thelma Ryan's high school yearbook page gives her nickname as "Buddy" and her ambition to run a boarding house, she worked on the family farm and at a local bank as a janitor and bookkeeper. Her mother died of cancer in 1924. Pat, only 12, assumed all the household duties for her father and her two older brothers, William Jr. and Thomas. She had a half-sister, Neva Bender, a half-brother, Matthew Bender, from her mother's first marriage.
It has been said that few, if any, First Ladies worked as before marrying as did Pat Nixon. As she told the writer Gloria Steinem during the 1968 presidential campaign, "I never had time to think about things like that—who I wanted to be, or who I admired, or to have ideas. I never had time to dream about being anyone else. I had to work."After graduating from Excelsior High School in 1929, she attended Fullerton Junior College. She paid for her education by working odd jobs, including as a driver, a pharmacy manager, a telephone operator, a typist, she earned money sweeping the floors of a local bank, from 1930 until 1932, she lived in New York City, working as a secretary and as a radiographer. Determined "to make something out of myself", she enrolled in 1931 at the University of Southern California, where she majored in merchandising. A former professor noted that she "stood out from the empty-headed, overdressed little sorority girls of that era like a good piece of literature on a shelf of cheap paperbacks."
She held part-time jobs on campus, worked as a sales clerk in Bullock's-Wilshire department store, taught touch typing and shorthand at a high school. She supplemented her income by working as an extra and bit player in the film industry, for which she took several screen tests. In this capacity she made brief appearances in films such as Becky Sharp, The Great Ziegfeld, Small Town Girl. In some cases she ended up on the cutting room floor, such as with her spoken lines in Becky Sharp, she told Hollywood columnist Erskine Johnson in 1959 that her time in films was "too fleeting for recollections embellished by the years" and that "my choice of a career was teaching school and the many jobs I pursued were to help with college expenses."In 1937, Pat Ryan graduated cum laude from USC with a Bachelor of Science degree in merchandising, together with a certificate to teach at the high school level, which USC deemed equivalent to a Master's degree. Pat accepted a position as a high school teacher in California.
While in Whittier, Pat Ryan met Richard Nixon, a young lawy
Portuguese people are a Romance ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese. Their predominant religion is Christianity Roman Catholicism, though vast segments of the population the younger generations, have no religious affiliation; the Portuguese people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. A number of Portuguese descend from converted Jewish and North Africans as a result of the Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula; the Romans, Scandinavians, migratory Germanic tribes like the Suebi, Vandals and Buri who settled in what is today's Portugal The Roman Republic conquered the Iberian Peninsula during the 2nd and 1st centuries B. C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage during the series of Punic Wars. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages stem from the Vulgar Latin. Due to the large historical extent from the 16th century of the Portuguese Empire and the subsequent colonization of territories in Asia and the Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, a large Portuguese diaspora exists.
Portuguese people began and led the Age of Exploration which started in 1415 with the conquest of Ceuta and culminated in an empire with territories that are now part of over 50 countries. The Portuguese Empire lasted nearly 600 years, seeing its end when Macau was returned to China in 1999; the discovery of several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helped pave the way for modern globalization and domination of Western civilization. The Portuguese are a Southwestern European population, with origins predominantly from Southern and Western Europe; the earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal are believed to have been Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. Current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese trace a significant amount of these lineages to the paleolithic peoples who began settling the European continent between the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.
Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic humans colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians to the populations of much of Western Europe and the British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have emphasized the large Paleolithic and Mesolithic Iberian influence in the modern day Irish and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Indeed, Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe. Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype; this haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the British Isles. In Portugal it reckons 65% in the South summing 87% northwards, in some regions 96%; the Neolithic colonization of Europe from Western Asia and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent.
Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were followed by others that can be identified as Celts. Urban cultures developed in southeastern Iberia, such as Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal Mediterranean Iberia, which shifted to Greek colonization. There is little or no evidence of settlements in Portugal by either Greeks or Phoenicians despite some statements to the contrary; these two processes defined Iberia's, Portugal's, cultural landscape—Continental in the northwest and Mediterranean towards the southeast, as historian José Mattoso describes it. Given the origins from Paleolithic and Neolithic settlers as well as Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic origin is a mixture of pre-Roman, pre-Indo-Europeans, pre-Celtics or para-Celts such as the Lusitanians of Lusitania, Celtic peoples such as Calaicians or Gallaeci of Gallaecia, the Celtici and the Cynetes of the Alentejo and the Algarve.
The Romans were an important influence on Portuguese culture. Other minor influences included the Phoenicians/Carthaginians, the Vandals and the Sarmatian Alans, the Visigoths and Suebi; the ruled from 711 until the Reconquista of the Algarve in 1249. In the 9th and 10th centuries small Viking settlements were established in the North coastal regions of Douro and Minho. For the Y-chromosome and MtDNA lineages of the Portuguese and other peoples see this map and this one. Portuguese have maintained a certain degree of ethnic and cultural specific characteristics-ratio with the Basques, since ancient times; the results of the present HLA stu