1910 Edinburgh South by-election
The Edinburgh South by-election, 1910 was a parliamentary by-election held for the House of Commons constituency of Edinburgh South in Scotland on 29 April 1910. The by-election was caused by the appointment of the sitting Liberal MP, Arthur Dewar KC, the Solicitor General for Scotland, as a Senator of the College of Justice. Dewar had first been elected as MP for Edinburgh South in a by-election in June 1899, he lost the seat narrowly at the general election of 1900 but won it back in 1906, holding it in January 1910. The Liberals first choice for the seat was Dr Edward Parrott. Parrott, a publisher and author, was chairman of the Edinburgh South Liberal Association and of the Edinburgh United Liberal Committee. At a meeting on 11 April, the local executive of the Liberal Association met to consider who the candidate should be, assuming Dewar was to be appointed to the College of Justice. Parrott asked for 48 hours to think the offer over but turned it down and the committee instead turned to Charles Lyell a 34-year-old professional politician, as their preferred candidate.
Lyell had been MP for East Dorset from 1904 till January 1910. During that time he served as Parliamentary Private Secretary to Sir Edward Grey, the Foreign Secretary, he switched seats in January 1910, leaving the marginal East Dorset to Freddie Guest and taking on instead the Unionist seat of Edinburgh West, which he failed to gain. The Unionist candidate in the previous general election had been Harold Cox, an Edinburgh businessman but he ruled himself out as a possible candidate for the by-election on medical advice; the Unionists turned to 25-year-old Ralph Campbell Glyn, the only son of the Bishop of Peterborough whose mother was the sister of the Duke of Argyll. Glyn had been the Liberal Unionist candidate in Elginshire and Nairnshire at the January 1910 election. An early issue in the campaign was the question of House of Lords reform; this had been brought to a head by Lloyd George’s People’s Budget of 1909. Lloyd George’s radical tax raising proposals and plans to finance social provisions such as old age pensions meant his budget was rejected by the landed majority in the House of Lords against the convention that the Lords would not reject financial bills.
This provoked the January 1910 general election. The issue was therefore still high on the political agenda and Glyn made it the centrepiece of his adoption meeting on 20 April, he said he was in favour of reforming the House of Lords but could not bring himself to attack its recent actions. He said the best party to reform the Lords was what he described as the Constitutional party i.e. the Conservatives. Constitutional reform should not be rushed and the Tories said Glyn were the best placed to consider this matter as they may have been slow but had always been sure; this position was reinforced by the letter of support which Glyn received from the Conservative leader Arthur Balfour. In it, Balfour wrote that the present government desired a revolution, not he said against the House of Lords, but against the British people. In his letter Balfour contended that there were many evils associated with the reform of the Lords, including the postponement of the social reforms which the Liberal government wished to implement.
It is not in an atmosphere of revolutionary controversy, he wrote, that healthy legislation on such subjects can be secured. Asquith’s letter of support to Lyell was less colourful referring to the great constitutional struggle which the country and the party was engaged in and anticipating another clear Liberal win in the constituency. Lyell held the seat for the Liberals with a majority of 2,327 votes over Glyn; this compared with an identical majority of 2,334 at the previous general election. While turnout was down between the general election and by-election, the share of the poll each party received was broadly the same, it seems issues the electorate felt were important enough to vote for in January had not changed by April and neither did the Liberals suffer from voter impatience at being asked to turn out for what may have seemed like an unnecessary election, as sometimes happens when sitting MPs stand down close to general elections. The Liberal held the seat at the following General Election.
Glyn was elected MP for Clackmannan and Eastern Stirlingshire in 1918. List of United Kingdom by-elections United Kingdom by-election records Edinburgh South by-election, February 1886 Edinburgh South by-election, 1899 Edinburgh South by-election, 1917 Edinburgh South by-election, 1957
A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer, appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court; as members wear silk gowns of a particular design, appointment as Queen's Counsel is known informally as taking silk, hence QCs are colloquially called silks. Appointments are made from within the legal profession on the basis of merit rather than a particular level of experience. However, successful applicants tend to be barristers, or advocates with 15 years of experience or more; the Attorney General, Solicitor-General and King's Serjeants were King's Counsel in Ordinary in the Kingdom of England.
The first Queen's Counsel Extraordinary was Sir Francis Bacon, given a patent giving him precedence at the Bar in 1597, formally styled King's Counsel in 1603. The new rank of King's Counsel contributed to the gradual obsolescence of the more senior serjeant-at-law by superseding it; the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General had succeeded the King's Serjeants as leaders of the Bar in Tudor times, though not technically senior until 1623 and 1813, respectively. But the King's Counsel emerged into eminence only in the early 1830s, prior to when they were few in number, it became the standard means to recognise a barrister as a senior member of the profession, the numbers multiplied accordingly. It became of greater professional importance to become a KC, the serjeants declined; the KCs inherited the prestige of their priority before the courts. The earliest English law list, published in 1775, lists 165 members of the Bar, of whom 14 were King's Counsel, a proportion of about 8.5%. As of 2010 the same proportion existed, though the number of barristers had increased to about 12,250 in independent practice.
In 1839 the number of Queen's Counsel was seventy. In 1882, the number of Queen's Counsel was 187; the list of Queen's Counsel in the Law List of 1897 gave the names of 238, of whom hardly one third appeared to be in actual practice. In 1959, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 181. In each of the five years up to 1970, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 208, 209, 221, 236 and 262, respectively. In each of the years 1973 to 1978, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 329, 345, 370, 372, 384 and 404, respectively. In 1989, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 601. In each of the years 1991 to 2000, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 736, 760, 797, 845, 891, 925, 974, 1006, 1043, 1072, respectively; the title traditionally depends on the sex of the sovereign. The current Queen, Elizabeth II has had a long reign, few if any people appointed as King's Counsel survive, it can be assumed that, should the Queen die and the reign pass to a descendant, holders of the title will again become KC, as the next three in line to the throne are male heirs.
Queen's Counsel and serjeants were prohibited, at least from the mid-nineteenth century onward, from drafting pleadings alone. They were not permitted to appear in court without a junior barrister, they had to have chambers in London. From the beginning, they were not allowed to appear against the Crown without a special licence, but this was given as a formality; this stipulation was important in criminal cases, which are brought in the name of the Crown. The result was that, until 1920 in England and Wales, King's and Queen's Counsel had to have a licence to appear in criminal cases for the defence; these restrictions had a number of consequences: they made the taking of "silk" something of a professional risk, because the appointment abolished at a stroke some of the staple work of the junior barrister. By the end of the twentieth century, all of these rules had been abolished one by one. Appointment as QC is now a matter of prestige only, with no formal disadvantages. Queen's Counsel were traditionally selected from barristers, rather than from lawyers in general, because they were counsel appointed to conduct court work on behalf of the Crown.
Although the limitations on private instruction were relaxed, QCs continued to be selected from barristers, who had the sole right of audience in the higher courts. The first woman appointed King's Counsel was Helen Kinnear in Canada in 1934; the first women to be appointed as King's Counsel in the United Kingdom were Helena Normanton and Rose Heilbron in 1949. In 1994 solicitors of England and Wales became entitled to gain rights of audience in the higher courts, some 275 were so entitled in 1995. In 1995, these solicitors alone became entitled to apply for appointment as Queen's Counsel, the first two solicitors were appointed on 27 March 1997, out of 68 new QCs; these were Arthur Marriott, partner of the London office of the American law firm of Wilmer Cutler and Pickering based in Washington, D. C. and Law
Sir Andrew Agnew, 9th Baronet
For others named Andrew Agnew, see the Andrew Agnew navigation pageSir Andrew Noel Agnew, 9th Baronet, JP was a British Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament. Agnew was the son of Sir Andrew Agnew, 8th Baronet and Lady Mary Arabella Louisa Noel, succeeded his father as 9th Baronet Agnew, of Lochnaw on the latter's death on 25 March 1892. On his own death in 1928 he was succeeded in the baronetcy by his nephew Fulque Agnew, he attended Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge. Agnew was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 1st Ayrshire and Galloway Artillery Volunteers on 28 February 1900, rose to the rank of captain before he retired, he was Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for Edinburgh South from 1900 to 1906. He was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Wigtownshire on 21 March 1904, he was Justice of the Peace for Wigtownshire. He married Gertrude Vernon, daughter of Hon. Gowran Charles Vernon and Caroline Fazakerley, on 15 October 1889, but the marriage produced no children. Lady Agnew was the subject of a famous portrait by John Singer Sargent.
ThePeerage.com ‘AGNEW, Sir Andrew Noel’, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2007.
1906 United Kingdom general election
The 1906 United Kingdom general election was held from 12 January to 8 February 1906. The Liberals, led by Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman, won a landslide majority at the election; the Conservatives led by Arthur Balfour, in government until the month before the election, lost more than half their seats, including party leader Balfour's own seat in Manchester East, leaving them with their lowest-ever number of seats. The election saw a 5.4% swing from the Conservative Party to the Liberal Party, the largest-ever seen at the time. This has resulted in the 1906 general election being dubbed the "Liberal landslide", is now ranked alongside the 1931, 1945, 1983 and 1997 general elections as one of the largest landslide election victories; the Labour Representation Committee was far more successful than at the 1900 general election and after the election would be renamed the Labour Party with 29 MPs and Keir Hardie as leader. The Irish Parliamentary Party, led by John Redmond, achieved its seats with a low number of votes, as 73 candidates stood unopposed.
This election was a landslide defeat for the Conservative Party and their Liberal Unionist allies, with the primary reason given by historians as the party's weakness after its split over the issue of free trade. Many working-class people at the time saw this as a threat to the price of food, hence the debate was nicknamed "Big Loaf, Little Loaf"; the Liberals' landslide victory of 125 seats over all other parties led to the passing of social legislation known as the Liberal reforms. This was the last general election in which the Liberals won an absolute majority in the House of Commons, the last general election in which they won the popular vote, it was the last peacetime election held more than five years after the previous one prior to passage of the Parliament Act 1911, which limited the duration of Parliaments in peacetime to five years. The Conservative Party's seat total of 156 MPs remains its worst result in a general election. A coalition between the Conservative and Liberal Unionist parties had governed the United Kingdom since the general election of 1895.
Arthur Balfour had served as Prime Minister from 1902 until 5 December 1905, when he chose to resign over growing unpopularity, instead of calling a general election. Balfour had hoped that under a Liberal government splits would reemerge, which would therefore help the Conservative Party achieve victory at the next election; the incoming Liberal government chose to capitalise on the Conservative government's unpopularity and called an immediate general election one month on 12 January 1906, which resulted in a crushing defeat for the Conservatives. The Unionist government had become divided over the issue of free trade, which soon became an electoral liability; this culminated in Joseph Chamberlain's resignation from the government in May 1903 to campaign for tariff reform in order to protect British industry from foreign competition. This division was in contrast to the Liberal Party's belief in free trade, which it argued would help keep costs of living down; the issue of free trade became the feature of the Liberal campaign, under the slogan'big loaf' under a Liberal government,'little loaf' under a Conservative government.
It commissioned a variety of posters warning the electorate over rises in food prices under protectionist policies, including one which mentioned that "Balfour and Chamberlain are linked together against free trade... Don't be deceived by Tory tricks"; the Boer War had contributed to the unpopularity of the Conservative and Unionist government. The war had lasted over two and half years, much longer than had been expected, while details were revealed of the existence of'concentration camps' where over 20,000 men and children were reported to have died because of poor sanitation; the war had unearthed the poor social state of the country in the early 1900s. This was after more than 40% of military recruits for the Boer War were declared unfit for military service, while in Manchester 8,000 of the 11,000 men, recruited had to be turned away for being in poor physical condition; this was after the 1902 Rowntree study of poverty in York showed that a third of the population lived below the'poverty line', which helped to increase the calls for social reforms, something, neglected by the Conservative and Unionist government.
The Conservative and Unionist Prime Minister, Arthur Balfour, had been blamed over the issue of'Chinese Slavery', the use of Chinese-indentured labour in South Africa. This became controversial among the Conservative Party's middle-class supporters, who saw it as unethical, while the working class objected to the practice, as white emigration to South Africa could have created jobs for the unemployed in Britain. Protestant Nonconformists were angered when Conservatives pushed through the Education Act 1902, which integrated denominational schools into the state system and provided for their support from taxes; the local school boards that they controlled were abolished and replaced by county governments that were controlled by Anglicans. Worst of all the hated Anglican schools would now receive funding from local taxes that everyone had to pay. One tactic was to refuse to pay local taxes; the education issue played a major role in the Liberal victory in 1906, as Dissenter Conservatives punished their old party and voted Liberal.
However the Liberals failed to repeal or modify the 1902 law. Another issue
John McLaren, Lord McLaren
John McLaren, Lord McLaren, FRSE was a Scottish Liberal politician and judge. In the scientific world he is remembered as a astronomer; the son of Duncan McLaren, a former Provost of Edinburgh and Member of Parliament, his wife Grant Aitken, he was born at 21 South St David Street, in Edinburgh's New Town. He studied Law at Edinburgh University, he was admitted to the Scottish Faculty of Advocates in 1856. In 1869 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh his proposer being Robert William Thomson, he served as the Society's Vice President for three sessions: 1885 to 1891. He held the office of Sheriff of Chancery in Scotland 1869-1880, he reorganised the Scottish Liberals and arranged Gladstone's Midlothian campaign of 1879-1880. He was elected Member of Parliament for Wigtown Burghs in April 1880 and appointed Lord Advocate, losing his seat on seeking re-election on 20 May 1880, he failed to be elected at Berwick-upon-Tweed on 21 July 1880, but was returned for Edinburgh on 28 January 1881.
McLaren's father Duncan McLaren had resigned as MP for Edinburgh, which produced the vacancy to be filled. McLaren continued to sit for Edinburgh until he was appointed as a judge in the year, he was Lord Advocate for Scotland 1880/81. Under pressure from Gladstone and Sir William Harcourt, he accepted appointment to the bench in 1881 with the judicial title Lord McLaren, he was an eminently successful judge, edited works on Scots law. For his contributions to astronomy and mathematics he was awarded honorary degrees from Edinburgh University, the University of Glasgow and the University of Aberdeen. Lord McLaren died in Brighton in Sussex on 6 April 1910 but was returned to Edinburgh for burial in the Grange Cemetery on its southmost path; the original bronze medallion head was stolen but it is replaced with an accurate and convincing plastic replica. McLaren wrote a number of books on legal topics, including Law of Succession. In 1868 he married Ottile Schwabe, their children died in childhood.
His portrait by Sir John Lavery is held in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery but is displayed. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Source: Who's Who of British Members of Parliament, Volume I 1832-1885 edited by M. Stenton. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John McLaren
Robert Cox (politician)
Robert J. Cox FRSE was a Scottish gelatine and glue manufacturer and Liberal Unionist politician. Cox was the son of George Cox of Gorgie, a district of Edinburgh and his wife Isabella, the daughter of Robert Craig, a surgeon from Peebles, he was educated at the University of St Andrews and the University of Edinburgh. In 1875, he married Harriet Sophia Bennett, the daughter of the eminent physician and physiologist Professor John Hughes Bennett of the Institute of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh, they may have had a son Robert Cox, who died in 1952. From 1874, Cox was the sole partner of Ltd gelatine and glue manufacturers of Edinburgh, he was Chairman of the Madelvic Motor Carriage Company Ltd of Granton. In 1885 he was living at 34 Drumsheugh Gardens in Edinburgh's West End. Cox took an interest in local politics. At one time or another he sat as a member of the Mid Lothian County Council, Edinburgh Parish Council, Edinburgh Town Council and the School Board. Cox first stood for Parliament at a by-election in the Kirkcaldy Burghs constituency on 11 March 1892.
Cox was selected as the Unionist candidate for the seat, which had become vacant on the death of the sitting Liberal MP, Sir George Campbell. However Cox was unsuccessful, the seat being held for the Liberals by a majority of 1,036 votes, by J H Dalziel, a journalist and newspaper proprietor. Cox did not contest the 1892 general election but in June 1895 the Unionist Association of the East Edinburgh division approached him as a possible candidate; the Liberal MP for the seat, Robert Wallace was reported to have fallen foul of his local Liberal Association on the issue of Irish Home Rule and they had selected a Mr J Martin White to fight the seat instead. It was thought possible that Wallace would stand as an independent and create a three-cornered contest. In the end Wallace and the East Edinburgh Liberals must have mended their fences as Wallace stood again as a Liberal at the 1895 general election and White contested Fofarshire in the Liberal interest. Cox declined the offer to stand in Edinburgh East and instead was adopted as Liberal Unionist candidate for the Edinburgh South division.
He narrowly defeated the sitting Liberal MP, Herbert Paul, turning a Liberal majority of 431 into a Unionist one of just 97. Cox served as a Justice of the Peace for Mid Lothian and was sometime Deputy Lieutenant for the County of Edinburgh, he served as President of the Scottish Rights of Way Association. Cox had a wide range of intellectual interests, he was concerned with philosophy and astronomy. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a Fellow of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts and Vice-President of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution, he employed William Peck to run a private observatory at Murrayfield and donated his telescopes to the City Observatory on Calton Hill. In 1899, Cox was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Cox was a member of the Royal Company of Archers, the ceremonial unit that served as the Sovereign's Bodyguard in Scotland. Cox was in poor health towards the end of his life, he died at Aix-les-Bains on 2 June 1899, aged 54. He is buried in Dean Cemetery in its north-east section not far from the entrance.
He is memorialised on his parent's grave in St Cuthbert's churchyard in the city centre. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Cox
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce