For the French medievalist and historian of the family and childhood, see Philippe Ariès. The Ariès was a French automobile manufactured by La Société des Automobile Ariès in Asnières-sur-Seine; the firm was founded in 1902 by Baron Charles Petiet. The decision to end production was taken in 1937. Around 20,000 vehicles were produced in total; the first cars were two- and four-cylinder vehicles built 20 chassis at a time in a large factory. These shaft-drive cars had a rather unusual double rear axle. In 1907 the company made its own narrow-angle V4 engine with desmodromic valves; the engine had a single cast iron T-head monobloc on a light alloy crankcase. This contained four cylinders in a square layout with a narrow 15° vee angle. Bore and stroke were 60 by 100mm, giving a capacity of 1.13 litres. It was rated at 8/10 fiscal horsepower; the crankshaft was short with two main bearings and fork-and-blade connecting rods. Crankpins and main journals were held in the webs by tapers and a shallow nut, giving the effect of an undercut crankshaft.
This made the engine compact overall, 310 millimetres long, 290 millimetres wide and 570 millimetres tall. The intention was to offer this compact engine as a replacement that would fit into a wide range of other vehicles; the crankshaft was drilled for a pressure oil feed to the crankpins, an advanced feature for this time, but the pistons and gudgeon pins were still lubricated by splash. In 1910 Ariès introduced a V6 engine on the same pattern for the 10/14 hp S6. Ariès entered the field of commercial vehicle production in 1910 for the purpose of supplying the French army. After the war the company presented three new models. One had a sidevalve Aster unit. Ariès had some motor-racing success in the 1920s with associated, although without success, at the 24 Hours of Le Mans and with more success in other touring car events, their most successful drivers wore Jean Chassagne, driving the 3 litre cars. Ariès stopped production of its 1100 cc and 3-liter cars, which had become obsolete, during the financial crisis of the 1930s.
They were replaced in the catalogue with new 1500 cc and 2-liter models with an odd arrangement of a three-speed gearbox augmented by two-speed gears in the back axle, for a total of six speeds forward. Named the Super 10-50, few were made. After the war, Ariès attempted a comeback producing moped engines under the name ABG. Arthur Duray, raced Ariès cars in the late 1920s
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near the island's capital of Palermo. Founded in 1906, it was the oldest sports car racing event, part of the World Sportscar Championship between 1955 and 1973. While the first races consisted of a whole tour of the island, the track length in the race's last decades was limited to the 72 kilometres of the Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, lapped 11 times. After 1973, it was a national sports car event until it was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns, it has since been run as a rallying event, is part of the Italian Rally Championship. The race was created in 1906 by the wealthy pioneer race driver and automobile enthusiast, Vincenzo Florio, who had started the Coppa Florio race in Brescia, Lombardy in 1900; the Targa claimed to be a worldly event not to be missed. Renowned artists, such as Alexandre Charpentier and Leonardo Bistolfi, were commissioned to design medals. A magazine was initiated, which aimed to enhance, with graphic and photographic reproductions of the race, the myth of the car and the typical character of modern life, speed.
One of the toughest competitions in Europe, the first Targa Florio covered 3 laps equalling 277 miles through multiple hairpin curves on treacherous mountain roads, at heights where severe changes in climate occurred. Alessandro Cagno won the inaugural 1906 race in nine hours. By the mid-1920s, the Targa Florio had become one of Europe's most important races, as neither the 24 Hours of Le Mans nor the Mille Miglia had been established yet. Grand Prix races were still isolated events, not a series like today's F1; the wins of Mercedes in the 1920s made a big impression in Germany that of German Christian Werner in 1924, as he was the first non-Italian winner since 1920. Rudolf Caracciola repeated. In 1926, Eliska Junkova, one of the great female drivers in Grand Prix motor racing history, became the first woman to compete in the race. In 1953, the FIA World Sportscar Championship was introduced; the Targa became part of it in 1955, when Mercedes had to win 1-2 with the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR in order to beat Ferrari for the title.
They had missed the first two of the 6 events, Buenos Aires and the 12 Hours of Sebring, where Ferrari, Jaguar and Porsche scored. Mercedes appeared at and won in the Mille Miglia pulled out of Le Mans as a sign of respect for the victims of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, but won the Tourist Trophy at Dundrod. Stirling Moss/Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio/Karl Kling finished minutes ahead of the best Ferrari and secured the title. Several versions of the track were used, it started with a single lap of a 148 km circuit from 1906-1911 and 1931. From 1912 to 1914 a tour around the perimeter of Sicily was used, with a single lap of 975 kilometres, lengthened to 1,080 kilometres from 1948 to 1950; the 148 km "Grande" circuit was shortened twice, the first time to 108 km, the version used from 1919-1930, to the 72 km circuit used from 1932 to 1936 and 1951 to 1977. From 1951-1958, the long coastal island tour variant was used for a separate event called the Giro di Sicilia; the start and finish took place at Cerda.
The counter-clockwise lap lead from Caltavuturo and Collesano from an altitude over 600 metres down to sea level, where the cars raced from Campofelice di Roccella on the Buonfornello straight along the coast, a straight over 6 km longer than the Mulsanne Straight at the Circuit de la Sarthe in Le Mans. The longest version of the circuit went south through Caltavuturo through an extended route through elevation changes, swept through the nearby towns of Castellana and Sottana, twisting around mountains up to the town of Castelbuono and rejoined the most recent version of the track at Collesano; the second version of the track went south through Caltavuturo and took a shortcut starting right before Castellana to Collesano via the town of Polizzi Generosa. There was a closed circuit called Favorita Park used from 1937-1940; the challenge of the Targa was unprecedented in its difficulty and the driving experience of any of the course variants was unlike any other circuit in the world other than that of the Nurburgring in Germany.
The original Grande 148 km circuit had in the realm of 2,000 corners per lap, the 108 km Medio had about 1,300-1,400 corners per lap and the final iteration of the course, the 72 km Piccolo circuit had about 800-900 corners per lap. To put that in perspective, most purpose built circuits have between 12 and 18 corners, the longest purpose built circuit in the world, the 13-mile Nurburgring, has about 180 corners. So learning any of the Targa Florio courses was difficult and required, like most long circuits, at least 60 laps to learn the course- and unlike the purpose-built Nurburgring, the course had to be learned properly in public traffic, one lap would take about an hour to do in a road car- if there was little to no traffic. Like a rally event, the race cars were started one by one every 15 seconds for a time trial, as a start from a full grid was not possible on the tight and twisty roads. Although the public road circuit used for the Targa was challenging- it was a different kind of circuit and race from any other race on the sportscar calendar.
All of the circuit variations of the Targa had so many corners that lap speeds at the Targa n
Hispano-Suiza was a Spanish automotive/engineering company and, after World War II, a French aviation engine and components manufacturer. It is best known for its pre-World War II luxury cars and aviation engines. In 1923, its French subsidiary became a semi-autonomous partnership with the Spanish parent company. In 1946, the Spanish parent company sold all its Spanish automotive assets to Enasa. In 1968, the French arm was taken over by the aerospace company Snecma, now a part of the French Safran Group. In 1898 a Spanish artillery captain, Emilio de la Cuadra, started electric automobile production in Barcelona under the name of La Cuadra. In Paris, De la Cuadra met the Swiss engineer Marc Birkigt and hired him to work for the company in Spain. La Cuadra built their first gasoline-powered engines from a Birkigt design. At some point in 1902, the ownership changed hands to José María Castro Fernández and became Fábrica Hispano-Suiza de Automóviles but this company went bankrupt in December 1903.
Yet another restructuring took place in 1904, creating La Hispano-Suiza Fábrica de Automóviles, under Castro's direction based in Barcelona. Four new engines were introduced in a half; this company managed to avoid bankruptcy and its largest operations remained in Barcelona until 1946, where cars, buses, aero engines and weapons were produced. Other factories in Spain were at Ripoll and Guadalajara. In 1910 Jean Chassagne competed with a Hispano-Suiza together with works drivers Pilleveridier and Zucarelli in the Coupe des Voiturettes Boulogne and the Catalan Cup Races, gaining second and fourth places respectively. France was soon proving to be a larger market for Hispano-Suiza's luxury cars than Spain. In 1911, an assembly factory called Hispano France began operating in the Paris suburb of Levallois-Perret. Production was moved to larger factories at Bois-Colombes, under the name Hispano-Suiza in 1914 and soon became Hispano-Suiza's main plant for producing the largest, most costly models.
With the start of World War I, Hispano-Suiza turned to the design and production of aircraft engines under the direction of Marc Birkigt. His chief engineer during this period was Louis Massuger. Traditionally, aircraft engines were manufactured by machining separate steel cylinders and bolting these assemblies directly to the crankcase. Birkigt's novel solution called for the engine block to be formed from a single piece of cast aluminum, into which thin steel liners were secured. Manufacturing an engine in this way simplified construction and resulted in a lighter, yet stronger more durable engine. Thus, Birkigt's new construction method created the first practical, what are known today as, "cast block" engines, his aluminum cast block V-8 design was noteworthy for incorporating overhead camshafts, propeller reduction gearing and other desirable features that would not appear together on competitor's engines until the late 1920s. Another major design feature, for the HS.8B line was the use of a hollow propeller shaft for both the 8B and 8C gear-reduction versions, which when used for the HS.8C versions engineered to accommodate one, to allow heavy calibre projectile firing through the hollow propeller shaft, avoiding the need for a synchronization gear, a feature used in future Hispano-Suiza military engines.
Hispano-Suiza's aero engines, produced at its own factories and under license, became the most used aero engines in the French and British air forces, powering over half the alliance's fighter aircraft. After World War I, Hispano-Suiza returned to automobile manufacturing and in 1919 they introduced the Hispano-Suiza H6; the H6 featured an inline 6-cylinder overhead camshaft engine based on the features of its V8 aluminum World War I aircraft engines and had coachwork done by well known coachbuilders like Hibbard & Darrin and D'Ieteren. Licences for Hispano-Suiza patents were much in demand from prestige car manufacturers world-wide. Rolls-Royce used a number of Hispano-Suiza patents. For instance, for many years Rolls Royce installed Hispano-Suiza designed power brakes in its vehicles. In 1923 the French arm of Hispano-Suiza was incorporated as the Société Française Hispano-Suiza, the Spanish parent company retaining control with 71% of the share capital; the French subsidiary was granted a large degree of financial and project independence to bring design and production direction into closer contact with its main markets but overall direction remained at Barcelona.
This arrangement increased the importance of the Bois-Colombes plant near Paris as Hispano-Suiza's premier luxury car plant, while the Spanish operations continued to produce luxury cars the smaller, less expensive models, production in Spain moved to the production of buses and aircraft engines at several plants located around the country. Through the 1920s and into the 1930s, Hispano-Suiza built a series of luxury cars with overhead camshaft engines of increasing performance. On the other hand, in the 1930s, Hispano-Suiza's V-12 car engines reverted to pushrod valve actuation to reduce engine noise. During this time, Hispano-Suiza released the 37.2 Hispano-Suiza car built at the Bois-Colombes works. The mascot statuette atop the radiator after World War I was the stork, the symbol of the French province of Alsace, taken from the squadron emblem painted on the side of a Hispano-Suiza powered fighter aircraft, flown by the World War I French ace Georges Guynemer. In 1925, Carlos Ballester obtained permission to represent Hispano-Suiza in Argentina.
The agreement consisted of a phase in which the chassis were impor
1914 Indianapolis 500
The 4th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes Race was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday, May 30, 1914. René Thomas was the race winner, accompanied by riding mechanic Robert Laly; the Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909, the first motorsport event at the track, a series of motorcycle races, was held in August of that year. A series of automobile races were held in 1909, but concerns were raised about the condition of the course after numerous accidents, including a fatality; the track was re-paved at a high-cost to Carl G. Fisher and the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Corporation, further series of races took place in 1910. Fisher was worried about the dwindling attendances at these races, decided to establish a 500-mile race, he went on to announce that the track would host no other races during the year, that the prize for first place would be £25,000, more than 10 times higher than any other race. The total prize-fund was $85,000. Fisher's plans paid off, at the 1911 Indianapolis 500, the inaugural event, newspapers reported that in excess of 80,000 people attended the race.
Each of the first two races were won by Americans. In 1913, the large prize-fund attracting European teams and racers, the race was won by Jules Goux in a Peugeot. During the 1913 race, Goux had drunk champagne during each of his pit stops, for 1914, the consumption of alcohol during the race was banned. Riding mechanics were mandatory for the 1914 race; the maximum engine size remained unchanged at 450 cubic inches of engine displacement. There were 45 entrants for the race, but only the quickest 30 drivers during the elimination trials would qualify for the race; the first day of trials was completed on the Monday before 25 May. Caleb Bragg set the fastest official time on the first day, recording 1:36.8, though it was reckoned that Howdy Wilcox went quicker, but his time was not recorded. Ralph DePalma, a crowd favourite, struggled in his Mercedes and could only manage a quickest time of 1:47.4, slower than the 1:45 that it was predicted drivers would have to beat in order to qualify. Only fifteen of the drivers ran on the first day, they continued with two session on the Tuesday.
On the second day, three drivers set record times around the Speedway: first the 1912 winner, Joe Dawson, set an unofficial lap time of 1:34.8. In the day Teddy Tetzlaff completed a lap in 1:33.4, while Jules Goux finished the day as the fastest driver, with a time of 1:31.7. Tetzlaff's lap was completed in a Maxwell, fuelled with a 50:50 mix of gasoline and kerosene. Ray Harroun, who had won the inaugural Indianapolis 500 in 1911, designed the Maxwell car, was given $10,000 by the company's president as a reward for the cars qualifying with sub-1:37 times. By the end of the second day, 21 drivers had completed speed trials, all but DePalma and Eddie Pullen had times below 1:45. Hughie Hughes's car suffered a broken crank case, preventing him from being able to set a qualifying time. On the final day of the trials, DePalma managed to make significant improvements in his Mercedes, qualified with the twentieth fastest time overall, in 1:42.12. Georges Boillot set the overall fastest time, edging out his teammate Goux by completing a lap in 1:30.13, exceeding 125 miles per hour along the straights.
The slowest of the thirty qualifiers was Harry Grant in a Sunbeam, with a lap time of 1:44.09. After the rigours of the elimination trials, DePalma withdrew from the race, claiming that his car had been vibrating so that his engine would not survive the race, his place was taken by Ray Gilhooley in the Italian-built Isotta car. Gilhooley was known as a fearless, sometimes erratic, driver, feared by his peers, as they considered him unpredictable. DePalma claimed that he had twice seen Gilhooley "tear through a wooden fence at full tilt" on occasions when Gilhooley risked overtakes on dangerous corners; the bookmakers made the 1913 race winner, the favourite, followed by his Peugeot teammate Boillot. Although the Frenchmen were accepted to be driving the quickest cars, there was some belief in the American press that their English tires might not be as durable as American tires, which could improve the chances of the American drivers. Kramer, Ralph. Indianapolis Motor Speedway: 100 Years of Racing.
Iola, WI: Krause. ISBN 978-0896898356. Kramer, Ralph; the Indianapolis 500: A Century of Excitement. Iola, WI: Krause. ISBN 978-1440214134. 1914 Indianapolis 500 France v America at AutoGiftGarage.com "Indianapolis 500 1914". Ultimate Racing History. Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012
The history of the de Dietrich family has been linked to that of France and of Europe for over three centuries. To this day, the company that bears the family name continues to play a major role in the economic life of Alsace. De Dietrich is a holding company based in France which traces its history back to 1684; the incumbent chairman of the supervisory board Marc-Antoine de Dietrich represents the 11th consecutive generation at the helm of the company. De Dietrich has been active in the automobile and industrial equipment industry amongst others. 1684: Johann von Dietrich acquires the Jaegerthal forge. 1719: The family is made Baron by the Holy Roman Empire. 1749-1751: Baron Jean de Dietrich has the castle and gardens of Château de la Cour d'Angleterre built in Bischheim near Strasbourg 1761: Baron Jean de Dietrich is made Count du Ban de la Roche by Louis XV. He becomes the largest land owner in Alsace and expands the family's industrial empire by building or acquiring forges and furnaces. 1778: Louis XVI grants Jean de Dietrich the use of a hunting horn trademark to deter counterfeiters.
This logo still serves as a symbol of quality today. 1792: Philippe-Frédéric de Dietrich, first mayor of Strasbourg in republican France, orders captain Rouget de Lisle to compose a military hymn for the Army of the Rhine. First sung in Philippe-Frederic's parlor on Place Broglie, "La Marseillaise" became France's national anthem. 1804: After the havoc left by the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte helps De Dietrich rebuild. 1848: De Dietrich embraces the industrial era by progressively reducing the production of cast irons in favor of mechanical and railroad equipment. 1870: Despite the annexation by Germany of Alsace-Lorraine, the Dietrich family decides to remain close to the factories and employees and stays in Alsace. This choice calls for a diversification of De Dietrich's activities in order to adapt to German market demands and having been shut out of the French railroad market; the company turns towards consumer durables: stoves, wooden furniture, enameled cast iron bathtubs – and urban or industrial equipment – tramways, distillation equipment, industry specific wagons.
1896: De Dietrich enters automobile manufacturing. Eugene, Baron de Turckheim, buys manufacturing rights to fils' design. During its automotive development it hired amongst others the services of famous car builder Ettore Bugatti to design of the cars and Émile Mathis to handle commercialization. 1905: De Dietrich decides to pull out of automobile manufacturing to focus on mechanical construction, railroad equipment, process systems, central heating equipment and appliances. 1992: De Dietrich assumes control of Cogifer, market leader fixed railroad installations and forgives control of the appliances business to Thomson, control on assumed by Fagor-Brandtuntil this day. 1995: De Dietrich sells its interest in rolling stock railroad equipment manufacturing "De Dietrich Ferroviaire" (DDF's factory is in Reichshoffen". A majority stake in DDF was acquired by Alstom and the company is now known as Alstom-DDF. 2000: After the successive acquisitions of Rosenmund-Guedu and QVF, De Dietrich renames its chemical equipment division "De Dietrich Process Systems".
De Dietrich is the object a Public Tender Offer by the la Société Industrielle du Hanau, controlled by ABN AMRO Capital Investissement France and the De Dietrich family. 2001: In July 2001, after 50 years of quotation, De Dietrich is pulled out the market. 2002: In September 2002, De Dietrich sells the control of Cogifer and Cogifer TF, to Vossloh a German Industrial group specialized in railroad equipment. In December 2002, the "Société Industrielles du Hanau" takes over De Dietrich & Cie and assumes the name "De Dietrich". 2004: In July 2004, De Dietrich divests from "De Dietrich Thermique", market leader in water heating equipment to Remeha. The new entity formed De Dietrich Remeha, becomes one of Europe's largest heating industry player in the fields of condensing boilers and renewable energies. In December 2004, the family regained 100% control of the holding company; this operation represents one of Europe's largest family re-investments in recent years. De Dietrich today focuses on De Dietrich Process Systems.
DDPS is a leading worldwide provider of API process and other process equipment to the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. With an industrial presence in Asia, Europe and USA; the latest factories added to the Group are located in Wuxi. Demange Dietrich, Strasbourg bourgeois x Anne Heller │ └── Jean Dietrich and merchant in Strasbourg x Agnès Meyer │ └── Dominique Dietrich, "amnestre" of Strasbourg x Ursule Wencker │ └── Jean-Nicolas Dietrich, banker x Marie-Barbe Kniebs │ └── Jean de Dietrich, Count of the "Ban de la Roche" x Amélie Hermanny │ ├── Jean de Dietrich │ x Louise-Sophie de Glaubitz │ └── Philippe-Frédéric de Dietrich, mayor of Strasbourg x Sybille-Louise Ochs │ └── Jean-Albert de Dietrich, head of Bas-Rhin region x Amélie de Berckheim │ ├── Amélie de Dietrich │ x Guillaume de Turckheim, Major │ ├── Baron Albert de Dietrich, │ x 1828 Octavie von Stein
French Grand Prix
The French Grand Prix known as the Grand Prix de l'ACF, is an auto race held as part of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's annual Formula One World Championship. It is one of the oldest motor races in the world as well as the first "Grand Prix", it ceased shortly after its centenary in 2008 with 86 races having been held, due to unfavourable financial circumstances and venues. The race returned to the Formula One calendar in 2018 with Circuit Paul Ricard hosting the race. Unusually for a race of such longevity, the location of the Grand Prix has moved with 16 different venues having been used over its life, a number only eclipsed by the 23 venues used for the Australian Grand Prix since its 1928 start, it is one of four races to have been held as part of the three distinct Grand Prix championships. The Grand Prix de l'ACF was tremendously influential in the early years of Grand Prix racing, leading the establishment of the rules and regulations of racing as well as setting trends in the evolution of racing.
The power of original organiser, the Automobile Club de France, established France as the home of motor racing organisation. Grand Prix motor racing originated in France and the French Grand Prix, open to international competition, is the oldest Grand Prix race, first run on 26 June 1906 under the auspices of the Automobile Club de France in Sarthe, with a starting field of 32 automobiles; the Grand Prix name referred to the prize of 45,000 French francs to the race winner. The franc was pegged to the gold at 0.290 grams per franc, which meant that the prize was worth 13 kg of gold, or €191,000 adjusted for inflation. The earliest French Grands Prix were held on circuits consisting of public roads near towns through France, they were held at different towns each year, such as Le Mans, Amiens, Lyon and Tours. Dieppe in particular was an dangerous circuit – 9 people in total were killed at the three French Grands Prix held at the 79 km circuit; the 1906 race was the first Grand Prix, an event that originated from the Gordon Bennett Cup races that had started in 1899.
This race was run on a 66-mile closed public road circuit starting at the western French town of Le Mans, through a series of villages and back again to Le Mans. Hungarian Ferenc Szisz won this long 12‑hour race on a Renault from Italian Felice Nazzaro in a Fiat, where laps on this circuit took around an hour and the horse carriage road surface was made of dirt; the 1908 race saw Mercedes humiliating the French organizers and finishing 1-2-3 at the lethal circuit at Dieppe, where no less than 4 people were killed during the weekend. The 1913 race was won by Georges Boillot on a one-off 19-mile circuit near Amiens in northern France. Amiens was another deadly circuit – it had a 7.1 mile straight and 5 people were killed during its use during pre-race testing and the race weekend itself. The 1914 race, run on a 24‑mile circuit near Lyon is the most legendary Grand Prix of the pre‑WWI racing era; this was a hard-fought battle between the German Mercedes. Although the Peugeots were fast and Boillot ended up leading for 12 of the 20 laps the Dunlop tyres they used wore out badly compared to the Continentials that the Mercedes cars were using.
Boillot's four-minute lead was wiped out by Christian Lautenschlager in a Mercedes while Boillot stopped an incredible eight times for tyres. Although Boillot drove hard to try to catch Lautenschlager, he had to retire on the last lap due to engine failure, for the second time in 6 years Mercedes finished 1–2–3. Thanks to World War I and the amount of damage it did to France, the Grand Prix was not brought back until 1921, that race was won by American Jimmy Murphy with a Duesenberg at the Sarthe circuit on Le Mans, the now legendary circuit's first year of operation. Bugatti made its debut at the 1922 race at an 8.3‑mile off-public road circuit near Strasbourg near the French-German border –, close to Bugatti's headquarters in Molsheim. It rained, the muddy circuit was in a dreadful condition; this race became a duel between Bugatti and Fiat – and Felice Nazzaro won in a Fiat, although his nephew and fellow competitor Biagio Nazzaro was killed after the axle on his Fiat broke, threw a wheel and hit a tree.
The 1923 race at another one-off circuit near Tours featured another new Bugatti – the Type 32. This car was unkindly dubbed the "Tank", owing to its streamlined shape and short wheelbase; this car was fast on the straights of this high-speed public road circuit – but it handled badly and was outpaced by Briton Henry Seagrave in a Sunbeam. Seagrave won the race, the Sunbeam would be the last British car to win an official Grand Prix until Stirling Moss's victory with a Vanwall at the 1957 British Grand Prix; the 1924 race was held again at Lyon, but this time on a shortened 14‑mile variant of the circuit used in 1914. Two of the most successful Grand Prix cars of all time, the Bugatti Type 35 and the Alfa Romeo P2 both made their debuts at this race; the Bugattis, with their advanced alloy wheels suffered tyre failure, Italian Giuseppe Campari won his Alfa P2. In 1925, the first permanent autodrome in France was built, it was called Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, located 20 miles south of the centre of the French capital of Paris.
Delage was a French luxury automobile and racecar company founded in 1905 by Louis Delage in Levallois-Perret near Paris. The company was founded in 1905 by Louis Delage, who borrowed Fr 35,000, giving up a salary of Fr 600 a month to do so, its first location was on the Rue Cormeilles in Levallois-Perret. The company at first had just two lathes and three employees, one of them Peugeot's former chief designer. Delage produced parts for Helbé, with the De Dion-Bouton engine and chassis assembled by Helbé; the first model was the Type A, a voiturette which appeared in 1906. It was powered by a one-cylinder De Dion-Bouton of 9 hp. Like other early carmakers, Delage participated in motor racing, entering the Coupe de Voiturettes held at Rambouillet in November 1906 with a 9 hp racer. Seven days of regularity trials decided the entrants, one of the two 9 hp Delage specials was wrecked in the rain on the fifth. In 1907 the factory moved to the Rue Baudin Levallois; the two-cylinder Delages were no match for the competition this year at the Coupe des Voiturettes.
In 1908, the success enabled the development of the entry into more Grand Prix races. That year, racing success returned: Delage won the Grand Prix des Voiturettes held 6 July; this event, six laps of the 47.74 mi Dieppe Grand Prix circuit, saw 47 starters. Delage fielded three cars: a pair with 1,242 cc De Dion-Bouton twins, driven by Thomas and Lucas-Bonnard, a radical 28 hp 1,257 cc one-cylinder in the hands of Delage dealer Albert Guyot. Guyot won at an average 49.8 mph. All three Delages finished this time, Thomas the quickest of the two-cylinder cars, while the team took home the regularity prize; these good results contributed to total sales exceeding 300 cars for the year. Delage converted to four-cylinder engines at first provided by De Dion and Edouard Ballot. After an increase in sales, the existing facilities were too small, so in 1910 the factory moved to a new facility at 138 Boulevard de Verdun, Courbevoie; the following year saw the creation of advanced bodywork. By 1912, 350 workers were producing over 1000 cars annually, offered four- and six-cylinder sidevalve engines.
During the First World War, Delage produced munitions. Production of passenger cars stopped, with the exception of some fabrication for the Army, but the Delage factories were running full support for the war effort. When the war concluded, Delage made its reputation with larger cars. First up was the CO, with a 4,524 cc fixed-head sidevalve six producing 20 hp; the CO plans had been drawn up during the conflict. It was joined by the DO with a 3-liter four; the 1920s were the first "Golden Age" of Delage. The most famous were the DI: 4 cylinders of about 2 liters and 11 hp. Delage attempted to compete with Hispano-Suiza, with the GL of 30 hp and 5954 cc, with some success. After that came a new generation of six-cylinder cars, like the MD and DR, the best-selling vehicle in the history of the brand, designed by engineer Gaultier. Both the CO and DO were replaced in 1922; the CO became the CO2, which changed to an overhead valve twin-plug head, producing 88 hp, while the DO was supplanted by the DE with a 2,117 cc sidevalve four and, unusual in a production car in this era, four-wheel brakes.
The CO2 completed the Paris-Nice run in an average of 67 km/h. The next year, the new 14 hp DI switched to OHV with a 2,121 cc four, fitted with magneto ignition and thermosyphon cooling. At the other end of the scale, the GL known as the 40/50, replaced the CO2, being fitted with a magneto-fired 5,344 cc overhead cam six. In 1923, a hillclimb car with DI chassis, larger wheels and tires, 5,107 cc CO block was produced. Delage scored successes at Mont Ventoux; this car was joined by a 10,688 cc V12, which broke the course record at the Gaillon hillclimb, with Thomas at the wheel. Thomas would set the land speed record at Arpajon in this car, at a speed of 143.24 mph, in 1924. A 1925 car had a 5,954 cc six, again using the GL block, with four valves per cylinder and twin overhead cams. Driven by Divo, it broke the Mont Ventoux course record in its debut; the car was destroyed by fire at the Phoenix Park meet in 1934. The 1924 and 1925 DIS, with a 117 in wheelbase, switched from Rolls-Royce-type locking wheel hubs to Rudge knock-ons, better cam, bigger valves, while the 1925 and 1926 DISS on the same wheelbase.
Some of the DISes were bodied by Kelsch. The DIS became the Series 6 in 1927, switching to water pump. In 1926, Delage introduced the DM, with a 3,182 cc six, which made it emblematic of the era for the marque; the high-performance DMS had hotter cam