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Arthur Freed

Arthur Freed was an American lyricist and Hollywood film producer. He won the Academy Award for Best Picture twice, in 1951 for An American in Paris and in 1958 for Gigi. Both films were musicals. In addition, he produced and was a co-lyricist for the now-iconic film Singin' in the Rain. Freed was born to a Jewish family in Charleston, South Carolina, began his career as a song-plugger and pianist in Chicago. After meeting Minnie Marx, he sang as part of the act of her sons, the Marx Brothers, on the vaudeville circuit, wrote material for the brothers, he soon began to write songs, was hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. For years, he wrote lyrics for many set to music by Nacio Herb Brown. In 1939, after working in the role of associate producer on The Wizard of Oz, he was promoted to being the head of his own unit within MGM, helped elevate the studio to the leading creator of film musicals, his first solo credit as producer was the film version of Rodgers and Hart's smash Broadway musical Babes in Arms, released only a few months after The Wizard of Oz.

It starred Mickey Rooney and Judy Garland, it was so successful that it ushered in a long series of "let's put on a show" "backyard" musicals, all starring Rooney and Garland. Freed brought talent from the Broadway theaters to the MGM soundstages including Vincente Minnelli, Betty Comden, Adolph Green, Roger Edens, Kay Thompson, Zero Mostel, June Allyson, Nancy Walker, Charles Walters, orchestrators Conrad Salinger, Johnny Green, Lennie Hayton, others, he helped shape the careers of stars including Gene Kelly, Frank Sinatra, Red Skelton, Lena Horne, Jane Powell, Esther Williams, Kathryn Grayson, Howard Keel, Cyd Charisse, Ann Miller, Vera-Ellen, others. He brought Fred Astaire to MGM after Astaire's tenure at RKO and coaxed him out of semi-retirement to star with Garland in Easter Parade, his team of writers, directors and stars produced a steady stream of popular, critically acclaimed musicals until the late 1950s. He allowed his directors and choreographers free rein, something unheard of in those days of committee-produced film musicals, is credited for furthering the boundaries of film musicals by allowing such moments in films as the fifteen-minute ballet at the end of An American in Paris, after which the film concludes moments with no further dialogue or singing, he allowed the musical team of Lerner and Loewe complete control in their writing of Gigi.

According to Hugh Fordin's book The World of Entertainment, Freed did have a hand in the stage-to-screen adaptation of at least one of MGM's musicals, the 1951 Technicolor remake of Kern and Hammerstein's stage classic, Show Boat. It was Freed who disagreed with the original structure of the show's second act, in which more than twenty years pass between most of the act and the final three scenes of the musical, he felt that it made for a lack of drama in the story, so, together with screenwriter John Lee Mahin, Freed hit upon the idea of having the gambler Gaylord Ravenal leave his wife Magnolia while both are still young and Magnolia is expecting a baby, having Julie, the half-black actress, forced to leave the boat because of her mixed race background, be the person who brings Ravenal and Magnolia back together again after a separation of only a few years rather than twenty. And it was Freed. Two of his films won the Academy Award for Best Picture: An American in Gigi. On the night that An American in Paris won Best Picture, Freed received an Honorary Oscar, his version of Show Boat was up for two Oscars that year, though it lost both to An American in Paris.

It is important to note that the year 1951, in which Freed won the Academy Award for Best Picture for Paris was the first year that the Academy nominated producers by name rather than by studio. He was the only person nominated for An American in Paris thus being the first person in the history of the award to win by name rather than by studio. Singin' in the Rain, now his most regarded film, won no Oscars, he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1972. Shirley Temple Black wrote in her 1988 autobiography that when aged twelve she was interviewed by Freed with a view to transferring her career to MGM. During the interview he exposed himself to her. "Being innocent of male anatomy, she responded by giggling, he threw her out of his office", said the actress's obituary. She reported this on Larry King Live interview October 25, 1988; this is why she returned to Fox. Freed left MGM in 1970 after failing for a decade to bring his dream project, a biographical film of Irving Berlin, Say It With Music, to the screen.

He died three years surrounded by his family. His wife died in 1978. "I Cried for You" "Our Love Affair" "This Heart of Mine" "There's Beauty Everywhere" "Here's to the Girls" Arthur Freed at Find a Grave SHoF page on Arthur Freed Full list of Freed's songs on SHoF site Arthur Freed at the Internet Broadway Database Arthur Freed on IMDb Arthur Freed – Filmography – New York Times

List of first women lawyers and judges in Alabama

This is a list of the first women lawyer and judge in Alabama. It includes the year. Included are women who achieved other distinctions such becoming the first in their state to obtain a law degree or become a political figure. Maud McLure Kelly: First female lawyer in Alabama Mahala Ashley Dickerson: First African American female lawyer in Alabama Virginia H. Mayfield: First female judge in Alabama Faya Ora Rose Touré: First African American female judge in Alabama Deborah Biggers: First female elected as a state court judge in Alabama Phyllis S. Nesbit: First female elected as a trial judge in Alabama Earlean Isaac: First African American female to become a probate judge in Alabama Sharon Lovelace Blackburn: First female appointed as a district court judge in Alabama Shannon Clark: First female appointed as a Judge of the Twelfth District in Alabama Inge Prytz Johnson: First female appointed as a Judge of the Circuit Court Kimberly Clark: First female appointed as a Judge of the Thirty-Third Judicial Circuit in Alabama Annie Lola Price: First female appointed as a Judge of the Alabama Court of Appeals Janie Shores: First female appointed as a Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama Sue Bell Cobb: First female justice appointed as Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court Alice Martin: First female to serve as the Acting Attorney General of Alabama Alice Martin: First female appointed as a U.

S. Attorney for the Northern District of Alabama Callie "Ginny" V. Granade: First female appointed as an Assistant U. S. Attorney for the Southern District of Alabama Lynneice Washington: First female to become a District Attorney in Alabama Judith "Judy" Crittenden: First female to become an Assistant District Attorney in Alabama Terri Sewell and Martha Roby: First females elected to the U. S. House of Representatives from Alabama. Sewell has the added distinction of being the first African American female elected to Congress. Alyce Manley: First female to become President of the Alabama State Bar Association Alphabetized by county name Phyllis S. Nesbit: First female elected as a Judge of the Baldwin County District Court, she was the first female President of the Baldwin County Bar Association, Alabama. Sherry Burns: First female judge in Blount County, Alabama Shannon Clark: First female district court judge for Coffee and Pike Counties, Alabama Sue Bell Cobb: First female judge in Conecuh County, Alabama Eugenia Lee Loggins: First female lawyer in the city of Opp and Covington County, Alabama Juliet St. John Given: First female lawyer in Cullman County, Alabama Kimberly Clark: First female circuit court judge in Dale and Geneva Counties, Alabama Kimberly Clark: First female circuit court judge in Dale and Geneva Counties, Alabama Earlean Isaac: First African American female to become a Judge of the Greene County Probate Court in Alabama Lori Collier Ingram: First female district court judge in Houston County, Alabama Nina Miglionico: First female to become a member of the Birmingham City Council Judith "Judy" Crittenden: First female to become an Assistant District Attorney in Jefferson County, Alabama Agnes Chappell: First African American female lawyer in Jefferson County, Alabama.

She would become a judge. Helen Shores Lee: First African American female to become a Judge of the Civil Division of the Circuit Court of Jefferson County Lynneice Washington: First female District Attorney in Jefferson County, Alabama Deborah Bell Paseur: First female lawyer in Lauderdale County, Alabama, she would become a judge. Angie Hamilton: First female to serve as an Assistant District Attorney for Lauderdale County, Alabama Angela Dawson Terry: First female district judge in Lawrence County, Alabama Linda W. H. Henderson: First female to become President of the Macon County Bar Association Andrea LeCroy: First female probate judge in Marshall County, Alabama Ashley Rich: First female District Attorney of Mobile County, Alabama Eldora Anderson: First African American female probate judge in Perry County, Alabama Shannon Clark: First female district court judge for Coffee and Pike Counties, Alabama Amy Newsome: First female district court judge in Randolph County, Alabama Brandi Williams: First female municipal court judge in St. Clair County, Alabama Patricia M. Smith: First female judge in Shelby County, Alabama Jill Lee: First female to become District Attorney for Shelby County, Alabama Virginia H. Mayfield: First female judge in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama Jane Kimbrough Dishuck: First female lawyer in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama Mabey Yerby Lawson: First female to earn a law degree from the University of Alabama Briana Westry-Robinson: First African-American female to be appointed as the youngest judge in Wilcox County, Alabama List of first women lawyers and judges in the United States Timeline of women lawyers in the United States Women in law List of first minority male lawyers and judges in the United States List of first minority male lawyers and judges in Alabama

SS Messina

Messina was a 2,192 GRT cargo ship, built in 1937 by Neptun AG, Germany. She was built for Hamburg. In 1940 she was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine. In 1945 she was passed to the Ministry of War Transport. Renamed Empire Cherwell, in 1947 she was transferred to the Soviet Union and renamed Polus.. She served until the early 1960s, her name being removed from shipping registers in 1961; the ship was built by Rostock. She was launched in 1937; the ship was 303 feet 0 inches long, with a beam of 43 feet 6 inches and a depth of 16 feet 3 inches. She had a GRT of 2,192 and a NRT of 1.104. The ship was propelled by a compound steam engine which had two cylinders of 16 3⁄4 inches inches and two cylinders of 35 7⁄16 inches diameter by 37 3⁄8 inches stroke; the engine was built by Harburg. Messina was built for Robert Miles Sloman Jr, Hamburg Her port of registry was Hamburg and the Code Letters DJUT were allocated. In 1940, she was requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine, she was seized in May 1945 as a war prize at Travemünde.

She was passed to the renamed Empire Cherwell. The United Kingdom Official Number 180718 and the Code Letters GPSZ were allocated, her port of registry was changed to London. Empire Cherwell operated under the management of F C Co Ltd.. In 1947, Empire Cherwell was transferred to the Soviet Union, her port of registry was Leningrad. She was in service until the early 1960s, her name was removed from shipping registers in 1961