The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
Addison Gallery of American Art
The Addison Gallery of American Art, as a department of Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, is an academic museum dedicated to collecting American art. The museum's purpose is to acquire, preserve and exhibit works of art for the education and enjoyment of local, regional and international audiences, including the students and community of Phillips Academy, other students, teachers and the general public. Phillips Academy alumnus Thomas Cochran created the Addison Gallery of American Art at Phillips Academy in 1931 as the most extraordinary of his many gifts to the school. Guided by Cochran's goal "to enrich permanently the lives of the students," the Addison's programs demonstrate a central concern for education; the museum is a teaching resource for Phillips Academy students and faculty as well as an art center for the greater Boston area and the nation at large. By the Terms of Trust under which the Addison Gallery was founded, the museum's collection is limited to works of art or craftsmanship produced by native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States, with the following exceptions: photographs and books by other than native-born or naturalized citizens.
Directors of the gallery include Bartlett Hayes, Christopher Cook, Jock Reynolds, Adam Weinberg, Brian Allen, Judith F. Dolkart; the Addison Gallery of American Art's founding collection included major works by such prominent American artists as John Singleton Copley, Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, Maurice Prendergast, John Singer Sargent, John Twachtman, James McNeill Whistler. Aggressive purchasing and generous gifts have added works by such artists as George Bellows, Alexander Calder, Stuart Davis, Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, Hans Hofmann, Edward Hopper, Knox Martin, Georgia O'Keeffe, Jackson Pollock, Frederic Remington, Charles Sheeler, Frank Stella, John Sloan, Benjamin West and Andrew Wyeth, it has paintings by John Kensett, Frederic Church, George Inness, Dwight Tryon, Ralph Blakelock, John Singer Sargent, Josef Albers, Mary Cassatt, Phillip Guston. The Addison's collection of 7,500 photographs spans the history of American photography and includes in-depth holdings of key individual artists, such as Lewis Baltz, Walker Evans, Robert Frank, Eadweard Muybridge, Carleton Watkins, Margaret Bourke-White, Ansel Adams.
In recent years, the Gallery has acquired significant contemporary works by Emery Bopp, Carroll Dunham, Kerry James Marshall, Joel Shapiro, Lorna Simpson, to name a few. Today, the collection comprises over 17,500 works in all media, including painting, photography, drawings and decorative arts from the eighteenth century to the present, it has a collection of models of American ships, including the "Half Moon," "Mayflower," and "Yacht America." A rotating schedule of exhibitions is open to the public alike. The Addison's core programs include: caring for and expanding a permanent collection of American art of the highest quality; the Addison Gallery has long served as a proving ground for new approaches to learning about art and as a national model for arts education. The Addison strives to be a place where students can learn about art, work with visiting artists and visit diverse exhibitions—all ongoing programs that reflect the museum's central focus on education; the Addison's education outreach program combines the experience of art with its practice.
Tours, classroom instruction, gallery talks, teacher workshops, a film series are offered to area public schools and the general public. More than 6,000 students participate in the education outreach program annually; the Addison's association with Phillips Academy enables the collection to serve as a laboratory for teaching within the school, not only for studio and art history, but for history, English and other disciplines. The integration of the museum and its collections with the academic life of the school has had a direct bearing on the emergence of prominent artists/alumni such as Carl Andre, Joseph Cornell, Carroll Dunham, Wendy Ewald, Walker Evans, Hollis Frampton, Peter Halley, Mel Kendrick, John McLaughlin, Samuel Morse, Frank Stella, George Tooker, Francesca Woodman. In 1935, the Addison became the first museum in America to exhibit the work of Josef Albers; the Addison was one of the first American museums to exhibit photography, presenting images by artists such as Berenice Abbott, Walker Evans, Margaret Bourke-White.
Today the Gallery presents a combination of twelve special exhibitions and permanent collection installations per year serving as the only New England venue for nationally touring shows, represent a wide range of art, across time and media. Examples include "American Vanguards: Graham, Gorky and their circle,", "An American in London: Whistler and the Thames,", "Laurie Simmons: in and Around the House,", "Mark Tobey: Threading
National Museum of American History
The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, cultural and military history. Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner; the museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, D. C; the museum opened in 1964 as the Museum of Technology. It was one of the last structures designed by the renowned architectural firm McKim White. In 1980, the museum was renamed the National Museum of American History to represent its mission of the collection, care and interpretation of objects that reflect the experience of the American people. In May 2012, John Gray became the new director, he retired from the post in May 2018 and was succeeded by Anthea M. Hartig, chief executive of the California Historical Society; the museum underwent an $85 million renovation from September 5, 2006 to November 21, 2008, during which time it was closed.
Skidmore and Merrill provided the architecture and interior design services for the renovation, led by Gary Haney. Major changes made during the renovation include: A new, five-story sky-lit atrium, surrounded by displays of artifacts that showcase the breadth of the museum's collection. A new, grand staircase that links the museum's second floors. A new welcome center, the addition of six landmark objects to orient visitors. New galleries, such as the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Hall of Invention. An environmentally controlled chamber to protect the original Star-Spangled Banner flag. In 2012, the museum began a $37 million renovation of the west wing to add new exhibition spaces, public plazas and an education center; the renovation will include panoramic windows overlooking the National Mall on all three floors and new interactive features to the exhibits. The first floor of the west wing reopened on July 1, 2015 with the second and third floors of the west wing reopening in 2016 and 2017, respectively.
Each wing of the museum's three exhibition floors is anchored by a landmark object to highlight the theme of that wing. These include the John Bull locomotive, the Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter, a one of a kind draft wheel. Landmarks from pre-existing exhibits include the 1865 Vassar Telescope, a George Washington Statue, a Red Cross ambulance, a car from Disneyland's Dumbo Flying Elephant ride. Artifact walls, 275 feet of glass-fronted cases, line the second floor center core; the artifact walls are organized around themes including arts. The lower level of the museum displays Taking America to Lunch, which celebrates the history of American lunch boxes; the museum's food court, the Stars and Stripes Café, ride simulators are located here. The first floor's East Wing has exhibits that feature technology; the John Bull locomotive is the signature artifact. The exhibits in the West Wing address innovation, they include Science in American Life featuring Robots on the Road and Bon Appétit!
Julia Child's Kitchen. Spark! Lab is a hands-on exhibit of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Innovation; the Vassar Telescope is the signature artifact. A café and the main museum store are located on the first floor; the first floor contains the Constitution Avenue lobby, as well as a space for a temporary exhibit. The exhibitions in 2 East, the east wing of the second floor, consider American ideals and include the Albert Small Documents Gallery featuring rotating exhibitions. From November 21, 2008 through January 4, 2009 an original copy of the Gettysburg Address, on loan from the White House, was on display; the Greensboro lunch counter is the signature artifact for this section of the museum. Located in the center of the second floor is the original Star Spangled Banner Flag which inspired Francis Scott Key's poem; the newly conserved flag, the centerpiece of the renovated museum, is displayed in a climate-controlled room at the heart of the museum. An interactive display by Potion Design, just across the room from the flag, features a full-size, digital reproduction of the flag that allows patrons to learn more about it by touching different areas on the flag.
The George Washington statue, created in 1840 for the centennial of Washington's birthday, is the signature artifact for 2 West, the west wing of the second floor of the museum. The second floor houses the museum's new welcome center and a store; the second floor lobby leads out to the National Mall. Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, are focused on the United States at war; the Clara Barton Red Cross ambulance is the signature artifact. The center of the third floor, 3 Center, presents The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden, which explores the personal and public lives of the men who have held that office, it features the popular permanent exhibit of First Ladies of America, which features their contributions, changing roles, displays dresses as a mark of changing times. The third-floor west wing, 3 West, has exhibits that feature entertainment and music; these include Thanks for the Memories: Music and Entertainment History, the Hall of Musical Instruments, The Dolls' House.
A car from Disneyland's Dumbo the Flying Elephant ride is t
The furcula or wishbone is a forked bone found in birds and some dinosaurs, is formed by the fusion of the two clavicles. In birds, its primary function is in the strengthening of the thoracic skeleton to withstand the rigors of flight; the furcula works as a strut between a bird's shoulders, articulates to each of the bird's scapulae. In conjunction with the coracoid and the scapula, it forms a unique structure called the triosseal canal, which houses a strong tendon that connects the supracoracoideus muscles to the humerus; this system is responsible for lifting the wings during the recovery stroke. As the thorax is compressed by the flight muscles during downstroke, the upper ends of the furcula spread apart, expanding by as much as 50% of its resting width, contracts. X-ray films of starlings in flight have shown that in addition to strengthening the thorax, the furcula acts like a spring in the pectoral girdle during flight, it expands when the wings snaps back as they are raised. Acting like a spring, the furcula is able to store some of the energy generated by contraction in the breast muscles, expanding the shoulders laterally, releasing the energy during upstroke as the furcula snaps back to the normal position.
This, in turn, draws the shoulders toward the midline of the body. While the starling has a moderately large and strong furcula for a bird of its size, there are many species where the furcula is absent, for instance scrubbirds, some toucans and New World barbets, some owls, some parrots and mesites; these birds are still capable of flying. They have close relatives where the furcula is vestigal, reduced to a thin strap of ossified ligament purposeless. Other species have evolved the furcula in the opposite direction, where it has increased in size and become too stiff or massive to act as a spring. In strong flyers like cranes and falcons, the arms of the furcula are large and quite rigid. In birds, the furcula may aid in respiration by helping to pump air through the air sacs. Several groups of theropod dinosaurs have been found with furculae, including dromaeosaurids, tyrannosaurids, troodontids and allosauroids. Seeing the occurrence in diplodocid dinosaurs of interclavicles and Mateus proposed that the furcula is a transformed and divided interclavicle, rather than a fused clavicle.
Superstitions surrounding divination by means of a goose's wishbone go back to at least the Late Medieval Period. Johannes Hartlieb in 1455 recorded the divination of weather by means of a goose's wishbone, "When the goose has been eaten on St. Martin's Day or Night, the oldest and most sagacious keeps the breast-bone and allowing it to dry until the morning examines it all around, in front, behind and in the middle. Thereby they divine whether the winter will be severe or mild, dry or wet, are so confident in their prediction that they will wager their goods and chattels on its accuracy.", of a military officer: "This valiant man, this Christian Captain drew forth out of his doublet that heretical object of superstition, the goose-bone, showed me that after Candlemas an exceeding severe frost should occur, could not fail." The Captain said, "Teutonic knights in Prussia waged all their wars by the goose-bone. At that time, the name of the bone was a merrythought; the name wishbone in reference to this custom is recorded from 1860.
The National Mall is a landscaped park within the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an official unit of the United States National Park System. It is located near the downtown area of Washington, D. C. the capital city of the United States, is administered by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior. The term National Mall includes areas that are officially part of neighboring West Potomac Park and Constitution Gardens to the southwest; the term is taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial on the west and east to the United States Capitol grounds, with the Washington Monument dividing the area west of its midpoint. A smaller designation sometimes referred to as the National Mall excludes both the Capitol grounds and the Washington Monument grounds, applying only to an area between them; the National Mall contains and borders a number of museums of the Smithsonian Institution, art galleries, cultural institutions, various memorials and statues.
The park receives 24 million visitors each year. In his 1791 plan for the future city of Washington, D. C. Pierre Charles L'Enfant envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" 1 mile in length and 400 feet wide, in an area that would lie between the Congress House and an equestrian statue of George Washington; the statue would be placed directly south of the President's House. The National Mall occupies the site of this planned "grand avenue", never constructed. Mathew Carey's 1802 map is reported to be the first to name the area west of the United States Capitol as the "Mall"; the Washington City Canal, completed in 1815 in accordance with the L'Enfant Plan, travelled along the former course of Tiber Creek to the Potomac River along the present line of Constitution Avenue, NW and south around the base of a hill containing the Congress House, thus defining the northern and eastern boundaries of the Mall. Being shallow and obstructed by silt, the canal served only a limited role and became an open sewer that poured sediment and waste into the Potomac River's flats and shipping channel.
The portion of the canal that traveled near the Mall was covered over in 1871 for sanitary reasons. Some consider a lockkeeper's house constructed in 1837 near the western end of the Washington City Canal for an eastward extension of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal to be the oldest building still standing on the National Mall; the structure, located near the southwestern corner of 17th Street, NW and Constitution Avenue, NW is west of the National Mall. The Smithsonian Institution Building, constructed from 1847 to 1855, is the oldest building now present on the National Mall; the Washington Monument, whose construction began in 1848, stands near the planned site of its namesake's equestrian statue. During the early 1850s, architect and horticulturist Andrew Jackson Downing designed a landscape plan for the Mall. Over the next half century, federal agencies developed several naturalistic parks within the Mall in accordance with Downing's plan. Two such areas were Seaton Park. During that period, the Mall was subdivided into several areas along B Street NW: The Monument Grounds between 17th and 14th Street NW The Agricultural Grounds between 14th and 12th Street NW The Smithsonian Grounds between 12th and 7th Street NW The Armory Square between 7th and 6th Street NW The Public Grounds between 6th and 2nd Street NW In 1856, the Armory was built at the intersection of B Street SW and 6th Street SW on the Armory Grounds.
In 1862, during the American Civil War, the building was converted to a military hospital known as Armory Square Hospital to house Union Army casualties. After the war ended, the Armory building became the home of the United States Fish Commission; the United States Congress established the United States Department of Agriculture in 1862 during the Civil War. Designed by Adolf Cluss and Joseph von Kammerhueber, the United States Department of Agriculture Building, was constructed in 1867–1868 on a 35-acre site on the Mall. After the war ended, the Department started growing experimental crops and demonstration gardens on the Mall; these gardens extended from the Department's building on the south side of the Mall to B Street NW. The building was razed in 1930. In addition, greenhouses belonging to the U. S. Botanical Garden appeared near the east end of the Mall between the Washington City Canal and the Capitol. Originating during the early 1800s as a collection of market stalls north of the Washington City Canal and the Mall, the Center Market, which Adolf Cluss designed, opened in 1872 soon after the canal closed.
Located on the north side of Constitution Avenue NW, the National Archives now occupies the Market's site. During that period, railroad tracks crossed the Mall on 6th Street, west of the Capitol. Near the tracks, several structures were built over the years; the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station rose in 1873 on the north side of the Mall at the southwest corner of 6th Street and B Street NW. In 1887, the Army Medical Museum and Library, which Adolph Class designed in 1885, opened on the Mall at northwest corner of B Street SW and 7th Street SW; the Smithsonian Institution's Hirshhorn Museum now occupies the site of the building, demolished in 1968. Meanwhile, in order to clean up the Potomac Flats and
Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960; the city is nicknamed the "Insurance Capital of the World", as it hosts many insurance company headquarters and is the region's major industry. It is the core city in the Greater Hartford area of Connecticut. Census estimates since the 2010 United States Census have indicated that Hartford is the fourth-largest city in Connecticut, behind the coastal cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford. Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States, it is home to the nation's oldest public art museum, the oldest publicly funded park, the oldest continuously published newspaper, the second-oldest secondary school. It is home to the Mark Twain House, where the author wrote his most famous works and raised his family, among other significant sites. Mark Twain wrote in 1868, "Of all the beautiful towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief." Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades following the American Civil War.
Today, it is one of the poorest cities in the nation, with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty threshold. In sharp contrast, the Greater Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production and 8th out of 280 metropolitan statistical areas in per capita income. Hartford coordinates certain Hartford-Springfield regional development matters through the Knowledge Corridor economic partnership. Various tribes lived around Hartford, all part of the Algonquin people; these included the Podunks east of the Connecticut River. The first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post and fortify the area for the Dutch West India Company; the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop or the "House of Hope."
In 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to a couple families and a few dozen soldiers; the fort was abandoned by 1654. The Dutch outpost and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers who were stationed there did little to check the English migration, the Dutch soon realized that they were vastly outnumbered; the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was swallowed up by waves of English settlers. In 1650, Peter Stuyvesant met with English representatives to negotiate a permanent boundary between the Dutch and English colonies; the English began to arrive in 1636, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown and Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhoods. Puritan pastors Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, along with Governor John Haynes, led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and started their settlement just north of the Dutch fort; the settlement was called Newtown, but it was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stone's hometown of Hertford, England.
The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, or "deer crossing." The Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter and had to determine how it was to be governed. Therefore, Hooker delivered a sermon that inspired the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a document ratified January 14, 1639 which invested the people with the authority to govern, rather than ceding such authority to a higher power. Historians suggest that Hooker's conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders inspired the Connecticut Constitution, the U. S. Constitution. Today, one of Connecticut's nicknames is the "Constitution State."The original settlement area contained the site of the Charter Oak, an old white oak tree in which colonists hid Connecticut's Royal Charter of 1662 to protect it from confiscation by an English governor-general. The state adopted the oak tree as the emblem on the Connecticut state quarter.
The Charter Oak Monument is located at the corner of Charter Oak Place, a historic street, Charter Oak Avenue. Throughout the 19th century, Hartford's residential population, economic productivity, cultural influence, concentration of political power continued to grow; the advance of the Industrial Revolution in Hartford in the mid-1800s made this city by late century one of the wealthiest per capita in United States. On December 15, 1814, delegates from the five New England states gathered at the Hartford Convention to discuss New England's possible secession from the United States. During the early 19th century, the Hartford area was a center of abolitionist activity, the most famous abolitionist family was the Beechers; the Reverend Lyman Beecher was an important Congregational minister known for his anti-slavery sermons. His daughter Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Master of ceremonies
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated MC, is the official host of a ceremony, staged event or similar performance. The term is earliest documented in the Catholic Church since the 5th century, where the Master of Ceremonies was and still is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy; the master of ceremonies sometimes refers to the protocol officer during an official state function in monarchies. Today, the term is used to connote a compère, which corresponds to a master of ceremonies who presents performers, speaks to the audience, entertains people, keeps an event moving; this usage occurs in the entertainment industry, including for television game show hosts, as well as in contemporary hip hop and electronic dance music culture. In addition, the term exists in various chivalric orders and fraternal orders. Alternative names include compère, microphone controller; the term originated in the Catholic Church.
The Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy. He may be an official involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court, other dignitaries and potentates. Examples of official liturgical books prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum and Cæremoniale Episcoporum; the office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the Ordines Romani. Names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the Renaissance. However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals and customs of pontifical ceremonies are known to have been given to Charles Martel in the 8th century; the rules and rituals themselves are known to have been compiled or written by the pontifical masters of ceremonies, dating back to the time of Pope Gelasius I with modifications and additions made by Pope Gregory the Great.
It is reasonable to assume. The duties of the Master of Ceremonies may have developed from the time Emperor Constantine the Great gave the Lateran Palace to the popes or from the time Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, were no doubt influenced by imperial practices and norms. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period is scarce or lost; the ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are known to have influenced the papal court. The accumulation of elaborations and complications since the Renaissance and Baroque eras continued well into the 20th century, until some of the ceremonies were simplified or eliminated by Pope Paul VI in the 1970s after Vatican II. At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organizes and rehearses the proceedings and ritual of each Mass, he may have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the Master of Ceremonies plays a vital role in ensuring that everything runs smoothly.
The current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini, who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini. Certain European royal courts maintained senior offices known as Masters of Ceremonies, responsible for conducting stately ceremonies such as coronations and receptions of foreign ambassadors. Examples included: Spanish Empire: Maestro de Ceremonias British Empire: Master of the Ceremonies France: Grand Master of Ceremonies Japan: Master of Ceremonies Russian Empire: see Table of Ranks Ottoman Empire: Kapıcıbaşı "chief doorkeeper" of the Topkapi Palace The function is prevalent in the culture of chivalric orders, as well as in more modern fraternal orders, such as Freemasons and Odd Fellows. Most large corporate and association conferences and conventions use an MC to keep the events running smoothly; this role is sometimes performed by someone inside the group but by an outside professional expert MC. Their role could include - introducing and thanking speakers, introducing the theme of the conference, facilitating a panel discussion & interviewing guests.
During the wedding reception, the multifaceted responsibility of the Master of Ceremony is to keep the agenda flowing smoothly by: skillfully capturing and maintaining the attention of the wedding guests directing their attention on whatever the bride and groom have chosen to include keeping the wedding attendees informed so at any given moment they know what is happening comfortably guiding the bride's and groom's friends and family so they know what they are supposed to do to participateThe role of the wedding master of ceremonies incorporates a wide range of skills, those who serve in this capacity have undergone extensive training in the following areas: Delivering applause cues Presenting introductions Microphone technique Posture and stance Voice inflection Staging Masters of ceremonies at weddings and private events ensure the coordination of their event, including liaison with catering staff. In hip hop and electronic dance music, "MC" refers to rap artists or performers who perform vocals for their own or other artist's original material