Arthur Honegger

Arthur Honegger was a Swiss composer, born in France and lived a large part of his life in Paris. He was a member of Les Six, his most performed work is the orchestral work Pacific 231, inspired by the sound of a steam locomotive. Born Oscar-Arthur Honegger to Swiss parents in Le Havre, France, he studied harmony and violin in Le Havre. After studying for two years at the Zurich Conservatory he enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire from 1911 to 1918, studying with both Charles-Marie Widor and Vincent d'Indy, he made his Paris compositional debut in 1916 and in 1918 wrote the ballet Le dit des jeux du monde considered to be his first characteristic work. In 1926 he married Andrée Vaurabourg, a pianist and fellow student at the Paris Conservatoire, on the condition that they live in separate apartments because he required solitude for composing. Andrée lived with her mother, Honegger visited them for lunch every day, they lived apart for the duration of their marriage, with the exceptions of one year from 1935 to 1936 following Vaurabourg's injury in a car accident, the last year of Honegger's life, when he was not well enough to live alone.

They had one daughter, born in 1932. Honegger had a son, Jean-Claude, with the singer Claire Croiza. In the early 1920s, Honegger shot to fame with his "dramatic psalm" Le Roi David, still in the choral repertoire. Between World War I and World War II, Honegger was prolific, he composed the music for Napoléon. He composed three vocal stage works, amongst other works. One of those stage works, Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher, a "dramatic oratorio", is thought of as one of his finest works. In addition to his pieces written alone, he collaborated with Jacques Ibert on both an opera, L'Aiglon, an operetta. During this time period he wrote Danse de la chèvre, an essential piece of flute repertoire. Dedicated to René Le Roy and written for solo flute, this piece is lively and charming, but with the same directness of all Honegger's work. Honegger always remained in touch with Switzerland, his parents' country of origin, until the outbreak of the war and the invasion of the Nazis made it impossible for him to leave Paris.

He joined the French Resistance and was unaffected by the Nazis themselves, who allowed him to continue his work without too much interference. He taught composition at the École Normale de Musique de Paris, where his students included Yves Ramette. However, he was depressed by the war. Between its outbreak and his death, he wrote his last four symphonies which are among the most powerful symphonic works of the 20th century. Of these, the second, for strings, featuring a solo trumpet which plays a chorale tune in the style of Bach in the final movement, the third, subtitled Symphonie Liturgique with three movements that evoke the Requiem Mass, are the best known. Written in 1946 just after the end of the war, it has parallels with Benjamin Britten's Sinfonia da Requiem of 1940. In contrast with this work is the lyrical, nostalgic Symphony No. 4, subtitled "Deliciae Basilienses", written as a tribute to days of relaxation spent in that Swiss city during the war. Honegger was known as a train enthusiast, once notably said: "I have always loved locomotives passionately.

For me they are living creatures and I love them as others love women or horses." His "mouvement symphonique" Pacific 231 gained him early notoriety in 1923. Many of Honegger's works were championed by his longtime friend Georges Tzipine, who conducted the premiere recordings of some of them. In 1953 he wrote A Christmas Cantata. After a protracted illness, he died at home in Paris of a heart attack on 27 November 1955 and was interred in the Saint-Vincent Cemetery in the Montmartre Quarter, he was given a state funeral by the French government, although he remained a Swiss national and never took French citizenship. The principal elements of Honegger's style are: Bachian counterpoint, driving rhythms, melodic amplitude coloristic harmonies, an impressionistic use of orchestral sonorities, a concern for formal architecture, his style is more solemn than that of his colleagues in Les Six. Far from reacting against German romanticism as the other members of Les Six did, Honegger's mature works show evidence of a distinct influence by it.

Despite the differences in their styles, he and fellow Les Six member Darius Milhaud were close friends, having studied together at the Paris Conservatoire. Milhaud dedicated his fourth string quintet to Honegger's memory, while Francis Poulenc dedicated his Clarinet Sonata. Honegger was pictured on the Swiss twenty franc banknote, issued October 1996 and replaced in 2017. Honegger's symphonic movement Rugby was recorded with him conducting the Paris Symphony Orchestra in a 1929 electrical recording, which can be heard on YouTube. Many of Honegger's recordings as conductor of his music have been reissued on CD by Pearl and Dutton; the ice hockey player Doug Honegger is his grandnephew. Opus numbers originate from the complete catalogue by Harry Halbreich. For a longer list of compositions, see List of compositions by Arthur Honegger. For a list of select recordings, see Arthur Honegger discography. Orchestral Music:Symphonies: 1930: H 75 First Symphony 1941: H 153 Second Symphony for strings and trumpet in D 1946: H 186 Third Symphony (Symphonie Lit

Puck (moon)

Puck is an inner moon of Uranus. It was discovered in December 1985 by the Voyager 2 spacecraft; the name Puck follows the convention of naming Uranus's moons after characters from Shakespeare. The orbit of Puck lies between the first of Uranus's large moons, Miranda. Puck is spherical in shape and has diameter of about 162 km, it has a dark cratered surface, which shows spectral signs of water ice. Puck—the largest inner moon of Uranus—was discovered from the images taken by Voyager 2 on 30 December 1985, it was given the temporary designation S/1985 U 1. The moon was named after the character Puck who appears in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, a little sprite who travels around the globe at night with the fairies. In Celtic mythology and English folklore, a Puck is a mischievous sprite, imagined as an evil demon by Christians, it is designated Uranus XV. Puck is the largest small inner moon of Uranus, it is intermediate in size between Miranda. Puck's orbit is located between the rings of Miranda.

Little is known about Puck aside from its orbit, radius of about 81 km, geometric albedo in visible light of 0.11. Of the moons discovered by the Voyager 2 imaging team, only Puck was discovered early enough that the probe could be programmed to image it in some detail. Images showed that Puck has a shape of a prolate spheroid, its surface is cratered and is grey in color. There are the largest being about 45 km in diameter. Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and large terrestrial telescopes found water-ice absorption features in the spectrum of Puck. Nothing is known about the internal structure of Puck, it is made of a mixture of water ice with the dark material similar to that found in the rings. This dark material is made of rocks or radiation-processed organics; the absence of craters with bright rays implies that Puck is not differentiated, meaning that ice and non-ice components have not separated from each other into a core and mantle. Moons of Uranus Rings of Uranus List of geological features on Puck Explanatory notes Citations Sources Jacobson, R.

A.. "The Orbits of the Inner Uranian Satellites From Hubble Space Telescope and Voyager 2 Observations". The Astronomical Journal. 115: 1195–1199. Bibcode:1998AJ....115.1195J. Doi:10.1086/300263. Karkoschka, Erich. "Voyager's Eleventh Discovery of a Satellite of Uranus and Photometry and the First Size Measurements of Nine Satellites". Icarus. 151: 69–77. Bibcode:2001Icar..151...69K. Doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6597. Karkoschka, Erich. "Comprehensive Photometry of the Rings and 16 Satellites of Uranus with the Hubble Space Telescope". Icarus. 151: 51–68. Bibcode:2001Icar..151...51K. Doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6596. Thomas, P.. V.. "Voyager observations of 1985U1". Icarus. 72: 79–83. Bibcode:1987Icar...72...79T. Doi:10.1016/0019-103590121-7. Smith, B. A.. A.. "Voyager 2 in the Uranian System: Imaging Science Results". Science. 233: 43–64. Bibcode:1986Sci...233...43S. Doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.43. PMID 17812889. Dumas, Christophe. "Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Multiband Photometry of Proteus and Puck". The Astronomical Journal. 126: 1080–1085.

Bibcode:2003AJ....126.1080D. Doi:10.1086/375909. Marsden, Brian G.. "Satellites of Uranus and Neptune". IAU Circular. 4159. Retrieved 2012-01-24. USGS/IAU. "Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology. Retrieved 2012-01-24. Page that includes a reprocessed version of the Voyager 2 Puck image

Léon de Maleville

François Jean Léon de Maleville was a French politician. Under the July Monarchy he was a deputy from 1834 to 1848. During the French Second Republic he was a representative in the Constituent Assembly in 1848–49, was Minister of the Interior for a few days in 1848, he was a representative in the Legislative Assembly in 1849-52, was again elected as representative in 1871-75, as Senator from 1875 until his death in 1879. François Jean Léon de Maleville was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, on 8 May 1803, his family was of the Protestant nobility. His parents were Marie Adrienne Sophie de Preissec. After studying law in Paris Maleville was accepted as an advocate and joined the office of the legitimist advocate Hennequin, his maternal uncle François Jean de Preissec was appointed prefect of Gers in 1828, Maleville became his personal secretary. The same year he published anonymously a political comedy, Les tribulations de M. le préfet, scènes électorales, His uncle resigned when the ministry of Jules de Polignac took office returned to the administration as prefect of the Gironde department after the July Revolution of 1830.

Léon de Maleville became General Secretary of the Gironde department until 1833. Maleville resigned in 1833 to enter politics, he was elected the next year for the Caussade district of Tarn-et-Garonne, took his place on the left. He was the youngest member of the Chamber, he supported the government of Adolphe Thiers in February 1836 went into opposition with the government of Molé. He was reelected on 4 November 1837 and on 2 March 1839. In the second Thiers government of 1 March 1840 he was appointed Undersecretary of State at the Department of the Interior. To take this position he had to renew his mandate, was confirmed on 28 March 1840. On 23 October 1840 he was awarded the Officer's Cross of the Legion of Honor. A few days the government of Adolphe Thiers fell. Following this, as a member of the third party Maleville was a determined opponent of the policy of François Guizot, he was reelected on 9 July 1842 and on 1 August 1846. He spoke out against corruption. In 1846 the center support his candidacy for vice-president of the Chamber.

The next year he joined the Reform movement. In February 1848 he was a signatory of the proposal to impeach the Guizot ministry. Maleville was elected to the Constituent Assembly on 23 April 1848, he sat on the right, soon became a member of the committee of the Rue de Poitiers. On 20 December 1848 he was made Minister of the Interior by Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte; the appointment was short-lived. He disagreed with the President on several important points, resigned his portfolio on 29 December 1848, he was replaced by Léon Faucher. Maleville was not reelected to his department in the Legislative Assembly elections of 13 and 14 May 1849, he was returned as deputy for the Seine in a by-election on 8 July 1849. He continued to belong to the majority opposed to republican institutions, but he opposed the coup d'etat of 2 December 1851. Maleville returned to private life during the Second French Empire. After the fall of the Empire during the Franco-Prussian War, he ran for election to the National Assembly on 8 February 1871.

He was elected for two departments and Tarn-et-Garonne, chose to represent Tarn-et-Garonne. He joined the Centre gauche parliamentary group and supported the policy of Thiers, his personal friend, he was elected vice-president of the Assembly. Maleville was the third senator for life elected on 10 December 1875, he did not play an active role in the Senate. He died on 28 March 1879 at Montauban, aged 75, he married Jeanne Marie Sicard-Duval, from Mauritius, on 21 April 1847. They had one daughter, who married Henri Courtois, whose children in 1905 obtained the right to call themselves Coutois de Maleville. Citations Sources