Arthur Asher Miller was an American playwright, communist-sympathizer, a controversial figure in the twentieth-century American theater. Among his most popular plays are All My Sons, Death of a Salesman, The Crucible and A View from the Bridge, he was most noted for his work on The Misfits. The drama Death of a Salesman has been numbered on the short list of finest American plays in the 20th century. Miller was in the public eye during the late 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. During this time, he was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for Drama, testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee and was married to Marilyn Monroe. In 1980, Miller received the St. Louis Literary Award from the Saint Louis University Library Associates, he received the Prince of Asturias Award, the Praemium Imperiale prize in 2002 and the Jerusalem Prize in 2003, as well as the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize in 1999. Miller was born on October 17, 1915, in Harlem, in the New York City borough of Manhattan, the second of three children of Augusta and Isidore Miller.
Miller was Jewish, of Polish Jewish descent. His father was born in Radomyśl Wielki and his mother was a native of New York whose parents arrived from that town. Isidore owned a women's clothing manufacturing business employing 400 people, he became a respected man in the community. The family, including his younger sister Joan Copeland, lived on West 110th Street in Manhattan, owned a summer house in Far Rockaway and employed a chauffeur. In the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the family lost everything and moved to Gravesend, Brooklyn; as a teenager, Miller delivered bread every morning before school to help the family. After graduating in 1932 from Abraham Lincoln High School, he worked at several menial jobs to pay for his college tuition at the University of Michigan. After graduation, he began to work as a psychiatric aide and a copywriter before accepting faculty posts at New York University and University of New Hampshire. On May 1, 1935, Miller joined the League of American Writers, whose members included Alexander Trachtenberg of International Publishers, Frank Folsom, Louis Untermeyer, I. F. Stone, Myra Page, Millen Brand, Lillian Hellman, Dashiell Hammett.
At the University of Michigan, Miller first majored in journalism and worked for the student paper, The Michigan Daily. It was during this time. Miller switched his major to English, subsequently won the Avery Hopwood Award for No Villain; the award brought him his first recognition and led him to begin to consider that he could have a career as a playwright. Miller enrolled in a playwriting seminar taught by the influential Professor Kenneth Rowe, who instructed him in his early forays into playwriting. Rowe provided realistic feedback along with much-needed encouragement, became a lifelong friend. Miller retained strong ties to his alma mater throughout the rest of his life, establishing the university's Arthur Miller Award in 1985 and Arthur Miller Award for Dramatic Writing in 1999, lending his name to the Arthur Miller Theatre in 2000. In 1937, Miller wrote Honors at Dawn, which received the Avery Hopwood Award. After his graduation in 1938, he joined the Federal Theatre Project, a New Deal agency established to provide jobs in the theater.
He chose the theater project despite the more lucrative offer to work as a scriptwriter for 20th Century Fox. However, worried about possible Communist infiltration, closed the project in 1939. Miller began working in the Brooklyn Navy Yard while continuing to write radio plays, some of which were broadcast on CBS. In 1940, Miller married Mary Grace Slattery; the couple had two children and Robert. Miller was exempted from military service during World War II because of a high school football injury to his left kneecap; that same year his first play was produced. The play closed after four performances with disastrous reviews. In 1947, Miller's play All My Sons, the writing of which had commenced in 1941, was a success on Broadway and his reputation as a playwright was established. Years in a 1994 interview with Ron Rifkin, Miller said that most contemporary critics regarded All My Sons as "a depressing play in a time of great optimism" and that positive reviews from Brooks Atkinson of The New York Times had saved it from failure.
In 1948, Miller built a small studio in Connecticut. There, in less than a day, he wrote Act I of Death of a Salesman. Within six weeks, he completed the rest of one of the classics of world theater. Death of a Salesman premiered on Broadway on February 10, 1949, at the Morosco Theatre, directed by Elia Kazan, starring Lee J. Cobb as Willy Loman, Mildred Dunnock as Linda, Arthur Kennedy as Biff, Cameron Mitchell as Happy; the play was commercially successful and critically acclaimed, winning a Tony Award for Best Author, the New York Drama Circle Critics' Award, the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. It was the first play to win all three of these major awards; the play was performed 742 times. In 1949, Miller exchanged letters with Eugene O'Neill regarding Miller's production of All My Sons. O'Neill had sent Miller a congratulatory telegram.
Toxopneustidae is a family of globular sea urchins in the class Echinoidea. All Camarodonts have compound ambulacral plates. In addition, the Toxopneustids are characterised by the peristome, or opening through the test, having a sharp margin with the buccal notches being prominent; the tubercles lack the crenulations or ring of cog-like structures that articulate with the spines in certain other families. The Aristotle's lantern, or jaw apparatus, has the keeled teeth and the epiphyses united above the foramen magnum, the V-shaped gap between the hemipyramids that support the lantern's tooth. Goniopneustes Duncan, 1889 Gymnechinus Mortensen, 1903b Lytechinus A. Agassiz, 1863 Nudechinus H. L. Clark, 1912 Oligophyma Pomel, 1869 Pseudoboletia Troschel, 1869 Schizechinus Pomel, 1869 Scoliechinus Arnold & H. L. Clark, 1927 Sphaerechinus Desor, 1856 Toxopneustes L. Agassiz, 1841b Tripneustes L. Agassiz, 1841b Lytechinus variegatus Lytechinus williamsi Toxopneustes pileolus Tripneustes gratilla Tripneustes ventricosus
Caloscypha is a fungal genus in the family Caloscyphaceae. A monotypic genus, it contains the single species Caloscypha fulgens known as the spring orange peel fungus, the golden cup, or the dazzling cup, it is a cup fungus up to 4 centimetres in diameter, with a bright to pale orange interior and orange. In North America, it is found on the ground in forest litter near conifers. Fruiting occurs in early spring following snow melt; the asexual, or conidial stage of C. fulgens is the plant pathogenic species Geniculodendron pyriforme, known to infect dormant seeds of the Sitka spruce. This species was first described by Christian Hendrik Persoon in 1822 as Peziza fulgens, has been grouped in several different genera since its original description. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data shows that within the Pezizales order, Caloscypha fulgens belongs in an evolutionary lineage with the families Helvellaceae and Tuberaceae. Since 1968, Caloscypha had been placed in the Pyronemataceae family, a small grouping of fungi distinguished from other Pezizales by their undeveloped peridium.
In 2002, the new family Caloscyphaceae was described to contain the monotypic genus Caloscypha. The distinctive orange-yellow color of the fungus has earned it the common names "spring orange peel fungus", the "golden cup", the "dazzling cup"; the specific epithet means "bright colored", while the genus name Caloscypha means "beautiful cup". The fruiting body of C. fulgens is cup-shaped, although the cup may be somewhat flattened, lopsided or split. The inner surface of the cup is orange-yellow. Either the margin around the rim or the entire outer surface may be stained olive-green; the green or bluish staining that occurs upon injury or with age is unique within the Pezizales order. The stem, if present, is rather short; the spore deposit is white. A single specimen of an albino form, 2 centimetres in diameter, was discovered in Northern Idaho; the spores are translucent spherical, thin-walled and smooth, with dimensions of 6–8 µm in diameter. The asci, the spore-bearing cells, are cylindrical and 80–100 by 7–8 µm.
Edibility has not been recorded for this fungus. This species is found in the spring on duff under conifers shortly after the snow melts. In North America, where it has been noted to occur only between March and July, it is widespread in the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Northwest. C. fulgens has been collected in Britain, arrived there from imported infected seeds. It has been collected from Japan, The Netherlands, Turkey, it is listed on the Red List of protected species in Slovakia. The life cycle of this fungus allows for both an perfect form; the imperfect, or conidial stage of this fungus is the plant pathogen Geniculodendron pyrofirme, first reported in 1964, known to infect dormant seeds of the Sitka spruce, Picea sitchensis. A 1978 study showed that about a third of Sitka spruce seed lots stored by the British Columbia Forest Service contained diseased seeds, these diseased seeds failed to germinate when sown in local nurseries; the fungus can grow at low temperatures, contributing to its ability to kill seeds before they have a chance to germinate.
Infected seeds tend to dry up rather than rot. It was demonstrated that seed lots from squirrel seed caches have increased incidence of C. fulgens infection. Squirrels tend to cache pinecones in the same location, in cool, moist conditions favorable for fungus growth. In 2002, G. pyriforme was found on imported conifer seeds in Germany, the first such report in continental Europe. Caloscypha fulgens bears some resemblance to the orange-peel fungus.