click links in text for more info

Arthur Nebe

Arthur Nebe was a key functionary in the security and police apparatus of Nazi Germany and a Holocaust perpetrator. Nebe rose through the ranks of the Berlin and Prussian police forces to become head of Nazi Germany's Criminal Police in 1936, folded into the Reich Main Security Office in 1939. Prior to the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union, Nebe volunteered to serve as commanding officer of Einsatzgruppe B; the killing unit was deployed in the Army Group Centre Rear Area, in modern-day Belarus, reported over 45,000 victims by November 1941. In late 1941, Nebe was posted back to Berlin and resumed his career within the RSHA. Nebe commanded the Kripo until he was denounced and executed after the failed attempt to kill Adolf Hitler in July 1944. Following the war, Nebe's career and involvement with the 20 July plot were the subject of several apologetic accounts by the members of the plot, who portrayed him as a professional policeman and a dedicated anti-Nazi; the notions that Nebe's motivations were anything other than Nazi ideology have since been discredited by historians who describe him as an opportunist and an "energetic", "enthusiastic" and "notorious" mass murderer driven by racism and careerism.

Born in Berlin in 1894, the son of a Berlin school teacher, Nebe volunteered for military service and served with distinction during World War I. In 1920 Nebe joined the Kriminalpolizei, he attained the rank of a police inspector in 1923 and the rank of Police Commissioner in 1924. Nebe was a "conservative nationalist", who embraced the shift of the country "to the right in the 1930s". In July 1931, he joined the Schutzstaffel. Nebe became the Nazis' liaison in the Berlin criminal police, with links to an early Berlin SS group led by Kurt Daluege. In early 1932, Nebe and other Nazi detectives formed the NS Civil Service Society of the Berlin Police. In 1933 he came to know Hans Bernd Gisevius an official in the Berlin Police Headquarters. In 1935 Nebe was appointed head of Prussian Criminal Police, he obtained the rank of SS-Gruppenführer, an SS equivalent to the rank of a police general. In July 1936, the Prussian Criminal Police became the central criminal investigation department for Germany, the Reichskriminalpolizeiamt.

It was amalgamated, along with the secret state police, the Geheime Staatspolizei, into the Sicherheitspolizei, with Reinhard Heydrich in overall command. Nebe was appointed head of the Reichskriminalpolizeiamt; the addition of the Kripo to Heydrich's control helped cement the foundations of the police state. It led to an "overlap" of personnel from the SD, Gestapo and Kripo to leadership positions in the police and security forces in Germany. On 27 September 1939, Himmler ordered the creation of the Reich Main Security Office; the RSHA was divided into main departments, including the Kripo, which became Department V of the RSHA. Department V was known as the Reich Criminal Police Office. Kripo's stated mission, which Nebe embraced, was to "exterminate criminality". Under his leadership, equipped with arbitrary powers of arrest and detention, the Kripo acted more and more like the Gestapo, including the liberal use of so-called protective custody and large-scale roundups of "asocials". In 1939, Nebe lent a commissioner in his Criminal Police Office, Christian Wirth of Stuttgart, to the euthanasia organisation, which ran the programme of involuntary euthanasia of the disabled.

In 1939, as head of Kripo, he was involved in the discussions around the upcoming campaigns against the Sinti and Roma. Nebe wanted to include sending Berlin's Gypsies to the planned reservations for the Jews and others in the east. In October 1939, Nebe ordered Adolf Eichmann to put Gypsies with Jews on the transports to Nisko. In November, Nebe led the onsite investigation into Georg Elser's failed assassination attempt on Hitler. Just prior to the 1941 Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, the Einsatzgruppen mobile death squads which had operated in Poland were reformed and placed once again under the overall command of Reinhard Heydrich. Nebe volunteered to command Einsatzgruppe B, which operated behind Army Group Center after the invasion of the Soviet Union; the unit's task was to exterminate Jews and other "undesirables", such as communists, Gypsies, "Asiatics", the disabled, psychiatric hospital patients in the territories that the Wehrmacht had overrun. The Einsatzgruppen shot hostages and prisoners of war handed over by the army for execution.

Around 5 July 1941, Nebe consolidated Einsatzgruppe B near Minsk, establishing a headquarters and remaining there for two months. The killing activities progressed apace. In a 13 July Operational Situation Report, Nebe stated that 1,050 Jews had been killed in Minsk, that in Vilna, the liquidation of the Jews was underway, that five hundred Jews were shot daily. In the same report Nebe remarked that: "only 96 Jews were executed in Grodno and Lida during the first days. I gave orders to intensify these activities", he reported that the killings were being brought into smooth running order and that the shootings were carried out "at an increasing rate". The report announced that in Minsk Einsatzgruppe was now killing non-Jews. In the 23 July report, Nebe advanced the idea of a "solution to the Jewish problem" being "impractical" in his region of operation

Samba in Berlin

Samba in Berlin is a 1943 Brazilian musical comedy film directed by Luiz de Barros and starring Mesquitinha, Laura Suarez and Dercy Gonçalves. It is a World War II film part of the popular tradition of chanchadas, aiming to poke fun at Nazi Germany with whom Brazil was now at war. Mesquitinha Laura Suarez Dercy Gonçalves Léo Albano Brandão Filho Manoel Rocha Grande Otelo Jesus Ruas Zbigniew Ziembinski Grijo Sobrinho Matilde Costa Túlio Berti Dennison, Stephanie & Shaw, Lisa. Popular Cinema in Brazil. Manchester University Press, 2004. Samba in Berlin on IMDb


Terah or Terach is a biblical figure in the Book of Genesis, son of Nahor, son of Serug and father of the Patriarch Abraham, all descendants of Shem's son Arpachshad. Terah is mentioned in the Hebrew New Testament. Most of what is told about Terah is recorded in Genesis 11:26–28. Terah's father was son of Serug, descendants of Shem, they and many of their ancestors were polytheistic. Terah had three sons: Abram and Nahor II; the family lived in Ur of the Chaldees. One of his grandchildren was Lot, whose father, had died at Ur. Terah left Ur to move to the land of Canaan. Terah stopped in the city of Haran along the way, where he died. In the Book of Joshua, in his final speech to the Israelite leaders assembled at Shechem, Joshua recounts the history of God's formation of the Israelite nation, beginning with "Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor, lived beyond the Euphrates River and worshiped other gods." Genesis 11:26 states that Terah lived 70 years, he begat Abram and Haran. Rashi comments on the subsequent elaboration on the story of Abraham that Abraham was the gem of the chronology of Genesis 11 which the Torah wanted to focus on.

In the Jewish tradition, Genesis teaches. The Talmud says that Abraham was 52 years old at year 2000 AM, which means that he was born in the year 1948 AM. Rashi explains this based on Abram being born when Terah was 70. While it is a given in Jewish tradition that Genesis relates that Abram was born when Terach was 70, the basis of the current Jewish year, there is yet a question whether Abram was born first as listed, or he is listed first because he was the wisest similar to Shem and Jafeth where Shem was not the oldest, but was the wisest. Seder Olam Rabbah holds that Abram was the eldest. According to rabbinical tradition Terah was a idolatrous priest who manufactured idols. Abram, in opposition to his father’s idol shop, smashed his father’s idols and chased customers away. Terah brought his unruly son before Nimrod, who threw him into a fiery furnace, yet Abram miraculously escaped; the Zohar says that when God saved Abram from the furnace, Terah repented and Rabbi Abba B. Kahana said. Rabbi Hiyya relates this account in Genesis Rabba: Terah left Abram to mind the store while he departed.

A woman asked Abram to offer it to the idols. Abram took a stick, broke the idols, put the stick in the largest idol’s hand; when Terah returned, he demanded. Abram told his father that the idols fought among themselves and the largest broke the others with the stick. “Why do you make sport of me?” Terah cried, “Do they have any knowledge?” Abram replied, “Listen to what you are saying!” Terah is identified as the person who arranged and led the family to embark on a mysterious journey to Canaan. It is shrouded in mystery to Jewish scholars as to why Terah began the journey and as to why the journey ended prematurely, it is suggested that he was a man in search of a greater truth that could be found in the familiar land of Canaan, that it was Abram who picked up the torch to continue his father's quest, that Terah himself was unable to achieve. In Jewish tradition, when Terah died at age 205, Abraham was 135 years old. Abram thus left Haran at age 75; the Torah, relates Terah's death in Haran before Abram continues the journey to Canaan as an expression that he was not remiss in the Mitzvah of honoring a parent by leaving his aging father behind.

The significance of Terah not reaching Canaan, was a reflection of his character, a man, unable to go “all the way”. Though on a journey in the right direction, Terah fell short at arriving to the divine destination — in contrast to Abram, who did follow through and achieved the divine goal, was not bound by his father’s idolatrous past. Abram's following God’s command to leave his father, thus absolved him from the Mitzvah of honoring parents, as Abraham, he would go on to create a new lineage distinct from his ancestors. In the Samaritan Pentateuch Terah dies aged Abram leaves Haran after his death. In the Christian tradition Abram left Haran; the Christian views of the time of Terah come from a passage in the New Testament at Acts 7:2–4 where Stephen said some things that contrast with Jewish Rabbinical views. He said that God appeared to Abraham in Mesopotamia, directed him to leave the Chaldeans—whereas most Rabbinical commentators see Terah as being the one who directed the family to leave Ur Kasdim from Genesis 11:31: "Terah took his son Abram, his daughter-in-law Sarai, his grandson Lot and left Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan."

Stephen asserts. In some Islamic sects, Abraham's father is believed to have been a disbelieving man, due to his refusal to listen to the constant advice of his son. In fact, the earliest story involving Abraham in the Quran is his discussion with his ab; the name given for this man in the Qur'an is'Āzar', though Arab gen

Keith Norton

Keith Calder Norton was a Canadian politician and public servant. He served as a Progressive Conservative member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1975 to 1985, was until 2005 the chief commissioner of the Ontario Human Rights Commission. Norton was educated at Queen's University in Kingston, worked as a lawyer after his graduation, he was elected as an alderman in Kingston in 1972, became the city's deputy mayor in 1974. He was elected to the Ontario legislature in the 1975 provincial election, defeating Liberal candidate Ken Keyes by 203 votes in Kingston and the Islands, he served as a backbench supporter of Bill Davis's government for the next two years, was re-elected with an increased majority in the 1977 election. Norton was appointed to cabinet on February 3, 1977 as Minister of Community and Social Services and held this portfolio throughout the parliament that followed. Re-elected without difficulty in the 1981 provincial election, he was appointed as Minister of the Environment on April 10, 1981.

As environment minister, he became the first Canadian politician to speak before a committee of the United States Senate. Norton was transferred to the Ministry of Health on July 6, 1983, held this position until Davis resigned as Premier in early 1985, he supported Dennis Timbrell's unsuccessful bid to succeed Davis as Progressive Conservative Party leader in January 1985. When Frank Miller succeeded Davis as Premier of Ontario on February 8, 1985, he appointed Norton as Minister of Education and Minister of Colleges and Universities; the Progressive Conservatives lost government following the 1985 provincial election, Norton was defeated in the Kingston and the Islands riding, losing to Keyes by more than 2,000 votes. After leaving politics in 1985, Norton became a businessman and consultant, working in the field of water purification, he attempted to return to politics in the 1990 election, running in Toronto against Liberal Attorney General Ian Scott. Norton had come out of the closet by this point, ran as an gay politician in the riding of St. George—St.

David, which includes Toronto's Church and Wellesley neighbourhood, Canada's largest gay village. While Scott was criticized for not being open about his sexuality, Norton was derided for opportunism, declaring himself gay only after he'd decided to run in a riding with a large gay population. Norton finished third, behind the NDP candidate. In 1992, Norton was appointed to the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal, served as its president from 1992 until 1995. On July 18, 1996, Norton was appointed chief commissioner of the Ontario Human Rights Commission by Premier Mike Harris. From 1996 to 2004, he pushed for higher standards of protection for people with disabilities, jump started the move to abolish mandatory retirement in Ontario. In late 2004, he argued. Norton has been active in promoting gay rights. Norton's third term as Chief Commissioner ended in November 2005, he was succeeded by former Toronto Mayor Barbara Hall. After leaving the OHRC, Norton went to work as a mediator/arbitrator for a company that specializes in settling disputes between parties outside of court.

Norton died on January 2010 of cancer. Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history

Alderley, Gloucestershire

Alderley is a village and civil parish in the Stroud district of Gloucestershire, about fourteen miles southwest of Stroud and two miles south of Wotton-under-Edge. It is situated on the Cotswold Way near to the hamlets of Hillesley and Tresham and lies underneath Winner Hill between two brooks, the Ozleworth and Kilcott; the village has an entry in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it is referred to as Alrelie meaning "Woodland clearing where alders grow". It is recorded as being located in the hundred of Grimboldestou with a total population of 16 households whilst boasting 2 lord's plough teams, 7 men's plough teams, 12 acres of meadows and 1 mill. In a 1309 document the village is referred to as Alreleye, in a 1345 document as Alrely. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the village contained a number of woollen mills, in Samuel Rudder's A New History of Gloucestershire published in 1779 he states that Alderley had been home to the clothing industry for hundreds of years. In A Topographical Dictionary of England by Samuel Lewis published in 1831, Alderley is described thus: ALDERLEY, a parish in the upper division of GRUMBALD'S ASH, county of GLOUCESTER, 2 miles from Wotton under Edge, containing 235 inhabitants.

The living is a discharged rectory, in the archdeaconry and diocese of Gloucester, rated in the king's books at £ 11. 4. 7. and in the patronage of Mr. and Mrs. Hale; the village is situated on a hill between two streams, which unite and fall into the LOWER AVON. Cornua ammonis and other fossils are found here. Sir Matthew Hale, Lord Chief Justice in the reign of Charles II. Born here 1 November 1609, lies interred in the church; the village contains several interesting buildings: The church of St. Kenelm was rebuilt in Gothic style in 1802, but the tower dates back to c.1450. Marianne North and botanical artist, is buried in the churchyard. To the southwest of St. Kenelm's church is Alderley House, a 19th-century neo-Elizabethan manor house designed by Lewis Vulliamy for Robert Blagden Hale and built in 1859-1863; the house is located on the site of an earlier Jacobean country house built by the famous jurist Sir Matthew Hale in 1656-1662. For the 70 years following the outbreak of World War II, the property served as the site for Rose Hill School, an independent day and boarding preparatory school, until its merger in 2009 with Querns Westonbirt school.

The merger formed the Rose Hill Westonbirt School, which relocated to nearby Tetbury, the vacant property was sold for use once again as a private residence. Alderley Grange was rebuilt by a Bristol architect, about 1760, it was the home of James Lees-Milne, the architectural writer and memoirist, his wife Alvilde Chaplin, who created a much-admired garden. Media related to Alderley, Gloucestershire at Wikimedia Commons

Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory-Brief form

Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory Brief, abbreviated as, is a Spanish version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. It evaluates the same psychological factors as SPAI related to cognition and somatic symptoms exhibited by persons with social anxiety. Although the psychometrics have been found to be sound, its utility as a screening measure is limited by its length; as an attempt to resolve this situation, Dr. Beidel from University of Central Florida, along with an international team led by Dr. Garcia-Lopez at the University of Jaen developed this form in 2008; the SPAI-B consists of 16 items. While the original SPAI may be useful in providing clinical information for a wide range of social situations, it is time-consuming. Alternatively, the SPAI-B appeared to be valuable as a screening tool and administered in both clinical and community settings; the SPAI-B is composed of 16 items, half the length of the original subscale and two-thirds the length of the original scale. Reduction in the time required to administer the inventory is significant.

Psychometric properties in Portuguese and Spanish adolescents and young adults taking either a paper-and-pencil or an online survey have been reported. Another brief version of the SPAI has been developed for adults. Dr. Beidel, along with a team from the University of Amsterdam have developed the SPAI-18. Data from an in-press paper reveals that the SPAI-18 is a psychometrically sound instrument with good screening capacity for social anxiety disorder in clinical as well as community samples; this scale has fewer items than the one developed by Dr. Beidel and her team in 2007 to tap social anxiety in adults, named as SPAI-23; the sum of the scores is up to 90 points. In adolescents, a rounded cut-off score of 25 was set up. In young adults, research supports a rounded cut-off point of 23 for the DSM-5 specific subtype of performance or public speaking and 24 for overall social anxiety, it must be noted that the generalized specifier for social anxiety disorder changed in favor of a performance-only specifier in DSM-5.

Diagnostic classification and rating scales used in psychiatry Social anxiety disorder Screening